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First line of defence in tackling illegal wildlife crime

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A presentation by Holly Dublin introducing the First Line of Defence (FLoD) initiative, which uses an interactive methodology underpinned by a theory of change approach, to help engage communities more directly in the design of projects aimed at tackling the illegal wildlife trade.

Dublin, a senior associate at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), highlights how the FLoD theory of change identifies four key approaches to effective community participation; this presentation focuses on one of these – decreasing the costs of living with wildlife.

The presentation was given at a webinar on community-based approaches to tackling poaching and illegal wildlife trade hosted by IIED on 30 March 2020.

More details: https://www.iied.org/iied-webinar-community-based-approaches-tackling-poaching-illegal-wildlife-trade

Published in: Environment
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First line of defence in tackling illegal wildlife crime

  1. 1. LOCAL COMMUNITIES: “First Line of Defence” in tackling illegal wildlife trade Photo credit: Lion Guardians Holly T. Dublin
  2. 2. Law enforcement along the entire value chain Reducing demand for illegal products Engaging local communities Responses to Poaching Crisis
  3. 3. IT’S ABOUT… Changing the relationship between people and wildlife in trying to achieve POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR BOTH
  4. 4. The Basic Equation BENEFITS FROM CONSERVING WILDLIFE COSTS OF CONSERVING WILDLIFE BENEFITS FROM ENGAGING IN IWT COSTS OF ENGAGING IN IWT> Photo credits: H. Dublinfrom Cooney et al 2016 Conservation Letters NET BENEFITS OF CONSERVING NET BENEFITS OF POACHING>
  5. 5. A. Increase the cost of participating in IWT B. Increase incentives for stewardship C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife-based livelihoods e.g. Strengthen partnerships between community scouts & formal LE agencies e.g. Support other activities to generate livelihoods & other benefits fromwild plants & animals e.g. Support practical approaches to deterring problemanimals at the site level e.g. Support interventions to generate livelihoodoptions from non-wildlife-based activities Stronger and more effective collaboration between well-capacitated community scouts and well-trained formal enforcement agencies Communities recognise and access tangible and intangible benefits from wild plants and animals Communities are more empowered to manage and benefit from wild plants and animals Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities have a greater diversity of non-wildlife-based livelihood options Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonism toward wildlife Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community B-IA-I C-I D-I B-RA-R B-P C-P C-R E INDICATIVE ACTIONS RESULTS OVERALL OUTCOMES LONG-TERM IMPACT Viable non-wildlife-based livelihood strategies in place & generating sufficient income to substitute for poaching income D-R F ENABLING ACTIONS Support development & implementation of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection & management Build community capacity and institutions Fight corruption and strengthen governance Analyze to better understand the differences in accrual of costs and benefits at the individual vs. community level. PATHWAY OUTCOMES Formal and traditional disincentive mechanisms are strengthened, socially acceptable, and applied Social norms effectively imposed on individuals engaged in poaching / trafficking for IWT Communities value wild plants and animals more as a result of increased benefits Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT e.g. Strengthentraditional sanctions protecting wild plants & animals e.g. Recognise & profile effectivecommunity approaches against poaching / trafficking for IWT e.g. Support insurance, compensation or offset schemes that reduce the cost of living withwildlife CROSS-CUTTING OUTCOMES e.g. Train & equip community members to act as effectivelaw enforcement partners e.g. Train & equipformal LE agents to act as effectiveLE partners w/ communities e.g. Support / reinvigorate traditionalvalues around wild plants & animals Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders e.g. Support land use planning that reduces the human-wildlife interface e.g. Generate / support paid jobs for local people as community scouts
  6. 6. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  7. 7. FOR EACH PATHWAY ENABLING ACTIONS INTERVENTIONS OUTPUTS PRIMARY OUTCOMES ASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTIONS INTERIM OUTCOMES ASSUMPTIONS
  8. 8. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  9. 9. PATHWAY C - DECREASING COSTS OF LIVING WITH WILDLIFE Decrease human-wildlife conflict Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonism toward wildlife e.g. There is a functioning and equitable distribution mechanism for compensation payments for wildlife damage, e.g. money is not subject to elite capture and corruption. Communities who experience a decreased cost of living with wildlife have a decreased incentive to actively or tacitly support IWT and are more willing to stand up to it. Communities who are better able to mitigate wildlife conflict feel decreased antagonism towards wildlife. Reduced active or tacit support for poaching Reduced poaching Stronger action against poachers from within and outside the community
  10. 10. PATHWAY C - DECREASING COSTS OF LIVING WITH WILDLIFE Reduce the human-wildlife interface Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Competition for land between wildlife and livestock reduced Decreased antagonism toward wildlife e.g. Competition for land (grazing) is the major factor affecting the co-existence of wildlife and livestock Communities who experience a decreased cost of living with wildlife have a decreased incentive to actively or tacitly support IWT and are more willing to stand up to it. Communities who are physically separated from wildlife feel no need to eliminate it in order to reduce competition with livestock Wildlife becomes an economically viable land use option Reduced poaching Reduced conflict killing Reduced physical demarcation of land Reduced immigration Reduced grazing
  11. 11. Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonism toward wildlife Reduced active or tacit support for poaching Reduced poaching Stronger action against poachers from within and outside the community Decrease human-wildlife conflict Reduce the human-wildlife interface Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Decreased antagonism toward wildlife Wildlife becomes an economically viable land use option Reduced poaching Reduced conflict killing Reduced physical demarcation of land Reduced immigration Reduced grazing Competition for land between wildlife and livestock reduced
  12. 12. T O O L S
  13. 13. 1. Many projects to date have failed to stem HWC or IWT Resulting in flawed assumptions Leading to sometimes deeply flawed Theories of Change underpinning project design No engagement with communities from the start
  14. 14. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  15. 15. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  16. 16. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  17. 17. Pathways B and C – increase incentives for stewardship and decrease costs of living with wildlife –> increases the net benefits of conservation NET BENEFITS OF POACHINGNET BENEFITS OF CONSERVING (including the costs of HWC) > 2. “Solving the Basic Equation” is fundamental
  18. 18. 3. Basics characteristics of benefits • Must accrue where costs are incurred • Revenues earned from exercising rights should be as close to 100% as possible • Must be equitably shared • Corruption and elite capture must be minimized • Must be linked to accountability for demonstrated stewardship of wildlife
  19. 19. 3. It is not just about benefits but also about reducing costs • Even where benefits are accrued communities do not tolerate continued conflict well • In some cases communities may rely on local mitigation effort, which may not be adequate • In other cases communities may prefer physical separation but this can cause other ecological impacts
  20. 20. 4. Empowering communities and reducing the cost of living with wildlife can have much broader conservation benefits Habitat loss and degradation remains primary threat even for many species threatened by HWC and IWT… …reducing retaliatory killing for human- wildlife conflict also important
  21. 21. 5. Community-based approaches can build support for wildlife as a land use and tolerance for the negative impacts of living with wildlife more broadly
  22. 22. Biodiversity Keywords: Wildlife trade, wildlife crime, community conservation Briefing Policy pointers Fighting wildlife crime, including illegal trade in wildlife commodities, is high on the political agenda and has attracted hundreds of millions of dollars of investment because of its implications for conservation, local economic development and national security. The role of local communities that live alongside wildlife has largely been overlooked or neglected in international efforts to combat illegal wildlife trade. Law enforcement has intensified and militarised in response to poaching and illegal trade. The unintended side effects include negative social impacts on communities and proliferation of small arms. Neither law enforcement nor community conservation is likely to be a sufficient solution on its own. Respectful partnerships between both groups are key to halting the unsustainable and illegal trade in wildlife saving species while securing human livelihoods into the future. Beyondenforcement: engagingcommunities in tacklingwildlifecrime Alarming rises in illegal wildlife trade over the last decade show that tougher law enforcement is not enough to stop poachers from devastating populations of iconic or endangered species.However,the trend towards increasingly militarised law enforcement can harm communities who live alongside wildlife and have real power to protect it.A recent symposium led by IUCN’s Sustainable Use and Livelihoods (SULi) Specialist Group, along with IIED and other partners,discussed the incentives and governance structures needed to effectively engage local people in wildlife conservation.Local people must be allowed to benefit from conservation efforts and be supported by responsive,efficient law enforcement agencies as equal partners in the fight against wildlife crime. Illegal wildlife trade is at the top of the international conservation agenda.A surge in poaching is now ravaging populations of iconic animals such as rhinos and elephants — for example,poaching of rhinos in South Africa increased from 13 in 2007 to over 1,200 in 2014.1 A host of lesser-known species of wildlife2 are also being hard hit,such as pangolins,turtles,fish,birds,reptiles,primates, medicinal plants and timber species.The global policy response has emphasised three broad strategies: increase law enforcement,reduce demand and engage local communities.3 Governments and international agencies have increasinglyrecognised the role of indigenous peoples and local communities4 in the governance of natural resources,including illegallytraded species.Yet this role has largely been overlooked in discussions of how to respond urgentlyto the current spate of poaching and illegal wildlife trade.Interventions in countries where wildlife is poached have,to date,placed far greater emphasis on intensified law enforcement than on community-based approaches.5 Even where community-based programmes have attracted support,theyhave often focused on developing alternative livelihoods and in some cases reducing the cost of living with wildlife. Rarelyhave initiatives engaged directlyand effectivelywith communities to address wildlife crime,or increased the incentives for local people to steward and sustainablymanage wildlife. What’swrongwith enforcement? Law enforcement6 is a critical ingredient of successful conservation.Indeed,beyond formal legal systems,local people themselves have a wide range of social and cultural norms and values by which they regulate their own natural resource use.Current enforcement approaches Issue date April 2015 Download the pdf at http:// pubs.iied.org/ 17293IIED Discussion Paper August 2015 Biodiversity; Natural resource management Keywords: Wildlife crime, illegal wildlife trade, community-based approaches, livelihoods, theory of change Engaginglocal communitiesin tacklingillegal wildlifetrade Can a‘Theoryof Change’help? Duan Biggs, Rosie Cooney, Dilys Roe, Holly Dublin, James Allan, Dan Challender and Diane Skinner www.iucn.org/flod
  23. 23. THANK YOU! www.iucn.org/flod Photo Credit: Lions Guardians

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