Presentation on Framework and methods for integrating gender in REDD(+) by Delia Catacutan (ICRAF) for a workshop on Gender and Environmental Change held by IIED in London, UK on 17-18 March 2014. For more info: http://iied.org/gender
Framework and methods for integrating gender in REDD(+) - Delia Catacutan (ICRAF)
Framework and methods for integrating
gender in REDD (+)
Gender & Environmental Change Conference
Dr. Delia C. Catacutan
• There is lack of tools to elicit and understand
gender-specific preferences over REDD
benefits, and the distribution of those
• REDD implementers often do not have time
to apply available tools.
• Gender equity is not an explicit goal of REDD.
• Equity framework promoted by McDermott et al (2012)
• 3 dimensions of framework:
Distributive equity—the costs of REDD are not
disproportionately passed on to women; benefits are
proportionately distributed to women and men.
Procedural equity---procedures that facilitates
inclusiveness and fairness in the REDD process;
Contextual equity-- overall capacity of men and women to
participate and capture program benefits, e.g.,
information, knowledge, networks, land, technology,
Together, they describe the substantive content of equity.
Meta-order equity questions
• Target of equity---equity for whom? At what
• Goal of equity----ignore equity? Do no harm?
Ensure that women are not worse off?
• Parameters of equity---conflicting views of
equity prevailing in societies and cultural
Dimensions of equity
Distributive Procedural Contextual
conform to traditional gender
roles; Women not enlisted as
co-signatories on HKm
management board token
Women were consulted
and their views were
Contextual barriers to
Separate consultation with
women to ensure their
voice in program design
Contextual barriers to
conforms traditional gender
Women were consulted Contextual barriers to
Threats to women’s land
No special procedures to
identify women who might
Social context, women’s
resource rights situation
not assessed adequately
Women’s bids honored &
women awarded contracts
Special care to invite
women to PES auctions
Barriers to women’s
and incorporated into
Some methods used
• Structured Decision-Making (SDM)--- an organized, inclusive and
transparent approach to understanding complex problems and
generating and evaluating creative alternatives (Vietnam).
• Modified REDD Game---elicits preferences over payment or benefits
to a hypothetical village when they were conditional on the quality
outcomes of a hypothetical forest of 500 hectares (Vietnam).
• Role Play Game (RPG)—players assume roles or characters, and take
control of their real-life roles/characters in a fictional setting. RPG was
used to observe and document the behaviours of men and women
toward land use decision-making in rubber agroforest landscapes and
its implications to REDD+ (Indonesia).
• Gender purposive conservation auctions—an economic approach
that uses a discriminatory price to determining the cost of
environmental service provision (Kenya).
Sample result in Bac Kan province,
Northwest Vietnam---a UN-REDD pilot
• High poverty
• Heavily forested
• ICRAF’s REALU demonstration site;
pilot payment scheme for
agroforestry and farmer-managed
natural forest regeneration
Cash for agricultural
Sample result of RPG application in Jambi
Province, Sumatra, Indonesia
Women from both the upland and lowland villages
approached land use change in a more dynamic way than men
from the same villages, reacting more positively to external
investors proposing logging or oil palm conversion.
Contrary to expectations and gender stereotypes, the
increased involvement of women in landscape-level decision
making may serve to increase emissions from deforestation
and forest degradation in the area, thus posing further
challenges to emission reduction efforts.
Villamor et al. 2013
Sample result in Kenya
• Women’s bids where lower than men.
• 55% of contracts were awarded to women;
they were helped to implement the contracts
through training and support on tree-planting
• While the distributional and procedural equity
dimensions of a REDD+ project fall within the
scope and control of its proponents, the capacity
to achieve distributional and procedural equity is
conditioned by context, which is not amenable to
• Nonetheless, achieving procedural equity
through gender transformative approaches
engenders distributive equity and alleviates
• Identification of inequity ensures deployment of
procedural measures that facilitates equitable
distribution of outcomes.
• REDD benefits and distribution should be gender-
• One-off or recurrent carbon payments
(2USD/ton) do not make sense. Paying 2USD/ton
+ differential incentive may be attractive to men
• Governments and partners pursuing REDD need
to be explicit about incorporating gender as a
goal at the onset.
Thank you for your attention
For more information, please contact:
D. C. CATACUTAN@CGIAR.ORG