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Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade: online learning series for the East African Community region session one

This presentation is from the first in a series of seven online learning events for the East African Community region on Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade.

This presentation introduced participants to community engagement in tackling illegal wildlife trade and explored the ‘Local Communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ initiative, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners.

The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. The events are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project (https://bit.ly/3cmHjBi), and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA (https://bit.ly/300lwdT) programme supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States.

More details: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade: online learning series for the East African Community region session one

  1. 1. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Online Learning Event Series September to December 2020 Event One ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  2. 2. Welcome and opening remarks • Jean Baptiste Havugimana - Director Productive Sectors (DPS), East African Community Secretariat • Charles Oluchina, Programme Coordinator, IUCN Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office • Aurelia Micko, Environment Office Director, USAID Kenya and East Africa • Dr. Philippe Mayaux, Team Leader, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, European Commission, DEVCO
  3. 3. Introduction to community engagement in combatting illegal wildlife trade  Policy context for engaging local communities Dr Dilys Roe • IIED Principal Researcher and Biodiversity Team Leader • Chair, IUCN SULi  From policy to practice Dr Holly Dublin • IUCN ESARO Senior Adviser • IIED Senior Associate • IUCN SULi  Case studies and introduction to the People Not Poaching platform Liv Wilson-Holt • IIED Researcher, Biodiversity
  4. 4. Communities and IWT: the policy context Online Learning Event Series Dilys Roe ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  5. 5. African Elephant Summit (2013) London Declaration (2014) Kasane Declaration (2015) Brazzaville Declaration (2015) UNGA Resolution 69/314 (2015) SDG Targets 15.7 & 15.c (2015) Hanoi Declaration (2016) UNEA Resolution 2.14 (2016) UNGA Resolution 71/326 (2017) LONDON CONFERENCE 2018 ENGAGING LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN COMBATTING IWT Lots of policy rhetoric on community engagement ….
  6. 6. Four key pillars of international IWT PolicyEradicatemarket forillegalproducts Buildeffective legalframeworks Strengthenlaw enforcement Supportsustainable livelihoods STOP ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
  7. 7. Community commitments made… • Tackle negative impacts of IWT on people • Support sustainable livelihood opportunities • Support community-led conservation • Recognise community rights to benefit from wildlife • Involve local people as law enforcement partners • Reduce the costs of living with wildlife • Support information sharing about community-based approaches
  8. 8. Kenya: National elephant strategy 2012-2021 • Identify ways to increase the value of elephants to communities • Provide tangible benefits that are directly linked to the presence of elephants • Devolve rights and responsibilities to communities • Engage communities to work with KWS as partners and informants • Increase opportunities for alternative livelihood options • Develop elephant-friendly land use initiatives and wildlife-friendly investment opportunities • Implement a variety of different approaches to mitigate HWC and encourage coexistence
  9. 9. Rwanda: Wildlife policy 2013 • Promote and support community conservation initiatives • Support devolved wildlife management institutions • Implement measures to mitigate and respond to human wildlife conflict
  10. 10. South Sudan: NBSAP 2018 • Develop community-based conservation strategies that promote sustainable use of wildlife • Assess and build management strategies based on traditional conservation practices • Secure access and use of rights for communities • Build capacity for communities to develop skills in wildlife protection • Forge a special relationship between wildlife authorities and communities
  11. 11. Tanzania:Wildlife Conservation (WMA) Regulations 2012 • Supporting communities to benefit from and have ownership of wildlife through WMAs: • Grant community-based organisations the right to manage WMAs • Facilitate the training of Village Game Scouts • Address HWC
  12. 12. Uganda: Community Conservation Policy 2020 • Strengthen community conservation in management of wildlife resources inside and outside the PAs • Enhance equitable sharing of wildlife benefits with local communities, • Promote sustainable wildlife-based enterprises • Address human-wildlife conflicts. • Strengthen partnerships between government, private sector, NGOs, local communities in wildlife conservation initiatives. • Mainstream local communities in wildlife crime management.
  13. 13. Less progress on the ground
  14. 14. Uneven allocation of funds across the pillars
  15. 15. Next step: how to move from great policy to great practice ©PAMSFoundation
  16. 16. Questions or Comments? ©MicahConway
  17. 17. From Policy to Practice Online Learning Event Series Holly T. Dublin ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  18. 18. Engaging local communities Responses to Poaching Crisis Law enforcement along the entire value chain Reducing demand for illegal products
  19. 19. Why is it so important to engage communities?
  20. 20. 1. Relying on law enforcement to stop poaching difficult, expensive, and only rarely effective • Wildlife is on community land: • 1/4 of Earth’s land managed by communities, 40% of formal conservation areas • Community members live with and near wildlife - often involved in poaching • Best-resourced law enforcement will struggle without community buy-in
  21. 21. 2. Communities have borne costs of conservation: its unjust for anti-IWT efforts to worsen this • historical dispossession and exclusion • anti-poaching efforts often target IPLCs, often unjustly • loss of livelihood options through tightened access to wild resources • massive social impacts of killing and incarceration of young men, loss of livelihood assets to pay fines • human rights abuses
  22. 22. 3. Empowering communities and increasing the value of wildlife to them can have much broader conservation benefits Habitat loss and degradation remains primary threat even for many species impacted by IWT… …retaliatory killing for human-wildlife conflict can also be reduced Community-based approaches can build support for wildlife as a land use and tolerance for its impacts more broadly
  23. 23. 4. Communities can be powerful and positive agents in combatting IWT Know what is happening on the ground – can be “eyes and ears” of enforcement Highly motivated when have stewardship rights and / or when gain tangible benefits from conservation Now many powerful examples of communities taking lead themselves or forming effective partnerships with authorities
  24. 24. 5. It is not just about benefits but also about reducing costs • Even where benefits are accrued communities do not tolerate continued conflict well • In some cases communities may prefer physical separation but this can cause other ecological impacts
  25. 25. 6. Many projects to date have failed to stem IWT Resulting in flawed assumptions Leading to sometimes deeply flawed Theories of Change underpinning project design No engagement with communities from the start Photo credits: A. Vishwanath
  26. 26. Difficulty with “how” to engage communities in tackling IWT
  27. 27. The Basic Equation BENEFITS FROM CONSERVING WILDLIFE COSTS OF CONSERVING WILDLIFE BENEFITS FROM ENGAGING IN IWT COSTS OF ENGAGING IN IWT> Photo credits: H. Dublinfrom Cooney et al 2016 Conservation Letters NET BENEFITS OF CONSERVING NET BENEFITS OF POACHING>
  28. 28. Building our understanding
  29. 29. Developing a methodology Local Communities: First Line of Defence against IWT (FLoD)
  30. 30. Enabling actions Enabling actions • Support development and implementation of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection and management • Fight corruption and strengthen governance • Build community skills and capacity • Better compare & contrast costs & benefits at individual & community levels
  31. 31. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  32. 32. Connecting pathways to the equation • Pathway A – increase disincentives / decrease incentives –> decreases the net benefits of poaching • Pathways B and C – increase incentives for stewardship and decrease costs of living with wildlife –> increases the net benefits of conservation • Pathway D – non-wildlife livelihoods –> reduces dependence on conservation and on IWT NET BENEFITS OF CONSERVING NET BENEFITS OF POACHING>
  33. 33. Community engagement and truly “listening” is key to success Hi Folks! This Dude is a member of camp staff at Larsens Camp in Samburu game reserve: A true example of African appropriate technology in action, the hands-free kit: Salaams, Alex
  34. 34. Questions or Comments? ©MicahConway
  35. 35. People not Poaching Online Learning Event Series Liv Wilson-Holt ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  36. 36. People not Poaching: Community based approaches to tackling IWT Part of IIED led project: Learning and Action for Community Engagement against IWT (LeAP). Funded by the UK Government’s IWT Challenge Fund. People not Poaching (PnP) is a learning platform designed to build a global evidence base of case studies to understand how communities are engaged in tackling IWT. We want to understand what works, what doesn’t work – and most importantly why – in initiatives that have involved communities in anti-poaching activities. https://www.peoplenotpoaching.org/
  37. 37. We have 18 case studies from the East African Community region The majority of these are from Kenya and Tanzania and nearly all focus on charismatic mammal species, such as elephants, rhinos and lions. Common approaches include: • Supporting community-based ranger programmes • Catalysing informal intelligence networks • Facilitating land lease payments • Supporting alternative livelihoods • Reducing human-wildlife conflict • Educating and raising awareness
  38. 38. These initiatives have had some great successes • Case studies have managed to reduce poaching – some by over 50% in their project area. • Many initiatives have achieved positive results in increased income – from tourism revenue or alternative livelihood programmes. • Implementing financial, preventative and reactive measures have also led to reductions in human-wildlife conflict incidents and revenge killings. • Communities have access to better education, healthcare and sanitation services.
  39. 39. Lessons learned include the need to develop projects from the bottom-up Local people must buy in to an idea, rather than be forced into it – even though this can take a lot more time Important not to over promise – promising less and delivering more Spend time building relationships – community engagement can’t just be one-off events Leverage expertise through multi-stakeholder partnerships
  40. 40. Challenges include sustainability and access to long-term funding Developing long- term sustainable solutions Achieving equal participation of men and women Historical grievances Inadequate benefits Lack of flexibility Sheer scale of the problem
  41. 41. Increasing capacity for anti- poaching and enhancing human- elephant coexistence A 3 yr project led by the Southern Tanzania Elephant Program (STEP). Funded by the UK Government’s IWT Challenge Fund. Aims are to strengthen the capacity of wildlife authorities in Rungwa-Kizigo-Muhesi Game Reserves to combat poaching and enhance human-elephant coexistence • Support Village Game Scouts • Improve livelihoods • Mitigate human-elephant conflict • Educate and raise awareness ©STEPS
  42. 42. Fauna & Flora International (FFI) South Sudan Programme ©BenoitMorkel Providing support to the Ministry of Wildlife Conservation and Tourism, which includes the Wildlife Service, plus local communities through technical expertise and direct funding. The aim is to improve the conservation management of 3 protected areas in Western Equatoria State • Provide equipment, resources and training • Support Community Wildlife Ambassadors • Facilitate small-scale enterprise • Support livestock and agriculture development
  43. 43. People not Poaching has a range of other features • Resources • Country profiles with relevant policies, strategies and legislation • Events
  44. 44. We are always looking for new case studies! Head to our contribute page or get in touch at peoplenotpoaching@gmail.com Follow us on social media • Twitter @CommunitiesIWT • Facebook @peoplenotpoaching Sign up to our newsletter on our home page: peoplenotpoaching.org
  45. 45. Questions or Comments? ©MicahConway
  46. 46. See you next time! We look forward to seeing you at our second online learning event: Date: 30th September Time: To be announced You will shortly receive details on how to register for this event. ©IUCN For more information: https://www.peoplenotpoaching.org/ https://www.iucn.org/flod

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This presentation is from the first in a series of seven online learning events for the East African Community region on Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade. This presentation introduced participants to community engagement in tackling illegal wildlife trade and explored the ‘Local Communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ initiative, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners. The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. The events are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project (https://bit.ly/3cmHjBi), and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA (https://bit.ly/300lwdT) programme supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States. More details: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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