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Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade: online learning series for the East African Community region session two

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This is a presentation from the second event of an online learning series for the East African Community region on communities combating illegal wildlife trade.

The event gave an introduction, overview and lessons learned on the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ initiative, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners.

The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. They are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project, and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA programme, supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States.

More details: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade: online learning series for the East African Community region session two

  1. 1. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Online Learning Event Series Event 2 of 7 Welcome! This online learning event will start at 2pm EAT ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  2. 2. Learning Event Series on Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade • Supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project and the European Union through the BIOPAMA programme. • Focused on the region of the East African Community • Designed to support wildlife conservation and management authorities in the EAC partner States and relevant non- governmental and community-based organizations in the region • Series of 7 learning events between September and December
  3. 3. Event Date Title 1 September Introduction to community engagement on IWT 2 September Local Communities as the First Line of Defence – an approach to strengthen practice. 3 October Implementing FLoD: Screening, scoping and inception. 4 October Implementing FLoD: Developing the Implementer / Designer TOC 5 November Implementing FLoD: Developing the Community TOC 6 November Implementing FLoD: Feedback and communication 7 December The future of FLoD Learning Event Series on Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Introduction, Awareness-raising Familiarization Targeted training on the FLoD methodology
  4. 4. Highlights from Session 1 Diane Skinner ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  5. 5. • Opening remarks (EAC, IUCN, USAID, EU) • Introduction to EAC Strategy to Combat Poaching, Illegal Trade and Trafficking of Wildlife and Wildlife Products • Policy context for engaging local communities • From policy to practice • Case studies and introduction to the People Not Poaching platform Learning Event 1: Introduction to community engagement in IWT
  6. 6. Four key pillars of international IWT Policy Eradicatemarket forillegalproducts Buildeffective legalframeworks Strengthenlaw enforcement Supportsustainable livelihoods STOP ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
  7. 7. African Elephant Summit (2013) London Declaration (2014) Kasane Declaration (2015) Brazzaville Declaration (2015) UNGA Resolution 69/314 (2015) SDG Targets 15.7 & 15.c (2015) CITES Rural Communities Working Group (2016) UNEA Resolution 2.14 (2016) Hanoi Declaration (2016) UNGA Resolution 71/326 (2017) London Declaration (2018) ENGAGEMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN COMBATTING IWT The policy platform
  8. 8. HOW ?
  9. 9. THE BASIC EQUATION BENEFITS FROM CONSERVING WILDLIFE COSTS OF CONSERVING WILDLIFE BENEFITS FROM ENGAGING IN IWT COSTS OF ENGAGING IN IWT> Photo credits: H. Dublin
  10. 10. People Not Poaching Communities & IWT Learning Platform www.peoplenotpoaching.org 18 case studies from the East African Community region Majority from Kenya & Tanzania, nearly all focusing on charismatic mammal species, such as elephants, rhinos & lions
  11. 11. • IWT destabilizes local governance structures. • Communities are critical for effectively combatting wildlife crime. • Community engagement is complex – no clear blueprint. • More collaboration is needed among strategic partners, Governments, communities • Engaging with communities meaningfully means recognizing the rights of communities to ownership and use of the wildlife resource, and acknowledging local community knowledge in managing wildlife resources • The equation is imbalanced - benefits going to the communities are meagre and cannot compensate for their disrupted way of life. • Increasing militarization of conservation may re-centralize power over natural resources, away from communities. Highlights from the discussion
  12. 12. Local Communities as the First Line of Defence – an approach to strengthen practice.  Introduction to FLoD Dr Holly Dublin • IUCN ESARO Senior Adviser • IIED Senior Associate • IUCN SULi  Overview of the FLoD methodology Diane Skinner • IUCN SULi  Experience with FLoD Dr Dilys Roe • IIED Principal Researcher and Biodiversity Team Leader • Chair, IUCN SULi
  13. 13. Introduction to FLoD Online Learning Event Series Holly Dublin
  14. 14. PA/CA governance Well-being outcomes ` Ecological outcomes PA/CA management Management effectiveness assessment GAPA SAPA FLoD What is FLoD?
  15. 15. Photocredit:MicahConway WHY A NEW METHODOLOGY AND TOOLS • Built on an Action Research approach to engage both project implementers and communities • Interrogates the theories of change and key assumptions of designers and implementers of anti-IWT interventions and compares with those of communities • Highlights often flawed and sometimes naïve TOCs by donors and intervention planners and divergence from reality on the ground • Empowers communities, strengthens community voice, enhances collaboration and builds trust between implementers and communities • Helps design more effective interventions to combat IWT with community engagement
  16. 16. Pilot Sites… 6,000 acres/2,428
  17. 17. KEY FOCAL GROUPS women, men and youth
  18. 18. Interactive Sessions
  19. 19. Key informant interviews Photo credit: Micah Conway
  20. 20. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  21. 21. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Ranking the Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non- wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  22. 22. FOR EACH PATHWAY ENABLING ACTIONS INTERVENTIONS OUTPUTS PRIMARY OUTCOMES ASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTIONS INTERIM OUTCOMES ASSUMPTIONS
  23. 23. Building our understanding
  24. 24. Local Communities: First Line of Defence (FLoD) against illegal wildlife trade An Implementation Guide Local Communities: First Line of Defence (FLoD) against illegal wildlife trade Training – Facilitation Guide Guidance
  25. 25. How can FLoD contribute to the implementation of EAC & national strategies & policies?
  26. 26. Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship Increase the participation of local communities in the planning and management of wildlife resources Support sustainable and alternative livelihoods for communities adjacent wildlife conservation areas Support sustainable utilization of wildlife resources by the local people Promote wildlife- based revenue and other benefits sharing schemes with the local people Support development and implementation of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection and management Fight corruption and strengthen governance Build community skills and capacity Mitigate human wildlife conflicts in order to reduce the cost of living with wildlife Promote conservation outside protected areas including wildlife farming Establish compensation or consolation schemes to offset cost of wildlife induced damage Enabling Actions CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FLoD EAC’sAnti-poaching & IWTStrategy (Communityelements) Crf: any law enforcement elements of the Strategy that are directly focused on communities (e.g. Obj ii, Obj iv)
  27. 27. Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship Identify and fund potential enterprises in each elephant range communities Engage communities in activities that do not require them to encroach upon protected areas (e.g. bee keeping around gardens) Promote and improve community based tourism and increase benefits to frontline communities Support development and implementatio n of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection and management Fight corruption and strengthen governance Build community skills and capacity Establish committee structures in communities for human-elephant conflicts Target poachers who are truly poor and struggling to be empowered in other areas that will discourage them from continued poaching of elephants Establish a compassionate budget for injuries and death outside the protected area by elephants Enabling Actions CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FLoD ElephantConservation ActionPlanforUganda (2016-2026) (Communityelements) Fund capacity building of the communities in entrepreneur skills to manage projects on their own Conduct training courses at the national/local level for ranger staff Develop a resource access policy and strengthen the resource access monitoring systems Recruit community monitors
  28. 28. Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship Promote legal and sustainable utilization of wildlife through providing clear policy guidelines Provide opportunities for sustainable utilization of natural resources Support development and implementatio n of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection and management Fight corruption and strengthen governance Build community skills and capacity Devolve progressively the responsibility for problem animal control to operating community-based conservation programmes and continue to give assistance where village communities have not yet developed this capability Give wildlife resources economic value Enabling Actions CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FLoD Tanzania’sWildlife Policy2007 (Communityelements) Village communities living adjacent to protected areas, wetlands or in wildlife corridors will be encourage to establish WMAs Provide technical support and conservation education to villages Provide appropriate training at all levels Encourage and establish wildlife conservation areas on village land and devolve management to village communities
  29. 29. Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship Develop and implement a clear framework for access and benefit sharing from wildlife resources and biodiversity Diversify community livelihood sources through investment in alternative compatible income generating activities to reduce over-reliance on income from tourism Develop + implement a comprehensive incentives package to encourage voluntary conservation Create opportunities for employment + participation for local communities in biodiversity conservation activities + sustainable use Support development and implementatio n of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection and management Fight corruption and strengthen governance Build community skills and capacity Develop + implement mgt approaches incl. harnessing traditional knowledge in mitigating HWC Develop + promote alternative consolation programmes to ensure prompt response for loss, injury and damage caused by wildlife Enabling Actions CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FLoD Kenya’sNational WildlifeStrategy2030 (Communityelements) Develop effective governance structures involving communities Transparency and accountability at all levels Increase the extent of land effectively managed by communities for biodiversity conservation Identify capacity needs and priorities to support sustainable wildlife conservation and management at all levels
  30. 30. “Local communities are critical - they are our first line of defence and we must do all that we can to enable their voices and secure their support… [to combat poaching]” President E Mnangagwa, 7 May 2019
  31. 31. Thank you! ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  32. 32. Overview of the FLoD methodology Online Learning Event Series Diane Skinner ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  33. 33. What is a Theory of Change? Theory of Change is essentially a comprehensive description and illustration of how and why a desired change is expected to happen in a particular context.
  34. 34. Why a Theory of Change? Stakeholders identify the conditions they believe have to unfold for their long-term goals to be met. Theory of Change requires clarity on long-term goals, measurable indicators of success, and actions to achieve goals. • It shows a causal pathway from here to there by specifying what is needed for goals to be achieved. • It requires you to articulate underlying assumptions which can be tested and measured. • It changes the way of thinking about initiatives from what you are doing to what you want to achieve and starts there.
  35. 35. Gives the big picture, and context that you can’t control. Shows all the different pathways that might lead to change. Describes how and why you think change happens - with explicit assumptions. Is mainly used as a tool for program design. A Theory of Change…
  36. 36. What about a logframe? Gives a detailed description of the program or project Is linear – no feedback loops Includes risks and assumptions, that are basic and implicit. Is mainly used as a tool for planning activities and monitoring.
  37. 37. Image credit: Sidney Harris
  38. 38. Pathway A. Increase costs of participating in IWT Pathway B. Increase incentives for stewardship Pathway C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife Pathway D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods Strengthenpartnerships betweencommunity scouts andformal LE agencies Support otheractivities to generatelivelihoods and otherbenefits from wild plants andanimals Support practicalapproachesto deterringproblemanimals at thesite level Support interventions to generatelivelihood optionsfrom non-wildlife-basedactivities Stronger and more effective collaboration between well-capacitatedcommunity scouts and well-trained formalenforcement agencies Communities recognise and access tangible and intangible benefits from wild plants and animals Communities are more empowered to manage and benefit from wild plants and animals Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities have a greater diversity of non-wildlife-basedlivelihood options Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonism toward wildlife Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching/trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers/traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community B-IA-I C-I D-I B-RA-R B-P C-P C-R E INDICATIVE ACTIONS (EXAMPLES) RESULTS OVERALL OUTCOMES LONG-TERM IMPACT Viable non-wildlife-basedlivelihood strategies in place and generating enough income to substitute for poaching income D-R F ENABLING ACTIONS Support development and implementation of legal and institutional frameworks for effective and fair wildlife protection and management Build community capacity and institutions Fight corruption and strengthen governance Analyse to better understand the differences in accrual of costs and benefits at the individual vs community level PATHWAY OUTCOMES Formal and traditional disincentive mechanisms are strengthened, socially acceptable and applied Social norms effectively imposed on individualsengaged in poaching/trafficking for IWT Communities value wild plants and animals more as a result of increased benefits Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers/traffickers engaged in IWT Strengthentraditional sanctions protecting wild plants andanimals Recogniseandprofile effectivecommunity approaches against poaching/trafficking for IWT Support insurance, compensationor offset schemesthat reducethe costof livingwithwildlife CROSS-CUTTING OUTCOMES Trainandequip community members to act as effectivelaw enforcement (LE)partners TrainandequipformalLE agents to act as effectiveLE partners withcommunities Support/reinvigorate traditionalvaluesaround wildplants andanimals Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders Support landuse planning that reduces the human-wildlife interface Generate/supportpaid jobs for local people as communityscouts The FLoD ToC
  39. 39. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  40. 40. An overview of the FLoD Methodology
  41. 41. Designer / Implementer Community ≠
  42. 42. BASELINE TOC IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC COMMUNITY TOC Developing TOCs A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade A. B. D.C.
  43. 43. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT Session 3 Session 4 Session 5 Session 6
  44. 44. Users Users Application Project implementers / designers  Developing new projects or improving existing projects (NGOs, government agencies, etc.)  Interrogate the design of programmes and use the results from FLoD to decide on framework and design of projects Donors  Designing new programmes and funding strategies  Assessing the funding of new projects or improving existing projects  Interrogate the logic of programmes and use the results from FLoD to decide on funding projects Policy and decision makers  Developing new projects or improving existing projects  Development of new policies and revision of existing policies being informed by FLoD Community associations  Developing new projects or improving existing projects Researchers  Understanding and interrogating existing projects
  45. 45. Roles • FLoD facilitation team • FLoD lead facilitator • FLoD facilitator (multi-task) • Local liaison • Local language interpreter
  46. 46. • Enhances all stakeholders’ understanding of: • Implicit ToCs of both communities and designers • Articulates differences within communities and between communities and designers • May expose reasons for success or failure of particular components of a project • Can effectively: • Explore site-specific drivers of IWT • Enhance achievement of outcomes and impacts • Help donors improve effectiveness of investments in combatting IWT • Provide lessons for other projects • Provide lessons to help enhance the response to IWT at local, national, regional and international level Strengths
  47. 47. Guiding principles • Remove bias and create an environment where communities can speak freely and …team needs independence from both the designer/implementer and the community. • Encourage broad involvement and seek representation from diverse stakeholder groups. • Clearly communicate that all participants’ opinions matter; • Create relationships with stakeholders that are based on mutual learning, understanding, and desire to identify solutions that benefit all participants. • Establish clear, frequent and transparent information and feedback processes. • Transfer ownership and accountability of the ToC to the players on the ground, both implementer / designer and the community;
  48. 48. Thank you! ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  49. 49. Applying FLoD: Case study findings Online Learning Event Series Dilys Roe, IIED ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  50. 50. TEST SITES… 6,000 acres/2,428
  51. 51. Olderkesi Conservancy Cottar’s Safari Services - Maasai pastoral economy - 7,000 acres/2,833 ha - Bordering Masai Mara National Reserve
  52. 52. Kilitome Conservancy Big Life Foundation - Maasai pastoral economy - 6,000 acres/2,428 ha - Bordering on Amboseli National Park
  53. 53. Shompole-Ol Kiramatian SORALO - Maasai pastoral economy - 111,200 acres / 45,000 ha together in conserved area - Southern Rift Valley
  54. 54. IMPLEMENTER TOC COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Different perspectives “Land use planning and separation of humans and wildlife is the best way to enhance tolerance” “We want to coexist with wildlife but the costs of conflict must be reduced through field-based mitigation measures” Had previously engaged only with male elders New insights through engaging with women and youth “The community wishes to maintain livestock as its core economic activity” “Pastoralism is important culturally, but cash income is needed and we engage in many other economic activities” Concern about poaching , IWT and sustainable wildlife management Concern with maintaining a healthy ecosystem – poaching one of many threats
  55. 55. • Communities recognize the importance of law enforcement - IF it is in partnership with them • Strong laws and heavy penalties generally seen as fair • Belief that both social sanctions and pressure, reinforce government penalties & stop poaching BUT • Strong objections that government response to IWT and retaliation killings is stronger and faster than the response to deaths, injuries and other losses to wildlife LESSONS FROM THE FIELD
  56. 56. LESSONS FROM THE FIELD • A strong sense of “ownership” results in a motivation to protect • Management of conflict and coexistence through land zoning – traditional or contemporary is critical • Strong trust and/or transparency with tourism ventures around earnings and sharing is essential
  57. 57. LESSONS FROM THE FIELD • Communities recognize differences between individual vs community costs and benefits • Revenues from wildlife not sufficient • Sometimes non-wildlife based livelihoods are totally critical to the story – but must not be in conflict with long term wildlife- based interventions and outcomes
  58. 58. OVERALL FINDINGS • All four pathways of ToC supported although emphasis varies • Very similar communities have differing views • Within communities, different perspectives based on gender and age • Greater concern about managing a healthy ecosystem (and all the associated benefits), rather than poaching
  59. 59. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE OUR BASELINE A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  60. 60. C. Maintain and enhance co- existence between people and wildlife D. Support non-wildlife-based livelihoods Share information w. communities to avoid HWC incidents (e.g. wildlife movements in area) Support sustainable livestock production systems Tolerance of communities to wildlife is maintained or enhanced Livelihoods from sustainable livestock production systems are improved at community level Antagonism toward wildlife does not increase Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWTStrengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community C D K G M INDICATIVE INTERVENTIONS RESULTS OVERALL OUTCOMES LONG-TERM IMPACT Livestock production as a long term viable primary livelihood option secured H N ENABLING ACTIONS Support development and implementation of legal and institutional frameworks for effective and fair wildlife protection and management Enhancing social capital Fight corruption and strengthen governance Understand and recognize the difference in accrual of costs and benefits at the individual vs. community level from: engagement in IWT; impact of IWT; impact of enforcement; engaging in wildlife stewardship; living with wildlife; and engaging in non-wildlife- related livelihoods PATHWAY OUTCOMES Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWTCROSS-CUTTING OUTCOMES Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders Support land use planning that reduces the human-wildlife interface B. Increase incentives for stewardship Generate revenue and jobs from ecotourism and wildlife-related research Communities recognise and access tangible and intangible benefits from wild plants and animals Communities are more empowered to manage and benefit from wild plants and animals B F J Communities value wild plants and animals more as a result of increased benefits Support or reinvigorate traditional values around wild plants and animals Generate or support paid jobs for local people as community scouts Strengthened land use system supporting sustainable livestock production and wildlife conservation A. Disincentivise activities contributing to IWT Strengthen partnerships between community scouts and formal law enforcement agencies Stronger and more effective collaboration between well- capacitated community scouts and well-trained formal enforcement agencies A E Formal and traditional disincentive mechanisms are strengthened, socially acceptable, and applied Social norms effectively imposed on individuals engaged in poaching / trafficking for IWT Support strengthening of traditional sanctions that protect wild plants and animals Train and equip community members to act as effective law enforcement partners Discourage traditions harmful to wildlife e.g. lion hunts Community scouts respond to conflict incidents Sustainable co-existence of livestock and wildlife maintained Healthy ecosystem for people & wildlife
  61. 61. A. Disincentivise illegal killing of wildlife for IWT B. Increase incentives for stewardship C. Reduce the human-wildlife interface D. Support non-wildlife-related livelihoods Strengthen Enabling Conditions Support institutional framework to enforce against IWT Build community capacity Prov Provide top up payments to county rangers Train community scouts Recruit undercover informants Penalise illegal behaviour Pay lease fees Pay bed night fees Provide jobs Provide social benefits (schools, transport bursaries etc Provide infrastructure Support conservancy development Use land use planning to separate people and wildlife Invest in agriculture development projects Provide microfinance mechanism Establish a conservancy herd Stronger collaboration between local community & rangers / other enforcement agencies Communities perceive and receive financial and non-financial benefits (e.g. meat, pride, community assets) from wildlife Communities are more empowered to manage and benefit from wildlife Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced More empowered communities have a greater diversity of livelihood options Competition for land between wildlife and livestock reduced Decreased antagonism toward wildlife Wildlife becomes an economically viable land use option BA C D FE J K G M INTERVENTIONS OUTPUTS PRIMARY OUTCOMES IMPACT Communities less dependant on livelihoods that compete with wildlife H N ENABLING ACTIONS Fight corruption and strengthen governanceIncrease perceived fairness of wildlife laws Strengthen laws for community wildlife management INTERIM OUTCOMES More empowered communities draw people away from illegal activities Social norms effectively imposed on individuals engaged in illegal activity Communities value wildlife more as a result of increased benefits Reduced poaching Reduced conflict killing Reduced grazing Reduced physical demarcation of land Reduced immigration Provide incentives for relocation away from wildlife areas (buy houses, provide water etc)
  62. 62. FUNCTIONING AND INTACT NATURAL ECOSYSTEM . A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  63. 63. Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonism toward wildlife Reduced active or tacit support for poaching Reduced poaching Stronger action against poachers from within and outside the community Decrease human-wildlife conflict Reduce the human-wildlife interface Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Decreased antagonism toward wildlife Wildlife becomes an economically viable land use option Reduced poaching Reduced conflict killing Reduced physical demarcation of land Reduced immigration Reduced grazing Competition for land between wildlife and livestock reduced
  64. 64. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM BUSHMEAT TRADE . A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  65. 65. SUSTAINABLE USE OF PLANTS & ANIMALS . A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  66. 66. Thank you! ©PhilipJ.Briggs

This is a presentation from the second event of an online learning series for the East African Community region on communities combating illegal wildlife trade. The event gave an introduction, overview and lessons learned on the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ initiative, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners. The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. They are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project, and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA programme, supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States. More details: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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