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Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade: online learning series for the East African Community region session three

IIED
IIED

This is a presentation from the third event of an online learning series for the East African Community region on communities combating illegal wildlife trade. The event took participants through the first two steps of the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ methodology, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners. The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. They are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project, and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA programme, supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States. More information: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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Communities Combatting
Illegal Wildlife Trade
Online Learning Event Series
Event 3 of 7
Welcome! This online learning event will start at 10am EAT
©PhilipJ.Briggs
Highlights from Session 2
©PhilipJ.Briggs
Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade: online learning series for the East African Community region session three
Designer / Implementer Community
≠
DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM
ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
.
Four Primary Pathways
A.
Increase
costs of
participating
in IWT
C.
Decrease
costs of
living with
wildlife
D.
Increase
non-wildlife-
based
livelihoods
B.
Increase
incentives
for
stewardship
For each pathway…
ENABLING ACTIONS
INTERVENTIONS
OUTPUTS
PRIMARY OUTCOMES
ASSUMPTIONS
ASSUMPTIONS
ASSUMPTIONS
INTERIM OUTCOMES
ASSUMPTIONS
Ad

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Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade: online learning series for the East African Community region session three

  • 1. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Online Learning Event Series Event 3 of 7 Welcome! This online learning event will start at 10am EAT ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  • 2. Highlights from Session 2 ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  • 4. Designer / Implementer Community ≠
  • 5. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  • 6. For each pathway… ENABLING ACTIONS INTERVENTIONS OUTPUTS PRIMARY OUTCOMES ASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTIONS INTERIM OUTCOMES ASSUMPTIONS
  • 7. Highlights from the discussion • The organisation implementing the intervention may bias outputs of the FLoD methodology – independent facilitation is preferred • Potential use for project design rather than just with existing projects – useful approach to ensure community input into design • Different wildlife-related contexts for which this approach might be useful – bushmeat, sustainable land management or natural resource management, other community-based conservation initiatives; etc. • Usefulness of approach in other contexts, e.g. other crime fields; health sector; climate change adaptation and gender responsiveness around all these issues • Interest in FLoD methodology for a variety of different sites in East Africa
  • 10. Introduction to Session 3 Screen & Scoping + Inception Workshop ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  • 11. Next 4 sessions: what do we mean by a Learning Event? What it is: − Shares uses and contributions of the methodology − Explains concepts and principles that underpin it − Describes steps involved in implementing it − Introduces tools that can be used − Promotes interactions with the participants What it is not: − A series of lectures − A course for credit − A detailed and comprehensive training course CAUTION: You will not be ready to fully implement the FLoD methodology on your own at the end of this learning event series. SAWC is developing an in-depth training course
  • 12. Context for the next 4 sessions • Existing projects • A focus on high-value illegal wildlife trade • Based on FLoD Guidance & SAWC materials, which provide much more detail, as well as a number of teaching tools. Session 7 will: • Investigate how the methodology can be adapted to other contexts • Explore the possibility for project design
  • 13. Reminder of key players Implementer / Designer Community FLoD Team
  • 14. Reminder of guiding principles • Remove bias…independence from key players • Inclusive… representation from diverse groups • Mutual learning…not evaluative or punitive – find solutions that benefit all players • Feedback and validation…frequent and transparent • Transfer ownership…process and products owned by key players
  • 16. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  • 17. A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  • 18. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT THIS SESSION
  • 20. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  • 21. Objectives And… gain familiarity with the “focal locality” by beginning to gather contextual information Step 1: Screening & Scoping Objective Implementer / Designer Community Identify Describe Determine willingness to engage Brief on methodology
  • 22. Intended Outputs At the end of Step 1, you should have the following • Understanding of the landscape and context • Implementer / designer(s) identified, fully briefed on FLoD methodology and willing to engage with FLoD • Community identified, fully briefed on FLoD methodology and willing to engage with FLoD • FLoD implementation plan outlining the main stakeholders and steps in the process Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 23. Tasks 1. Define the locality for implementation; 2. Assess feasibility; and 3. Undertake a scoping visit. Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 24. Task 1. Define the locality Identify and gather context ⎼ Geographical / topographical ⎼ Administrative ⎼ Institutional ⎼ Cultural ⎼ Social Define Community - Existing management unit, e.g. conservancy - Set of villages with shared characteristics - Local community for a project being designed - More complex communities may require sampling approaches to achieve representation
  • 25. Task 2. Assess feasibility Site based criteria Site is clearly defined (area, community, implementer / designer) The community has a role in facilitating or combatting IWT The site is secure enough to undertake fieldwork It is logistically possible for the core team to move around and for key stakeholder group representatives to come together The resources and infrastructure are present for fieldwork, including access to electricity, a room that can be made dark for projection, accommodation and other working conditions for the team Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 26. Task 2. Assess feasibility Process based criteria Conditions allow the introduction of an impartial individual, team or institution to implement the FLoD methodology Implementers / designers, key stakeholders, and community members are willing to engage with the core team to participate in the FLoD methodology Implementers / designers and communities are willing to articulate ToCs Implementers / designers are willing to adapt interventions based on lessons emerging from the process There is not a potentially unmanageable risk that by implementing the methodology, you will create conflict with and between stakeholders A skilled local language interpreter is available, independent from the community, local partners or project designers A long-term partner is in place that is willing and able to implement any findings and recommendations from the full FLoD process. There are adequate financial resources to implement the full methodology Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 27. Task 3. Scoping visit Briefing meetings • FLoD team and Implementer/Designer • Deepen understanding of FLoD methodology • Gain understanding of institutional relationships, funding & intention of trip • Build understanding of FLoD team on the specifics of areas and communities to be visited • Review and agree logistics and plan for community meeting(s) Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 28. Task 3. Scoping visit Community scoping meeting • Explanation of FLoD methodology and purpose of scoping mission • Interactive session on species in trade • Introduction to 4 pathways of ToC • Pathway weighting exercise to get initial perceptions of relative importance of each Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 29. Interactive session on species in trade: intended output Natural resource in high-value trade Increasing / Decreasing Legal / Illegal Commercial / Subsistence Sustainable / Unsustainable Internal users / External users Elephant ivory Rhino horn Pangolin scales Sandalwood Shark fins Devil’s claw Etc. Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 30. Learning what species are in trade or use… Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 31. Group listing of species/by-products in use
  • 32. Support development and implementation of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection and management Fight corruption and strengthen governance Better compare & contrast costs & benefits at individual & community levels Build community skills and capacity Exploring the Enabling Actions Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 33. Exploring the Four Pathways Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 34. A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 35. Four Primary Pathways A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship Develop and implement a clear framework for access and benefit sharing from wildlife resources and biodiversity Diversify community livelihood sources through investment in alternative compatible income generating activities to reduce over-reliance on income from tourism Develop + implement a comprehensive incentives package to encourage voluntary conservation Create opportunities for employment + participation for local communities in biodiversity conservation activities + sustainable use Support development and implementatio n of legal & institutional frameworks for effective & fair wildlife protection and management Fight corruption and strengthen governance Build community skills and capacity Develop + implement mgt approaches incl. harnessing traditional knowledge in mitigating HWC Develop + promote alternative consolation programmes to ensure prompt response for loss, injury and damage caused by wildlife Enabling Actions CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FLoD Kenya’sNational WildlifeStrategy2030 (Communityelements) Develop effective governance structures involving communities Transparency and accountability at all levels Increase the extent of land effectively managed by communities for biodiversity conservation Identify capacity needs and priorities to support sustainable wildlife conservation and management at all levels Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 36. Stronger and more effective collaboration between well- capacitated community scouts and well-trained formal enforcement agencies Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community A-I A-R A-P E F Formal and traditional disincentive mechanisms are strengthened, socially acceptable, and applied Social norms effectively imposed on individuals engaged in poaching / trafficking for IWT Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT e.g. Strengthen traditional sanctions protecting wild plants & animals e.g. Train & equip community members to act as effective law enforcement partners Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 37. Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders e.g. Support other activities to generate livelihoods & other benefitsfrom wild plants & animals Communities recognise and access tangible and intangible benefits from wild plants and animals Communities are more empowered to manage and benefit from wild plants and animals B-I B-R B-P Communities value wild plants and animals more as a result of increased benefits e.g. Generate / support paid jobs for local people as community scouts Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 38. Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders e.g. Support practical approaches to deterring problem animals at the site level Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonism toward wildlife C-P C-R C-I Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 39. Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders e.g. Support interventions to generate livelihood options from non-wildlife-based activities Communities have a greater diversity of non- wildlife-based livelihood options D-I Viable non-wildlife-based livelihood strategies in place & generating sufficient income to substitute for poaching income D-R D-P Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 40. Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 41. Informally Ranking the Four Pathways Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 42. Methods & tools Methods Tools Meetings with the prospective implementers/designers;  FLoD introductory presentation (Long or short)  FLoD workshop agenda Sampling to define the locality  FLoD sampling approaches Feasibility analysis for the process and the locality  FLoD feasibility assessment criteria Scoping visit and community scoping meeting.  FLoD introductory presentation (Long or short)  FLoD workshop agenda – scoping meeting  FLoD initial assessment tool for community scoping meeting Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 43. Resources required Resource Required Personnel  At least two core team members, one of whom should be an experienced facilitator  Local-language interpreter  Local liaison Materials  Laptop, power, projector, flipcharts, markers, other facilitation materials Time  Meetings with prospective implementers / designers: 1 day per implementer / designer  Site visits: at least 1 day per site  Travel time  Follow up time as needed to design project implementation Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 44. Outputs Checklist At the end of Step 1, do you have the following? ✅ Understanding of the landscape and context ✅ Implementer / designer(s) identified, fully briefed on FLoD methodology and willing to engage with FLoD ✅ Community identified, fully briefed on FLoD methodology and willing to engage with FLoD ✅ FLoD implementation plan outlining the main stakeholders and steps in the process Step 1: Screening & Scoping
  • 46. FLoD Methodology Step 2: Inception workshop
  • 47. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  • 48. Objectives • Agree plan for implementation, including • all logistical details • focus group breakdown • key stakeholders to interview Step 2: Inception Workshop
  • 49. Intended Outputs At the end of Step 2, you should have the following: • FLoD implementation plan • Stakeholder analysis • Focus group breakdown Step 2: Inception Workshop
  • 50. Tasks 1. Conduct an inception workshop Step 2: Inception Workshop
  • 51. Key participants Step 2: Inception Workshop Implementer / Designer CommunityFLoD Team + LOCAL LIAISON
  • 52. Agenda Step 2: Inception Workshop Overview of FLoD methodology Introduction of the locality for implementation and current context Breakdown of focus groups Stakeholder analysis Fieldwork plan and requirements
  • 54. Stakeholder analysis Step 2: Inception Workshop National Regional Local • Knowledge? • Authority? • Influence?
  • 55. Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder information For each stakeholder, mark whether they have knowledge (K), authority (A) or influence (I) on each category Scale Notes Contact name Email/phone Interview location Background, context, data Pathway A Pathway B Pathway C Pathway D National Regional Local Step 2: Inception Workshop Practical information Information on area of ToC
  • 56. Methods & tools Methods Tools Inception workshop Group work  FLoD introductory presentation (Long or short)  FLoD workshop agenda – inception  FLoD stakeholder analysis template Step 2: Inception Workshop
  • 57. Resources required Resource Required Personnel  At least two core team members, one of whom should be an experienced facilitator  Local-language interpreter  Local liaison Materials  Laptop, power, projector, flipcharts, markers, other facilitation materials  Venue of suitable size Time  Workshop: two days, plus preparatory time as needed Step 2: Inception Workshop
  • 58. Outputs Checklist At the end of Step 2, do you have the following? ✅ FLoD implementation plan ✅ Stakeholder analysis ✅ Focus group breakdown Step 2: Inception Workshop
  • 59. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Final Comments or Questions?
  • 60. Thank you for joining today ©PhilipJ.Briggs

Editor's Notes

  1. To Be Up as people are joining.
  2. Holly take over
  3. Use a Theory of Change to interrogate key assumptions of designers and implementers of anti-IWT interventions and compares with the thoughts and perceptions of communities
  4. This approach allows us to understand and articulate the mental model of both designer/implementer and community and to figure out if they match and if not, where exactly they might differ.
  5. We have described four main pathways contribute to the overall impact: Decreased Pressure on Species from Illegal Wildlife Trade.
  6. In particular, the Theory of Change approach allows us to interrogate Assumptions at all steps along the causal pathways
  7. Map of East Africa – ask participants to put their name (and organisation?) on a stickie and put it where they work in East Africa.   World map – anyone who doesn’t work in East Africa can put their stickie on the world map where they work.
  8. Diane to take over
  9. Reminder of our basic Theory of Change.
  10. Holly take over
  11. I changed it just slightly
  12. Work in progress
  13. Experience has shown that you will need to meet a number of site and process-based criteria for FLoD to be both feasible and useful. It is important to carefully assess these criteria before undertaking a scoping visit. The FLoD methodology is designed to be applicable in many different contexts. However, the feasibility assessment criteria are very specific and focus on the prospective site or locality and the process. Might consider animating these one by one to make them more powerful. HD: I agree but animation within the table seems a bit of a sticking point – will try again DS – solved with check marks.
  14. Experience has shown that you will need to meet a number of site and process-based criteria for FLoD to be both feasible and useful. It is important to carefully assess these criteria before undertaking a scoping visit. The FLoD methodology is designed to be applicable in many different contexts. However, the feasibility assessment criteria are very specific and focus on the prospective site or locality and the process. Might consider animating these one by one to make them more powerful. HD: I agree but animation within the table seems a bit of a sticking point – will try again DS – solved with check marks.
  15. In order to familiarise yourself with the local area, the core team should conduct an on-the-ground visit with a person (or team) with a deep local knowledge and ability to answer questions around the community, the area and the poaching challenges. Site visits can be combined with the community scoping meeting/s if practical. A community scoping meeting is an opportunity to get more contextual information about the situation in the area as well as to determine whether the community is willing to engage in the FLoD methodology. We have learnt that it is important not to raise community expectations with regards to future project work, and to prepare the methodology for this meeting with the local partner in advance.
  16. We suggest a very informal, open-ended and interactive exercise to begin our discussions with the communities – helping them to understand the context in which the work is being done.
  17. Think of this as being an ”ice breaker” with the communities – just a way to ease into the topics to be discussed and to make the connections in their minds
  18. Increasing / Decreasing Legal / Illegal Commercial / Subsistence Sustainable / Unsustainable Internal / External
  19. Diane to take over
  20. Possibly simplify
  21. Possibly simplify
  22. I don’t think we should spend much time on this at all
  23. I don’t think we should spend much time on this at all
  24. Holly take over.
  25. The inception meeting provides opportunity not only to better understand the context of the locality but also identify key stakeholders with information, authority or influence, relevant to the FLoD process. During the inception meeting it is important to ascertain if there is a true willingness to engage the FLoD process in partnership, ensuring that the new partners actually understand the FLoD approach and how it differs from other IWT approaches. The partners also need to understand how it is a methodology to elicit their thoughts (through various focus groups), hear their voices and understand their perceptions and ideas. It further helps lay down Rule of Engagement for use of the approach and helps establish the “License to Operate” for the FLoD team.
  26. Could use the icons?
  27. Potentially an interactive exercise on the Stakeholder Analysis Tool.
  28. I think not to spend too much time on this.
  29. I think not to spend too much time on this.
  30. Closing questions Thanks for joining