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Communities Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade session four

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This is a presentation from the fourth event of an online learning series for the East African Community region on communities combating illegal wildlife trade.

The event took participants through the third step of the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ methodology, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners.

The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. They are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project, and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA programme, supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States.

More info: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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Communities Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade session four

  1. 1. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Online Learning Event Series Event 4 of 7 ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  2. 2. Highlights from Session 3 ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  3. 3. What do we mean by a Learning Event? What it is: − Shares uses and contributions of the methodology − Explains concepts and principles that underpin it − Describes steps involved in implementing it − Introduces tools that can be used − Promotes interactions with the participants What it is not: − A series of lectures − A course for credit − A detailed and comprehensive training course CAUTION: You will not be ready to fully implement the FLoD methodology on your own at the end of this learning event series. SAWC is developing an in-depth training course
  4. 4. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  5. 5. Task 1. Defining the locality Identify and gather context ⎼ Geographical / topographical ⎼ Administrative ⎼ Institutional ⎼ Cultural ⎼ Social
  6. 6. Group listing of species/by-products in use
  7. 7. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade COMMUNITY TOC A. B. D.C. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  8. 8. A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship
  9. 9. Stronger and more effective collaboration between well- capacitated community scouts and well-trained formal enforcement agencies Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community A-I A-R A-P E F Formal and traditional disincentive mechanisms are strengthened, socially acceptable, and applied Social norms effectively imposed on individuals engaged in poaching / trafficking for IWT Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT e.g. Strengthen traditional sanctions protecting wild plants & animals e.g. Train & equip community members to act as effective law enforcement partners Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders
  10. 10. Informally Ranking the Four Pathways
  11. 11. Introduction to Session 4 Implementer/Designer ToC ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  12. 12. FLoD Methodology Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  13. 13. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  14. 14. Objectives • The objective of Step 3 is to construct a validated Implementer/Designer ToC. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  15. 15. Intended Outputs • At the end of Step 3, your output should be a validated Implementer/Designer ToC. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  16. 16. Methods & tools Methods Tools Key informant interview Developing the implementer/designer ToC Meeting to validate ToC  FLoD introductory presentation (Long or short)  FLoD interviewee consent form  FLoD baseline ToC and assumptions  FLoD implementer/designer ToC development tool  FLoD implementer/designer ToC development tool – instruction sheet Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  17. 17. Resources required Resource Required Personnel  Two core team members Materials  Laptop, power, quiet room without disturbances, projector, props as suggested Time  Interview: one day per implementer/designer  Construct Implementer/Designer ToC: one day per implementer/designer  Validate Implementer/Designer ToC: one day per designer Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  18. 18. Tasks 1. Interview Implementer/Designer 2. Construct Implementer/Designer ToC 3. Validate Implementer/Designer ToC Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  19. 19. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade COMMUNITY TOC A. B. D.C. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  20. 20. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC Task 1. Interview Implementer / Designer Implementer / Designer FLoD Team
  21. 21. Exploring FLoD Pathways Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  22. 22. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  23. 23. A reminder of the components of the ToC ENABLING ACTIONS INTERVENTIONS OUTPUTS CROSS-CUTTING / OVERALL OUTCOMES PATHWAY OUTCOMES Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  24. 24. e.g. Strengthen partnerships between community scouts & formal LE agencies Stronger and more effective collaboration between well- capacitated community scouts and well-trained formal enforcement agencies Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community A-I A-R A-P E F Formal and traditional disincentive mechanisms are strengthened, socially acceptable, and applied Social norms effectively imposed on individuals engaged in poaching / trafficking for IWT Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT e.g. Strengthen traditional sanctions protecting wild plants & animals e.g. Train & equip community members to act as effective law enforcement partners e.g. Train & equip formal LE agents to act as effective LE partners w/ communities Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders Ours are totally different Add another one Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  25. 25. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE . Exploring assumptions Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  26. 26. e.g. Strengthen partnerships between community scouts & formal LE agencies Stronger and more effective collaboration between well- capacitated community scouts and well-trained formal enforcement agencies Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community A-I A-R A-P E F Formal and traditional disincentive mechanisms are strengthened, socially acceptable, and applied Social norms effectively imposed on individuals engaged in poaching / trafficking for IWT Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT e.g. Strengthen traditional sanctions protecting wild plants & animals e.g. Train & equip community members to act as effective law enforcement partners e.g. Train & equip formal LE agents to act as effective LE partners w/ communities Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders PATHWAY A – INCREASE COSTS OF PARTICIPATING IN IWT e.g. Collaboration between communities and formal enforcement agencies leads to stronger action against IWT and not stronger collusion in IWT. e.g. Better trained, better equipped community members do not use their more advanced equipment and training to engage in IWT. e.g. Intimidation by poachers/traffickers does not deter community action against IWT. e.g. The relative risk of being apprehended, arrested or prosecuted is not so low that it undermines community action against IWT. e.g. Poaching/trafficking is reduced to within sustainable levels.
  27. 27. Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders PATHWAY B - INCREASE INCENTIVES FOR STEWARDSHIP e.g. Support other activities to generate livelihoods & other benefitsfrom wild plants & animals Communities recognise and access tangible and intangible benefits from wild plants and animals Communities are more empowered to manage and benefit from wild plants and animals B-I B-R B-P Communities value wild plants and animals more as a result of increased benefits e.g. Recognise & profile effective community approaches against poaching / trafficking for IWT e.g. Support / reinvigorate traditional values around wild plants & animals e.g. Generate / support paid jobs for local people as community scouts e.g. The relative value of illegal wildlife products is not so high that corruption undermines community action against IWT. e.g. The full suite of benefits (tangible and intangible) from wild plants and animals are enough to deter poaching. e.g. Benefits are distributed widely enough to ensure that the wider community, rather than just a few individuals, values wild plants and animals. e.g. Communities have rights to benefit from managing and using wild plants and animals. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  28. 28. Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders PATHWAY C - DECREASE COSTS OF LIVING WITH WILDLIFE e.g. Support practical approaches to deterring problem animals at the site level Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonism toward wildlife C-P C-R e.g. Support insurance, compensation or offset schemes that reduce the cost of living with wildlife e.g. Support land use planning that reduces the human-wildlife interface C-I e.g. The full costs of living with wildlife are known and can be quantified e.g. Resources and tools are available to mitigate HWC e.g. Communities with decreased antagonism towards wildlife have a decreased incentive to directly or indirectly support IWT. e.g. Communities with greater ability to mitigate HWC (resources, tools, policies) feel less antagonism towards wildlife. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC e.g. The relative risk of being apprehended, arrested or prosecuted is not so low that it undermines community action against IWT.
  29. 29. Reduced active or tacit community support for poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal or external poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitment of community members by poachers / traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders PATHWAY D – INCREASE NON-WILDLIFE BASED LIVELIHOODS e.g. Support interventions to generate livelihood options from non-wildlife-based activities Communities have a greater diversity of non- wildlife-based livelihood options D-I Viable non-wildlife-based livelihood strategies in place & generating sufficient income to substitute for poaching income D-R D-P e.g. Non-wildlife-based livelihoods generate enough income to substitute or remove the incentive for engaging in IWT, rather than acting as additional income to IWT. e.g. Non-wildlife-based livelihoods have sustainable markets and supply chains. e.g. Non-wildlife-based livelihood schemes do not generate perverse incentives — eg, money earned is not reinvested in poaching or in other land uses that negatively affect conservation. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  30. 30. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade COMMUNITY TOC A. B. D.C. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC Task 2. Construct Implementer / Designer ToC
  31. 31. Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC Task 3. Validate Implementer / Designer ToC IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade
  32. 32. Outputs Checklist ✅ A validated Implementer/Designer ToC Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  33. 33. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Final Comments or Questions? Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC
  34. 34. Thank you for joining today ©PhilipJ.Briggs Step 3: Implementer / Designer ToC

This is a presentation from the fourth event of an online learning series for the East African Community region on communities combating illegal wildlife trade. The event took participants through the third step of the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ methodology, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners. The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. They are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project, and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA programme, supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States. More info: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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