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Communities Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade session five

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This is a presentation from the fifth event of an online learning series for the East African Community region on communities combating illegal wildlife trade.

The event took participants through the fourth step of the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ methodology, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners.

The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. They are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project, and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA programme, supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States.

More info: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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Communities Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade session five

  1. 1. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Online Learning Event Series Event 5 of 7 ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  2. 2. Highlights from Session 4 ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  3. 3. What do we mean by a Learning Event? What it is: − Shares uses and contributions of the methodology − Explains concepts and principles that underpin it − Describes steps involved in implementing it − Introduces tools that can be used − Promotes interactions with the participants What it is not: − A series of lectures − A course for credit − A detailed and comprehensive training course CAUTION: You will not be ready to fully implement the FLoD methodology on your own at the end of this learning event series. SAWC is developing an in-depth training course
  4. 4. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  5. 5. A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
  6. 6. A B C D
  7. 7. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE .
  8. 8. Reduced activeor tacit community supportfor poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal orexternal poachers/ traffickersengaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitmentofcommunity membersby poachers/ traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders PATHWAY C - DECREASE COSTS OF LIVING WITH WILDLIFE e.g. Supportpractical approaches to deterringproblem animals at thesitelevel Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonismtoward wildlife C-P C-R e.g. Supportinsurance, compensationor offset schemes thatreducethecost of living with wildlife e.g. Supportland useplanning thatreduces thehuman-wildlife interface C-I e.g. The full costs of living with wildlife are known and can be quantified e.g. Resources and tools are available to mitigate HWC e.g. Communities with decreased antagonism towards wildlife have a decreased incentive to directly or indirectly support IWT. e.g. Communities with greater ability to mitigate HWC (resources, tools, policies) feel less antagonism towards wildlife. e.g. The relative risk of being apprehended, arrested or prosecuted is not so low that it undermines community action against IWT.
  9. 9. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade PROCESS
  10. 10. Interviewing the implementer / designer Implementer / Designer FLoD Team
  11. 11. SERIES OF STATEMENTS
  12. 12. Developing the Implementer / Designer ToC IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade FLoD Team
  13. 13. Validating the Implementer / Designer ToC IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade Implementer / Designer FLoD Team
  14. 14. FLoD Methodology Step 4: Community ToC
  15. 15. Reminder of the context for these sessions • Existing projects • A focus on high-value illegal wildlife trade • Based on FLoD Guidance & SAWC materials, which provide much more detail, as well as a number of teaching tools. Session 7 will: • Investigate how the methodology can be adapted to other contexts • Explore the possibility for projectdesign
  16. 16. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  17. 17. Objectives The objectives of Step 4 are to: • Test Implementer / Designer ToC with the community; and • Construct the Community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  18. 18. Outputs • At the end of Step 4, your output should be a Community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  19. 19. Methods & tools Methods Tools Key stakeholder interview Focus Groups Workshops • FLoD introductory presentation (Long or short) • FLoD focus group consent form • FLoD baseline ToC and assumptions • FLoD implementer/designer ToC • FLoD Community ToC development tool Step 4: Community ToC
  20. 20. Resources required Resource Required Personnel • At least two core team members. At least one should be a trained and experienced facilitator with experience working at the community level on these types of issues. • Independent local language interpreter • Second interpreter (to work alongside the record keeper) • Local liaison Materials • Laptop, power, extension cables, printer, projector, room that can be made dark or dark cloth to cover windows, flipcharts + markers, props as suggested. Time • Prepare tools and interpretation: one to two days • Focus groups: one day per focus group (recommend a break day if more than two focus groups) • Consolidation before whole-community meeting: one day • Whole-community meeting: one day • Travel time • Construct Community ToC: two days Step 4: Community ToC
  21. 21. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  22. 22. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  23. 23. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade PROCESS Step 4: Community ToC
  24. 24. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. Implementer / Designer ToC Testing Tool Community ToC Testing Tool Update the tool to reflect the implementer / designer ToC Step 4: Community ToC
  25. 25. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  26. 26. Focus groups • Composition • Decided during inception workshop • In consultation with community • Dependent on context in which you are working • Possible groupings: age, gender, livelihood, cultural group • Size • Ideally no more than 15 individuals • Timing • Full day per focus group • Considerations • Make sure people can participate • Be aware of local considerations, such as market days Step 4: Community ToC
  27. 27. Exploration of pathways and their assumptions by focus group Step 4: Community ToC
  28. 28. For each focus group IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade Step 4: Community ToC
  29. 29. WOMEN Tangible: • Bursaries • Selling fruits and vegetables to camps • Beadwork • Tourism marketplace Step 4: Community ToC
  30. 30. MEN Tangible: • Money to educate children • Employment (scouts, guides) • Beadwork • Honey • Fruits to tourism facilities • Tourism and research camps Intangible • Grazing for livestock • Security • Healthy environment Step 4: Community ToC
  31. 31. YOUTH Tangible: • Employment (scouts) • Tourism • Scholarships / bursaries • selling of beadwork Intangible • Conserve for future generations • Wildlife supports a healthy environment • elephants shake the tree and share the pods with the other animals • lions manage the population of ungulates, allowing grass to be used by livestock • seed dispersal Step 4: Community ToC
  32. 32. Iterative validation Step 4: Community ToC
  33. 33. Pathway ranking by focus group Step 4: Community ToC
  34. 34. Pathway ranking 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Pathway A Pathway B Pathway C Pathway D Women Men Youth Step 4: Community ToC
  35. 35. Questions & Comments ©MicahConway Step 4: Community ToC
  36. 36. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  37. 37. Step 4: Community ToC Task 3. Whole community meeting • Feedback from the FLoD Team on differences and similarities between focus groups • Group discussions, first in focus groups, then in mixed groups • Feedback from group discussions • Whole Community Pathway Ranking
  38. 38. Feedback on similarities & differences Step 4: Community ToC
  39. 39. Step 4: Community ToC
  40. 40. Wildlife-Based Livelihoods Women Tangible: • Bursaries • Selling fruits and vegetables to camps • Beadwork • Tourism marketplace Men Tangible: • Money to educate children • Employment (scouts, guides) • Beadwork • Honey • Fruits to tourism facilities • Tourism and research camps Intangible • Grazing for livestock • Security • Healthy environment Youth Tangible: • Employment (scouts) • Tourism • Scholarships / bursaries • Selling of beadwork Intangible • Conserve for future generations • Wildlife supports a healthy environment • elephants shake the tree and share the pods with the other animals • lions manage the population of ungulates, allowing grass to be used by livestock • seed dispersal Step 4: Community ToC
  41. 41. If your community does not have rights, it stops you from wanting to manage wild plants and animals and use them sustainably WOMEN MEN YOUTH Agree: • Yes, but we would still want to support wildlife but perhaps less so Disagree: • Even if monetary benefits are removed, we would keep the wildlife with their livestock Strongly agree: • We would shoot the wildlife the next day if rights were removed Step 4: Community ToC
  42. 42. Women PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits Men YouthNo rights = no interest Step 4: Community ToC
  43. 43. There are legal markets for wildlife and wildlife products (e.g. tourism) WOMEN MEN YOUTH Disagree: • There is demand for some products, but we, as a community, do not wish to engage in it because it will destroy the habitat. Strongly disagree: • Viewing tourism is possible, but not much else. • People can use some resources (medicinal plants) for themselves but not sell to others. • There is no legal domestic market for wildlife - if # of wildlife in conservancy grows, we can give to others but not sell. Strongly agree: • Research and tourism markets
  44. 44. Women PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits Men Youth Legal markets exist Step 4: Community ToC
  45. 45. WOMEN MEN YOUTH Strongly agree: • No specific comments Strongly agree: • No specific comments Strongly disagree: • We know that there are benefits but there is no transparency at all • Balance sheets and other records are not publicly shared • Tourism revenues going to community coffers not known or subjected to audit Step 4: Community ToC Those in positions of power within the community (e.g. conservancy staff and representatives) and their families do not benefit more than others as a result of their positions
  46. 46. Women PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits Men Youth Powerful individuals do not get more benefits Step 4: Community ToC
  47. 47. WOMEN MEN YOUTH Women: Strongly agree - no specific comments Men: Agree • This generation will do whatever they can until they die but it is up to our children to choose what to do after that • We don’t know if their children will conserve but it is possible as the children are learning from the older generation and with outside support they might even do a better job of conservation Step 4: Community ToC The benefits from wild plants and animals will continue forever (1 of 2)
  48. 48. WOMEN MEN YOUTH Youth: Disagree • Not sure – “the future will decide on its own” • We would like to but not sure if we can – climatic change pose a challenge we are not sure about • Successful conservation would result in more wildlife and therefore more jobs • Community does not have resources to protect wildlife, hence we cannot say the benefits will continue forever Step 4: Community ToC The benefits from wild plants and animals will continue forever (2 of 2)
  49. 49. Women PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits Men Youth Benefits sustainable Step 4: Community ToC
  50. 50. Step 4: Community ToC Feedback to whole community meeting and group discussions (within and among focus groups)
  51. 51. Pathway Ranking by Focus Group Step 4: Community ToC
  52. 52. Pathway Ranking across Focus Groups 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Pathway A Pathway B Pathway C Pathway D Women Men Youth Step 4: Community ToC
  53. 53. Whole community pathway ranking Step 4: Community ToC
  54. 54. Questions & Comments ©MicahConway Step 4: Community ToC
  55. 55. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  56. 56. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. Implementer / Designer ToC Testing Tool Community ToC Testing Tool Step 4: Community ToC
  57. 57. Outputs Checklist ✅ The Community ToC Step 4: Community ToC
  58. 58. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Final Comments or Questions?
  59. 59. Thank you for joining today ©PhilipJ.Briggs

This is a presentation from the fifth event of an online learning series for the East African Community region on communities combating illegal wildlife trade. The event took participants through the fourth step of the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against Illegal Wildlife Trade (FLoD)’ methodology, which aims to support designers and implementers of anti-poaching and anti-wildlife trafficking strategies and projects to effectively engage local communities as partners. The events are organised by IUCN, together with the International Institute for Environment and Development and IUCN CEESP/SSC Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group. They are supported by USAID Kenya and East Africa through the Conserving Natural Capital and Enhancing Collaborative Management of Transboundary Resources (CONNECT) project, and will supplement the comprehensive training course on FLoD, which is currently under development with support from the BIOPAMA programme, supported by the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States. More info: https://www.iucn.org/regions/eastern-and-southern-africa/our-work/conservation-areas-and-species/local-communities-first-line-defence-against-illegal-wildlife-trade-flod

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