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Biocultural innovations for climate resilient food systems: SIFOR – common findings

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This is a presentation by Krystyna Swiderska of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) of the latest findings from the SIFOR project, prepared in collaboration with the Centre for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Lok Chetna Manch in India, the Kenya Forestry Research Institute and Asociacion ANDES in Peru.

It was presented at a side event on 15 November 2016 in the Indigenous Peoples’ & Communities’ Pavilion at COP22 in Marrakech.

More information: http://www.iied.org/smallholder-innovation-for-resilience-sifor

Published in: Environment
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Biocultural innovations for climate resilient food systems: SIFOR – common findings

  1. 1. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 1 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016Author name Date Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Krystyna Swiderska, IIED UNFCCC COP22, 15 November 2016 Biocultural Innovations for Climate Resilient Food Systems: SIFOR – Common Findings
  2. 2. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 2 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (2012-2017) • AIM: To strengthen Indigenous Knowledge-based innovation systems for food security in the face of climate change. • Participatory Action Research in 64 indigenous communities:  Peru – Potato Park (Quechua): Alejandro Argumedo (ANDES)  China – Guangxi & Yunnan (Naxi): Yiching Song (CCAP)  India - Central & Eastern Himalayas (Lepcha): Ajay Rastogi (Lok Chetna Manch)  Kenya - Coastal (Mijikenda): Chemuku Wekesa (KEFRI) (inc. semi-arid, dryland)
  3. 3. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 3 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 SIFOR Baseline Study (2013-14) The study involved over 900 HHs in total - qualitative & quantitative surveys. Explored: • Trends in livelihoods & migration; food security; agrobiodiversity; climate; & social capital. Mainly from 2002-2012. • Biocultural innovations: - Technological, market, institutional - Endogenous (internal); collaborative (joint)
  4. 4. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 4 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Focused on “Biocultural Heritage-based Innovations” because IK is part of biocultural heritage Indigenous knowledge Bio-genetic diversity Landscapes Cultural & spiritual values Customary laws Resilience innovation
  5. 5. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 5 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Why focus on biocultural innovation? • To show that indigenous peoples are also innovators. • To strengthen agroecological practices for adaptation & mitigation. • To strengthen self-reliance in face of growing variability & uncertainty. • To conserve agrobiodiversity & IK • To strengthen indigenous peoples’ rights & leadership.
  6. 6. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 6 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Clear evidence of changes in climate & adverse impacts on food systems (2002-12) % Households Decreased/ more erratic Rainfall Increased Drought Increased Temperatur e Increased Pests & Diseases SW China Guangxi & YN (344 HHs) 92% 63% 70% 67% India – C & E Himalayas (c.130 HHs) 71% 89% 80% 79% Peru – Potato Park (61 HHs) 92% 56% 50% 50% Kenya coast (375 HHs) 78% 90% 91% 82% All: more extreme events; more variable weather
  7. 7. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 7 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Income diversification & out-migration (2002-12): - Shift to non-farm income, but farming still most important livelihood activity for income & food security - Increased migration to cities for work (esp. men) Income Out-migration to cities China (CSA) Steady increase GX & YN 3-4 x increase in CSA HHs (GX) GX: from 44% to 43% YN: from 41% to 69% Peru (Potato Pk) Av. HH Income nearly doubled Grew from 14% to 22% Kenya Av. HH income increased by a third (but expenditure also inc) Av 14% in 2012 India Av. HH income inc. by 25% (but expenditure also inc.) CH & EH – slight increase
  8. 8. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 8 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Loss of crop diversity & spread of hybrids (2002-2012) SW China: Rapid decline in maize landraces & spread of hybrids. Revival of heritage varieties in CSA villages (since 2007). Peru PP: Potato diversity doubled due to CIP agreement & collective management. India Him: Loss of crop diversity due to wildlife/birds, change in food habits, dry spells. Kenya coast (30yrs): Reduction in HHs growing maize & cassava landraces by 20-50%; increase in HHs growing hybrids by 20-30%. All: Women play key role in seed security
  9. 9. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 9 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Yield trends (2002-12) Country / Crop Changes in yield Potato Park, Peru – native potato Slight increase in yields despite severe increase in pests SW China – PPB maize 15-30% increase in yields due to PPB India – potato, maize, rice landraces Slight decline in potato yields Kenya – maize & cassava Reduced crop & livestock productivity due to drought & pests/diseases
  10. 10. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 10 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Central Himalayas – District Almora, Uttarankhand State, India
  11. 11. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 11 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016Biocultural heritage-based innovations - • Identified > 600 biocultural innovations for food security in the face of climate change – all agroecology-based; some v. effective. • Mostly technological innovations – less institutional & market innovations • Technological innovations: diversification (traditional crops/varieties); revitalising traditional practices (inter-cropping & IPM); new/resilient crop varieties; new cropping systems; improved farming tools; bio-pesticides; Soil & Water conservation.
  12. 12. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 12 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Biocultural innovations - Kenya • Planting hybrids, improved & traditional maize & cassava together to reduce risk. • Planting pruned cassava tops: yield increased 4-5 x, maturation time reduced by 6 months. • Planting coconuts face down to avoid termites. • Soil fertility: deep ploughing/turning & manure > High productivity • Domestication of wild fruit & medicinal trees for increased income > planting trees on farm. • Effective IK-based treatments for livestock disease. • Cultural Village: To protect Kaya forest through eco-tourism, revitalise traditional crops & culture.
  13. 13. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 13 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016
  14. 14. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 14 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Biocultural innovations in India Eastern Himalayas: • Breeding new varieties (EH): high yielding radish - crossed modern & traditional variety; black rice bean with higher yield & price; drought tolerant cardamom & new cropping system. • Far improved yield of onions, cauliflower and gadheri by changing sowing times, planting depth & weeding. • Domestication of broomstick grass after landslide – for soil conservation & cash crop. • Traditional institution for pooling labour; pooling produce. Central Him: • More diversified mixed cropping nr. house provides food throughout year & fertile soil. • New composting techniques > higher yields & v. efficient water use • Switch to finger millet > inc. resilience to drought, nutrition and income. Early uprooting of maize to buffer drought. • Women planting fodder trees on farm • Crop Protection Committees to reduce crop raiding
  15. 15. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 15 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016
  16. 16. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 16 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Conclusions: IK is vital for resilience & adaptation (complements science) • Climate forecasting using variety of signs • Resilient technologies & farming practices. • Traditional production systems/strategies designed to manage risk & maximise resilience over time (rather than short term productivity) • Holistic worldviews that are deeply connected to land - prioritise ecological values, sufficiency & equity/sharing. • Adaptation with development & mitigation co- benefits (eg. livelihoods, social capital; organic inputs, tree planting, soil carbon).
  17. 17. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 17 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Diversification versus productivist model • In risk-prone environments, need to support the resilience logic that underpins traditional production systems & use science to fit that model (rather than productivist logic). • High tech seeds may be very productive in the short term, but erode genetic diversity & IK for future & can inc. risk. • Traditional production systems sustain genetic evolution & co-evolution for adaptation (DNA evidence that maize landraces more resilient than same lines held ex-situ) Growing evidence that diversification & agroecology is an effective ‘climate-smart’ alternative - eg: • SIFOR: significant increases in income & yield. • Landraces have higher nutrition (FAO/CWS) • IPES: Diversified = more productive over time, eg. 30 yrs • 700 yr. old indigenous W. African soil enrichment – inc yields 2-3 times • IK-based innovations have sustained productivity for centuries (archeological study in NW Kenya).
  18. 18. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 18 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Paris Agreement: adaptation should support ecosystems, IK and rights • Art 7.5: Adaptation action “should be based on the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems”. • Preamble: Respect Human Rights & Rights of Indigenous Peoples • IPCC: Recognises importance of Indigenous Knowledge and Worldviews for effective adaptation (AR5) • BUT - NDCs: Very few mention Indigenous Knowledge/People (except Peru & India &..?)
  19. 19. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 19 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Urgent action is needed! • 50-90% if languages will be lost by 2100 (UNESCO) – indicator of IK. • “If we lose IK, we will have to invest millions of dollars to re-invent solutions for adaptation” (Carlos Loret de Mola, Govt of Peru, South-South exchange workshop, Lijiang, May 2016) • Need to engage Indigenous Peoples as technical experts in policy discussions on adaptation, climate smart agriculture & EbA!
  20. 20. SIFOR - Smallholder Innovation for Resilience 20 Krystyna Swiderska 15 November 2016 Thank you! www.bioculturalheritage.org

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