From Business Analyst to Business Synthesist                   Making a Vital Contribution to Business Change           Al...
Analyst      to      Synthesist   Goal – start a conversation            My opinion…            §  Too much emphasis on “...
Analyst      to      Synthesist   Ernest Forman: “Analysis vs. synthesis”         Dictionaries define analysis as         ...
Analyst      to      Synthesist   It’s not “Methodology in 35 minutes”                                                    ...
Analyst      to      Synthesist     The essence of “end-to-end”            When we say “end-to-end” we mean:            • ...
Analyst      to      Synthesist    2) Develop a “Case for Change”                   “You must communicate in a clear and c...
Analyst      to      Synthesist    “Case for Change” example          Situation:          •  Manufacturing firm attempting...
Analyst      to      Synthesist     Map the workflow – “Flow first, detail later”        This process workflow diagram sho...
Analyst      to      Synthesist       4) Identify requirements for each change            Assess suggested process improve...
Analyst      to      Synthesist                           Example – identify requirements per process change (2/2)       E...
Analyst      to      Synthesist   Recap – four helpful techniques           1)  Get up out of the details by              ...
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Analyst-to-Synthesist

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Analyst-to-Synthesist

  1. 1. From Business Analyst to Business Synthesist Making a Vital Contribution to Business Change Alec Sharp Consultant Clariteq Systems Consulting Ltd. West Vancouver, BC, Canada asharp@clariteq.com www.clariteq.com www.twitter.com/alecsharp Analyst to Synthesist Obligatory speaker background Alec Sharp, Clariteq Systems Consulting – asharp@clariteq.com §  30 years consulting and facilitation experience: •  Business Process Redesign / Improvement (discover, model, analyze, improve processes) Process Applications •  Application Requirements modelling (Use Cases and Business Services) •  Data Modelling and Management Data §  Consulting and instruction worldwide §  Principal author – “Workflow Modeling” published by Artech House, - best-selling book on process modelling & improvement - first edition – 2001 - second edition – 2009 2“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  2. 2. Analyst to Synthesist Goal – start a conversation My opinion… §  Too much emphasis on “effective written requirements” §  This has become a problem – too many BAs believe “the job is done when requirements have been written.” §  BAs must also synthesise requirements into a broader or cohesive whole. Disclaimer… §  Written (narrative) requirements have their place (in moderation) §  Not much leeway for nuance and subtlety in a forty-five minute presentation 3 Analyst to Synthesist Some background C-level executive… “Whatever happened to the BA who could tell me to move some desks and get an additional phone line? Now they just want to talk about my requirements.” Failed projects – a common denominator: §  Written requirements. Lots of written requirements. §  800, 1200, 1400, and 4000+ §  A cautionary tale: “Moby Dick and the 8000 requirements” Leading to conversations with many experienced (20+ years) BAs… …surprising consensus on common BA problems 4“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  3. 3. Analyst to Synthesist Ernest Forman: “Analysis vs. synthesis” Dictionaries define analysis as something like the following: the separating of any material or abstract entity into its constituent elements (opposed to synthesis) Dictionaries define synthesis as something like the following: The combining of the constituent elements of separate material or abstract entities into a single or unified entity (opposed to analysis) “Analysis without synthesis is almost worthless.” http://expertchoice.blogspot.com/2007/07/ analysis-vs-synthesis-or-analysis-and.html 5 Analyst to Synthesist Four techniques to avoid antipatterns… 1)  Get up out of the details by taking an end-to-end process perspective 2)  Encourage support for change by developing a case for action 3)  Identify what needs to change by assessing the current state in a holistic way by inspecting six enablers 4)  Identify requirements for each change by considering the impact on each enabler 6“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  4. 4. Analyst to Synthesist It’s not “Methodology in 35 minutes” 7 Analyst to Synthesist 1) Take an end-to-end process perspective A telephone company “improved” five subprocesses, not the entire end-to-end business process, and the behavior of the whole was made worse Service Order Facilities Installation Service Customer Management Management process Assurance Update process process process process Trigger: Customer result: Customer requests Telephone telephone service service End-to-end process: Move Telephone Service is moved move. Capture Assign Install Confirm Activate Service Network Premise Service Customer Order Facilities Equipment Quality Account Telco result: Active account, 5 subprocesses receivable posted Eliyahu Goldratt: “Local optimization yields global suboptimization.” 8“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  5. 5. Analyst to Synthesist The essence of “end-to-end” When we say “end-to-end” we mean: •  from the triggering event at one end •  through a cross-functional set of steps and decisions •  to the final results at the other end Triggering event or events •  e.g., Customer demand is signaled Final results •  process outputs received by the process’ primary customer e.g., Customer: ordered goods have been received and accepted •  process results for other stakeholders (performers, owner, supplier, regulator, …) e.g., Owner: payment has been received and distributed Results Customer: Goods accepted Owner: Trigger: Payment received Customer Process: Fulfill Customer Order Performer: demand is Commission credited signaled Industry Association: Order statistics reported 9 Analyst to Synthesist Clarify significant as-is factors Always draw a “Process vs. Function Diagram” •  depicts the functional areas participating in the process •  dont forget external participants such as the Customer! Customer Sales Manufacturing Logistics Finance Fulfill Customer Order Assemble Package Stage Fabricate & Test & Label Receive Plan Material Order Deliver Collect Order Order Order Order Order Payment Transport WIP Then, under each function •  list actors and responsibilities •  objectives and key performance indicators •  systems and data used, etc. This revealed huge gaps and overlaps 10“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  6. 6. Analyst to Synthesist 2) Develop a “Case for Change” “You must communicate in a clear and compelling way why the process has to change by completing the initial assessment for the as-is process” Initial assessment – 3 components Initial assessment – typical questions Customer: Stakeholder assessment – •  Are there unnecessary interactions? makes it real •  Are rules and requirements reasonable? •  Customer •  Can my work be located within the process? •  Performers (for this group, answers “what’s in it for me?”) Performer: •  Owner/manager •  What are your major sources of frustration? •  Others, as needed •  Do you have the necessary tools and support? •  Are there steps that serve no purpose? Context – •  Are problems caused upstream; makes it blame-free does the workload vary wildly? •  Changes in the environment since process was first •  What would you change if you could? “designed” •  Is there a documented process? Consequences of inaction – Owner/manager: makes it compelling •  Does the process use resources •  What will happen if the process is left as-is, that would be better allocated elsewhere? and the status quo is maintained? •  Is it a net contributor or a source of problems? •  Does it constrain innovation or growth? •  Does the process provide info for managing it? •  Did it earn your org an unflattering spot on the local consumer affairs TV show? 11 Analyst to Synthesist Assessing changes in the environment Areas to consider when assessing context: •  Changing customer expectations •  Change in business model (e.g., customised or standarised offerings) •  Change in business ownership (public, private) •  Emergent or disruptive technology •  Changes in business volume (up or down) •  Changes in business operating locations •  Economic conditions •  Regulatory change •  Competition, especially new or emerging •  Workforce changes (e.g., supply or retirement) 12“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  7. 7. Analyst to Synthesist “Case for Change” example Situation: •  Manufacturing firm attempting to select new financials application and redesign its core financial reporting processes •  No progress being made – project has descended into “the blame game” Client was very happy! Stakeholder assessment •  Customer – Financial markets / fund managers Alec, I’m so happy I cannot get info needed for investment decisions could just kiss you! •  Performers – Finance staff spend all their time on mechanical aspects of assembling “the numbers” with no time for value- adding analysis •  Owner/manager – CFO is under constant pressure and criticism from other executives Context •  Firm recently divested from a huge conglomerate •  Financial reporting was formerly to Head Office, but now is to financial markets which the processes were never designed to do Consequences of inaction That’s not •  Planned acquisition of competitor will not go ahead due to lack in my contract!!! of support for new bond issue; •  Firm likely to be acquired by the competitor. Uh oh… 13 Analyst to Synthesist 3) What needs to change – six “enablers” Business  mission,  strategy,   Process  vision,   Culture,  core  competencies,   goals,  &  objec5ves   differen5ator,  &  metrics     &  management  style   supports   reflects   aligns with Business Process enables enables enables enables enables enables Facilities Workflow Information Motivation & Human Policies and (or other, Design Systems Measurement Resources Rules e.g. Funding) Unfortunately, these are often ignored! • Actors • Applications • Employee • Skills • Constraints • Workplace • Steps & • Data assessment and • Matching • Business rules layout decisions • Information incentives actors to tasks that the • Equipment • Flow - sequence• Integration • “Reward and • Recruitment, process • Fixtures and and handoffs punishment” selection and enforces furnishings • Process KPIs vs. placement • External Function KPIs & internal The usual suspects! Enabler – A factor that can be adjusted to impact process performance. 14“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  8. 8. Analyst to Synthesist Map the workflow – “Flow first, detail later” This process workflow diagram showed the client the actual consequences of the “simple workaround” they had developed.(BTW, ignore that terrible “one page” guideline) It also supported assessment of the as-is process, and design of the to-be process, enabler by enabler: Human Workflow Information Motivation & Policies and Facilities Resources & Design Systems Measurement Rules (or other) Organization 15 Analyst to Synthesist Assess overall, or step-by-step if critical Flow: Systems: Measures: HR: Rules: Facilities: Is this step Is this step How is the Is this the right What rules Are the layout placed at the supported by performance of role & skill set constrain or are & furnishings right point in the right this step to do this step? enforced by optimal for this the process? technology? measured? this step? step? 16“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  9. 9. Analyst to Synthesist 4) Identify requirements for each change Assess suggested process improvements §  describe suggested change, identify the issues addressed, and describe expected benefits §  one enabler at a time, identify factors (“characteristics”) that will have to be in place for the suggestion to work §  assess – do the characteristics collectively make sense? §  when youre done, the new process is “characterized” Suggestion Workflow Info. Motivation & Human Policies & Facilities Feasibility Design Tech. Measurement Resources Rules (or other) & Notes Customer Will the CSR or a System to CSRs paid more for Sales What will CSR’s CSRs may What will Service Reps “closer” set up the present real- additional training? authority be for need more Customer (CSRs) take on new service? time view of responsibilities? Displacement discounts, etc.? desk space reaction be? sales Who follows up Customer’s Current measure is of current for product responsibilities. with interested total business, “call time” – must sales reps? catalogs that Customers not and change. aren’t online. ready to commit? recommend Commission? What alternatives. impact on commissions for current sales force? 17 Analyst to Synthesist Example – identify requirements per process change (1/2) Characteristic or improvement name Forensic strategy (“applying science at the front end”) Description A Senior Scientist, typically the Case Manager, will meet with the Submitting Officer and develop a case strategy specifying which avenues of investigation, which items, and which tests are most likely to yield the needed results in the least time, with the least effort. The goal is to do this for as high a percentage of cases as possible. This is the first decision point in another characteristic, multiple decision points. Visually, this is the first stage in a funnel, in which the work being performed on a case is continually reduced as new facts arise. Issues addressed There is a tendency for the Customer (the police) to submit all possible items, and request all possible tests, or at least submit more items for more tests than are necessary or justified. This is known as “forensicating” a case, and is ironically a primary cause of the delay and expense that the customer is unhappy with. Currently, Forensics accepts all items and performs all requested tests through to completion. In some cases, the suspect has become the accused and then the defendant, and has been convicted and incarcerated, yet testing continues. Anticipated outcomes / benefits For the Customer – deliver a positive result in less time, at less cost. For Forensics – free up resources by reducing submissions, and performing fewer tests on fewer items, thereby providing better throughput for all cases. In the future, Forensics will only perform those tests that will help, which will stand up in court because we can say “we chose these tests for these reasons.” On an ongoing basis the customer will become more aware of the avenues that are most effective. 18“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  10. 10. Analyst to Synthesist Example – identify requirements per process change (2/2) Enablers Workflow Design Performers (“actors”), tasks, sequence, dependency •  Senior scientist “meets with” appropriate scientist, not necessarily in person •  Assessment and agreement and recording of requirement which is not contracted yet. •  The requirement must be made available to the Process Manager, who will assess it with respect to current capacity. •  The Case Manager and Process Manager will then negotiate and refine the requirement. They will then agree on “what and when” and commit capacity, which might involve another provider. Information Technology Systems, automated support, data and Information, comm. •  Capture requirement •  Real-time view into work-in-progress and committed capacity (Forensics’ and subcontractors) Motivation and Measurement, assessment, consequences Measurement •  The Process Manager will be measured on accurately estimating capacity and throughput. •  The Process Manager makes a commitment for Forensics, and will be measured on having done the least to get the necessary result. (“lean consumption”) Human Resources Recruitment, placement, education, roles, matching task to role •  New front-end role for scientists •  Process Manager role •  Provide service 24x7 will impact some staff. •  Recruitment, recognition, and reward are fundamental to making this work Policies and Rules Internal: policies & guidelines. External: laws and regulations •  The overall submissions policy must be revised to reflect forensic strategy vs. “take it all.” •  Investigate legal consequences of forensic strategy. •  Mechanism to protect the individual scientist from pressure. (“Forensics, not the individual scientist” – this is a corporate decision, not a personal decision) •  Scientists cant make commitment without the Process Manager. •  A 10 minute phone call and a 4 hour conference both constitute delivery of a service. A request to confer with a Case Manager constitutes contract initiation. Facilities and Equipment Physical accommodations, layout, equipment, furnishings •  Some place to meet – in person, teleconference, … 19 Analyst to Synthesist There’s much more to it than Business Processes Framework Layer Sample Technique ü  Project Charter – documents the The university is embarking on an initiative called Goals Business “Strategic Enrollment,” which aims to raise student rationale, objectives, scope, and Objectives graduation rates by focusing on the recruitment and success measures for the project admission of students… Registrar’s ü  Workflow Model - shows the Process Print Student Attach Reg Office Summary Form and Business Report forward sequence of steps carried out by Processes Check Reg the actors involved in the process Department Form for Enroll Advisor data Student changes When advisor enters five characters of Last Name ü  Use Case - describes how an actor Then System lists matching Students Presentation completes a process step by Application Services When advisor selects list item Then System displays expanded Student interacting with a system to obtain view When advisor etc. a service Enroll Student ü  Service Specification - describes Business Input Message: Verify Student Status Check Student pre-reqs Output Message: a business service that is invoked Services Student Number Course ID Check Section availability Create Enrollment Result Code in response to a specific event Section ID Course Data Department Instructor ü  Data Model - depicts the things, Data Student Number ID Management Number enrolls in offers teaches Name and the facts about them, that the Name Rating Code GPA organization must maintain records Services Section Dates Times of Locations 20“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013
  11. 11. Analyst to Synthesist Recap – four helpful techniques 1)  Get up out of the details by taking an end-to-end process perspective 2)  Encourage support for change by developing a Case For Action 3)  Identify what needs to change by assessing the current state in a holistic way by inspecting six enablers 4)  Identify requirements for each change by considering the impact on each enabler 21 Analyst to Synthesist Contact information §  Me: asharp@clariteq.com, www.twitter.com/alecsharp §  My company: www.clariteq.com §  My book: Workflow Modeling, Second Edition It’s a complete rewrite of the first edition §  Data modelling blog: www.erwin.com/expert_blogs §  www.bptrends.com: search on "Alec Sharp" for my columns 22“Business Analyst to Business Synthesist” – Alec Sharp – www.clariteq.com © Copyright Clariteq 2013

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