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  1. 1. Marketing ToolboxSubtitle, Autor or Date
  2. 2. BasicsDefinitions / Explanations
  3. 3. Marketing OrientationOrientation in companies which strongly influenced the development ofmarketingTechnological Orientation Marketing Orientation(innovation, perfectionism) (market share, competitive advantage)Employee Orientation Customer Orientation(satisfaction, qualification) (customer satisfaction, customer loyalty)Efficiency Orientation Financial Orientation(optimization, cost reduction) (result, revenue, profitability, liquidity)Social Orientation Quality Orientation(environment, public, image) (improvement, ISO-certification, quality price)
  4. 4. Marketing TriangleCompany, employees and customer Company Marketing Triangle Employee Customer interactive marketing
  5. 5. Marketing - Simple ModelModel of a simplified marketing system and connection between providerand market Communication to Market / Information Provider Market Delivery of Product / service Overall market Provider of the product or service Transaction of customers and interested parties Payments Feedback to provider / information
  6. 6. Marketing - PerspectivesDifferentiation of 3 perspectives: The entrepreneurial approach (philosophy),instrumentation (technology) and management concept Marketing Philosophy Technology Management Orientation of Orientation of Orientation of the marketing to the marketing to the marketing to the most optimal the most optimal the most optimal satisfaction of effect of marketing process development, all customer instruments analysis, planning, requirements steering and controlling of all marketing activities
  7. 7. Development Phases of MarketingDevelopment phases in the last 100 years Sales and Market and Customer / Production distribution competition individual orientation orientation orientation orientation market oriented company management (marketing management) customer relationship management (CRM) marketing implementation marketing implementation marketing mix marketing mix marketing mix product policy product policy product policy price policy price policy price policy communication policy advertisement communication policy communication policy distribution policy sales sales distribution policy distribution policy mix extension 1900 - 1920 approx. 1920 - 1950 approx. 1950 - 1980 approx. 1980 - 1990 since 1990
  8. 8. Development of MarketingSteps of development of Marketing Product orientation Market orientation Environment orientation Network orientation Pure production due to Specialization on individual Response to environmental, Web 2.0, social networks, popular demand needs and market political, technological or Word of Mouth (eg postwar period) segmentation societal changes 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Sales orientation Competition Dialog orientation Change from the Production orientation Interactive design of to distribution communication through the Emphasis on unique internet, e-mails selling points (USP)
  9. 9. Marketing PyramidPyramid with (higher-ranked) marketing objectives on the top Marketing objectives Marketing strategies Marketing instruments Product- and Price and Communication Distribution program policy condition policy policy policy
  10. 10. Marketing - Classical vs. Alternative Marketing Overview of some marketing tools Classical Marketing Alternative Marketing Guerilla marketing Viral marketing Public relations Search engines Outside advertisement / Billboard advertisement Mobile marketing Direct marketingRadio / TV / Movies Sales promotion Print media Product placement Fairs / Exhibitions Classical advertisement Event marketing Sponsoring
  11. 11. Marketing ObjectsDifferentiation according to different marketing objects and approaches Marketing object Consumer goods - Investment goods - Service 1 marketing 2 marketing 3 marketing marketing of marketing of marketing for products for products for immaterial goods and private usage occupational use service performance Non-Profit- Social Destination Trade4 marketing 5 marketing 6 marketing 7 marketing marketing for marketing of a marketing of an marketing of a organizations without social idea explicit region trade and sales company gainful intent (no organization) (tourism) (retail)
  12. 12. Marketing - Sales MarketsDifferentiation according to 3 sales markets and the participating partners Marketing B - to - B B - to - C C - to - C Business-to-Business- Business-to-Customer- Customer-to- Marketing Marketing Customer-Marketing (company customer) (private customer business) Marketing of one Marketing of a Marketing of a private company to another company household to another company to a private house old private household (i.e. production machines) (consumption goods) (i.e. private sales on ebay)
  13. 13. Characterization of Markets - Types of GoodsTypes of assets and their usage situations Consumer Goods Capital Goods Services Consumer goods (e.g. food) Are used by production companies Immaterial benefits, and durables (e.g. cars) satisfy to produce further goods. Buyers often incurred only at the time immediate needs, and are directly are usually establishments or of consumption. The customer is put into use by the buyers public companies. part of the performance / service. (consumers). Single, clear identifiable Services for customer with Mass-Market (B2C) customer (B2B) a high use of resources
  14. 14. Market SegmentationScientific level of consideration Market Market Capture Segmentation Market Processing Explanatory Segments- models Acquisition of Information Selection of Specific use of of purchase information processing segments instruments pattern Consumer-oriented approach Method-oriented approach Management-oriented approach
  15. 15. Market SegmentationObjectives, methods, strategies of market segmentationLead Structure Approaches of Market Segmentation behavior-oriented Reasons/ Meaning OBJECTIVES method-oriented STRATEGIES management-oriented Quantitative Qualitative
  16. 16. Market DefinitionHierarchy representation for the preparation of a market analysis of companieswith a broad range of products or services Overall MarketStrategicmanagementDefinition Market 1 Market 2 Market 3of markets (Description) (Description) (Description)Strategicbusiness units SBU 1 SBU 2 SBU 3Marketing Segment A Segment B Segment C Sub Market A Sub Market B Sub Market C
  17. 17. Market Analysis/CompetitionSituation analysis
  18. 18. Situation Analysis - Search FieldsSearch fields for the identification of potential chances and risks Environment analysis Market analysis Frame conditions:  political  social Competitor  technological  economical  ecological Company Stakeholder: Supplier Customer analysis  employees  investors  unions  etc. Substitute products
  19. 19. Market Analysis - Strategic Situation AnalysisAnalysis of market participants, political and legal situation and social,technological, geographical and economical aspects Own Relevant Supplier, Sales mediator Legal, social and natural organization competitor and potential customers environment Potential analysis Competition analysis Market analysis Environment analysis Strengths and weaknesses analysis Opportunities and threats analysis SWOT Analysis Interpretation of data of strategic situation analysis are the foundation of the following marketing decisions
  20. 20. Marketing - Situation AnalysisCheck list with basic questions to clarify the initial situation What is the market where the company operates and 1 how can it be defined and narrowed? Who is involved in the sales process? 2 What determines the behavior of these groups? 3 Which competitors are currently operating on the market? Do public interest groups or any external stakeholders have an 4 impact on your company policy? What is the actual-situation of the company? 5 What are your strengths and weaknesses?
  21. 21. Market Analysis - Company AnalysisCorporate philosophy (1/6) Corporate policy Corporate vision Corporate idea Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  22. 22. Market Analysis - Company AnalysisCorporate philosophy (2/6) Corporate identity Corporate culture Corporate objectives Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  23. 23. Market Analysis - Company AnalysisCorporate potentials (3/6) Development Marketing Production -research/ development -marketing concept -technology -know how -standards -capacity -patent -brands -productivity -development status Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  24. 24. Market Analysis - Company AnalysisCorporate potentials (4/6) Procurement Financing Company - procurement systems -capital requirements -organization - supplier relationship - investment intensity -value chain - purchasing power Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  25. 25. Market Analysis - Company AnalysisCorporate resources (5/6) Material resources Financial resources Employees - installations - liquidity -staff situation - interior -reserves - education -equipment -possibilities to raise capital - staff development Managers IT-equipment Other - quality of leadership - sort Insert description and notes in - business experience - actuality key words. - age structure - complexity
  26. 26. Market Analysis - Company AnalysisCompany position on the market (6/6)Markets Advantages Product mix Cost- Price-overall and partial - product and - revenue - price per piece- market- market share performance advantages - profitability price relations-market and sales profile - innovations - age profile - value chain - protection against replicatesInsert description and Insert description andnotes in key words. Insert description and Insert description and notes in key words. notes in key words. notes in key words.
  27. 27. Potential Analysis Inspection of the position of own company on the market according to the following factors TV campaign Documentary Capital Employees brand image of positioning of company, capital resources, number of employees, company, market share of provider of creditworthiness structure, separate product brands qualification product brands and motivation Location Sales Partner Customer location quality, distribution relation to number of customers, infrastructure, organization cooperation customer potential, business locations, and distribution customer retention distribution in target area partners (loyalty vs. fluctuation)
  28. 28. Market Analysis - Strengths and WeaknessStrengths and weaknesses profile Own company Other Company Weakness StrengthCriteria -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3Product range (quantity)Product range (quality)PriceService (general)Availability by phoneCustomer satisfactionSupplier satisfaction…
  29. 29. Competition AnalysisExample Characteristic high low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9QualityPricePerformanceUsageImageEnvironment-friendlinessDesignAdditional functions Your product Competitor’s product
  30. 30. Marketing - Representation of Market VolumeRepresentation of market volume and its development as a diagram Market potential Number of possible customer Sales volume or sales of a or amount if all customers provider / company are prepared to buy (at the given price) Market volume Market share Market capcity Total number of possible customer Actual sales or sales for or max. amount of products that can be used all vendors at the market consumed / (if price does not matter) Market volume Saturation = x 100% Market potential
  31. 31. Characterization of Markets - SizesRelationship between market potential, market volume and market shareto assess the market attractiveness Relative Market Share A Market Share =Market Volume Company A Market Share B Market ShareTotal sales or a turnover Market share of a company and the ratioof an industry including of sales / turnover of the company to theall competitors market volume Relative Market Share Ratio of Market share of a company to the market share of the strongest Market Potential competitor Capacity of the market up to market saturation
  32. 32. Market - Description/ Term DefinitionTerms to describe markets Market potential: Market volume: equates to the absorption capacity of the realized / scheduled sales or revenue for a market (market capacity) or the volume similar product for example for one year. of the possible deductable amounts of one Clearly more specific than the market product at a certain market. potential. Market potential Market- Sales / Revenue Absolute Relative exhaustion volume of the company market share market share Market volume Market exhaustion: Relative market share: percentage value that indicates to what Absolute market share: indicator of market position by degree the possible customer of a product market share, that the company has relating their own sales to the sales would consume it. (Market limit used as a realized on a certain market of its largest competitor in the gauge for future market growth) (sales or revenue) industry.
  33. 33. Market Analysis - Environment AnalysisPlaceholder for your own Subheadline Calculation Colleague gen. FTL +/2 Dep. 4 Lead Customer +/2 gen. Engineer Dep. 1 +/3 +/2 DB +/2 Construction o/0.5 +/2 Design Intranet engineer k/0.5 Design +/3 Dep. 4 engineer o/1 Dep. 4 o/1 o/1 Internet +/3 Customer Supplier +/1 gen. Design /0 Quality of connection engineer +/1 + perfect Dep. 4 Attempt o normal K critical Customer Feedback ReferenceThe text demonstrates how Frequency of connection Calculationyour own text will look when 3 intensive 2 mediumyou replace the placeholder 1 lowwith your own text. 0 nonexistent
  34. 34. Opportunities - Threats-AnalysisAnalysis about the company’s opinion on environmental changes and whereadjustments need to be doneCriteria Opportunities ThreatsMarktsituation Market structure x Market potential/ market volume x Customer structure x Competitor xEnvironment / Frame conditions Laws / Taxes x Society x Ecology x Technological Development xStrength Product range x Prices x Organization / Management x Cash Flow xWeaknesses Locations x Marketing performance x Innovation ability x Financial resources x
  35. 35. Chance-Risk-AnalysisChances and Risks with possible development outside the company and theirinfluence on marketing strategy and business planningOpportunities Threatsnew product development in own company development of a new product by the competitorown innovations innovations of the competitornew target groups and buyer levels development of new competitorsopening new markets in other countries development of new competitive suppliers in other countriesincreasing demand development of over-productionrecovery of the overall economy weakening of the overall economyloosening or changing of relevant laws limited measures and legislative processescurrency exchange revenues on foreign markets through exchange rate losses on foreign markets through negative changespositive change of exchange rates of the exchange rate technological development / change of base technologies
  36. 36. Strength and Weaknesses AnalysisAnalysis of internal Company Resources RelevanceSector Success Factor Notes 1 2 3 4 5 Range of service Pricing Image Market share Market growth Sales development Distribution Sales network AdvertisingMarketing and Complaint managementSales Adherence to schedules Customer structure Order processing Sensitivity to economic situations Customer service Market cultivation Sales representatives Market research Sales planning Customer loyalty
  37. 37. SWOT-AnalysisEnter your subheadline here Strength Weaknesses External Analysis Opportunities Threats
  38. 38. Gap AnalysisRevenue targets and their development in the course of time Target value i.e. revenue Strategic gap Development limit New business Potential Operative gap core business Core business Present Planning horizon time
  39. 39. ABC-AnalysisABC Analysis is methodology that gives a quickly and simple review ofassortments of products in retail, wholesale or manufacturing businesses Turnover / Value in %100%80%60% A B C40%20% Range of Products / Quantity in % 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
  40. 40. ABC-AnalysisPlaceholder für Ihre eigene Subheadline Percent Sales 2010 Commulated No. Customer Customer (in Dollar) Sales 1 5% Placeholder 100,000 16,4% 2 10% Placeholder 95,000 31,9% 3 15% Placeholder 90,000 46,7% 4 20% Placeholder 85,000 60,6% 5 50% Placeholder 30,000 82,3% 6 100% Placeholder 300 100% 610,400
  41. 41. Quality and Price PositioningRelative positioning of different product categories high Brand article Relative quality No-names Trademarks low low Relative price high
  42. 42. Seller / Buyers Market - FeaturesComparison and limits of the characteristics of the seller and buyers market Activities of supplier Activities of demander Features Seller‘s Market Buyer‘s Market Economic Scaricity economy Affluent societies development stage Ratio of supply Demand> Supply Supply> Demand (Excess demand) (Surplus) and demand Demand more active than provider Providers more active than buyers Bottleneck area Procurement and / or production Turn over of company Primary efforts Rational extension of procurement Awakening of demand and creation of company and production capacity of preferences for their own
  43. 43. Market Attractiveness - Competition AdvantagePortfolio 1/3Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria listsEvaluation of market attractiveness Coefficients CoefficientsCriteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index Criteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index 1 11. Market growth 3. Energy / Accommodation2. Market quality - interference of accommodation- Profitability of the branch - influence of profitability through- Tolerance for price policy price incensement- Technological level - existence of alternatives- Protectability of know how 4. Environment situation- Intensity of investments - Economic dependency- Intensity / structure of competition - Inflation effects- Number / structure of potentialconsumer - Dependency on legislation- Entry barriers - Dependency on public- Distribution requirements - Risk of public interference- Variability of competitionconditions - Pollution of nature- Substitution possibilities TOTAL 1,0
  44. 44. Market Attractiveness - Competition AdvantagePortfolio 2/3Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria listsEvaluation of market attractiveness Coefficients CoefficientsCriteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index Criteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index 1 11. Rel. market position - Pot. increase of productivity- Market share - Environmental friendly production- Size and financial power -Delivery conditions- Growth rate - Sustain market share with given supply conditions- Profitability - Cost situation with energy and raw- Risk material supply- Market potential 3. Relative R&D potential2. Rel. product potential - Status of research- Process efficiency - Development compared to market position- Cost advantage - Innovation potential- Innovation ability 4. Rel. employee qualification- License relations - Professionalism and culture- Adaptability - Innovation climate- Sustain market share withcapacity - Quality of management systems- Location advantage TOTAL 1,0
  45. 45. Market Attractiveness - Competition AdvantagePortfolio 3/3Display of portfolio graphic according to results of prior criteria lists low medium high Investment and growths strategies A high Market attractiveness Selective strategies medium B Absorption and divestment strategies C low Relative competition advantage
  46. 46. Market SegmentationDifferent types and levels of market segmentation Segmentation Undifferentiated marketing Differentiated marketing Concentrates marketing Micro marketing Mass Product variety Segment Nische Individual marketing marketing marketing marketing marketingProducts, distribution and Prices, distribution and High degree of market High specialization and It’s the highest degree ofadvertisements are advertisement measures coverage serves multiple or concentration on special segmentation and externaldesigned the same for all are developed for different many different sub sub markets or clearly opposite to masscustomers. target groups. markets. defined customer groups. marketing.Difference between Orientation according to Further sub divisions: Niche providers are highly Segmentation of marketseparate segments are target groups creates specialized and pursuit a down to the individualbeing ignored and the better approaches for the 1. Concentration to only secure market position in customer by increasingmarket is served with one determination of market one segment procurement. individualization tendencyoffer. chances. 2. Selective specialization and technical progress. 3. Product specification 4. Market specialization Customized mass 5. Complete segment production coverage (Mass customization / One-to-One-marketing) Broad target group Narrow target group approach approach
  47. 47. Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model)Three steps to target group oriented marketing Market segmentation Target market determination Positioning Determination of Development of assesment Development of a lasting1 segmentation variables/ segmentation of Market guidelines for the determination of attractiveness. Finally the selection competition position and determination of tasks and and concentration on one or more performance program for selected Development of segments. target segments. 2 resulted segment profile Estimation of 3 attractiveness of each Segment 4 Selection of target segments Zoning of market in clear defined target groups / Customer groups with own products and marketing-mix. 5 Development of possible positioning concepts Selection and 6 Communication of positioning concept Time
  48. 48. Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model)Three steps in the process of market segmentation Segmentation Targeting Positionierung  Determination of segment variables  Analysis of estimation  Designing of a possible of attractiveness of positioning concept  Definition and segmentation of each segment the market  Selection and  Selection of target communication of  Development and description of segments positioning concept resulting segment profiles
  49. 49. Customer SegmentationDifferentiation and description of target groupsCustomer segment XCharacteristics: Feature A … … …Core motive:Customer segment YCharacteristics : … … Feature B …Core motive: IndividualCustomer segment ZCharacteristics : … … …Core motive:
  50. 50. Market Entry BarriersInstitutional and behavior dependent market entry barriers Market entry barriers Behavior dependent market Institutional market entry barriers entry barriers Tariff barriers Non-tariff barriers Market side barriers Company side barriers Tolls Import quotes Demand behavior Information availability Psychological distance Capital flows limitations Language / culture of management Minimum /maximum prices Distribution systems Administrative Local content regulations constrains Norms / standards Self limitations
  51. 51. Values and Lifestyles (VALS)System of lifestyle-typology of consumer VALS Typology Values and Lifestyles (VALS) Extroverts Notleidende Introverts Achievers Sustainers Socially-Conscious Emulators Survivors Experimentals Belongers I-am-me s
  52. 52. Competitive AdvantageRepresentation of the thre influencial factors customers, organizationand competition Expectation on the product and benefit Competitive advantage
  53. 53. Market Research - Process SchemeSeparation of market research process in five phasesDefinition Phase Data Collection Phase Documentation Phase Dokumentations-Problem definition and Presentation of results phasedevelopment of survey Research report distributer Präsentation der Ergebnissetargets Topic of research Forschungsbericht Verteiler D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Designphase Data analysis phase Marketing Fixation of target groups Evaluation of data decision Selection of research methods Interpretation Recommendations and instruments Prognosis that influence Organization (time/cost) decisions Sources for data
  54. 54. Sales Orientation vs. Marketing OrientationComparisonThe sales orientation Initial point Main focus on Measure Target existing existing advertisement, profit through production products sales promotions high revenueThe marketing orientation Initial point Main focus on Measure Target long term profit actual customer integrated expectation through the markets requirements marketing approach sustainable satisfaction of customers
  55. 55. Competition StrategiesDifferentiation between cost leadership, time leadership and quality leadership Cost leadership Time leadership Quality leadership Causing lower costs than Choice of time of market Determination and competitor i.e. though entry. implementation of technical production of large amounts Previous development time, improvements and product and low priced procurements. handling time and production improvements with the target Mostly this doesn’t require a time are important here. to always provide the best large market share. quality on the market.
  56. 56. Competitive Advantage - 5 PrinciplesA competitive advantage over the competition is a superior performanceor property A distinction is made between five principles: Principle of Opportunity Perceptual Concentration Consistency survival principle principle principle principle At least one strategic Creating competitive Only competitive At least one strategic Focus on strategiccompetition advantage advantages through advantages that the competitive advantage competitive benefits must be present important competitive customer subjectively must be present which are most (long term). parameters. perceives count (not (long term). important for (the more the greater technical advantages). the customer. the chance)
  57. 57. Competitive Advantage - Advantage MatrixRepresentation of the relationship of competitive advantages and quantities Volume has no /or Volume has great advantages small advantages Many Niche business Special business competitive advantages (Restaurants, consultants) (Journals, instruments) Only a few Patt-business competitive Volume business advantages (Basic materials chemistry, standard (PCs, ICs) possible paper)
  58. 58. Competition StrategiesRepresentation of coherences between competitive advantages and amounts + Cost leader Benefit leader Profitability - ? + - Cost leader and benefit leader require singularity characteristics otherwise they lose their leading positions.
  59. 59. Marketing ModelsEstablished models
  60. 60. Competition - Driving ForcesThe five driving forces of sector competition (according to Porter) Potentially new competitors Threat of new competitors Bargaining power of suppliers Competitors in the industry Suppliers Buyer Rivalry among existing companies Bargaining power of buyers Threat of substitution products or services Substitution products
  61. 61. Marketing - 4P-ModelProduct, Price, Place, Promotion PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION
  62. 62. Marketing - 4P-ModelProduct, Price, Place, Promotion
  63. 63. 5P-ModelExpansion of the 4P model with the aspect of “Personnel” PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION PERSONNEL
  64. 64. 5P- ModelExpansion of the 4P model with the aspect of “Personnel”
  65. 65. Marketing 4P‘sEnter your subheadline here 4Ps Product Price Promotion Place Main usage Conditions Advertisement Strategic distribution/ sales Physical Side usage Rebate Sales distribution/logistics Additional usage Discount Sponsoring Location Brand Leasing Sales promotion Content Event Quality PPR Packaging
  66. 66. Marketing Mix - 7P Classical instrumentsClassical and new instruments New instruments Product policy „product“ Process policy Price policy „process“ „price“ Distribution policy Equipment policy „place“ „physical facilities“ Personnel policy Communication policy „personnel“ „promotion“
  67. 67. Marketing MixExample with individual factors Brand name Slogan Logo Product design / ad campaign packaging Brochure / Corporate design Sales Training Brochures / ProductPress conference presentation Reseller discount Businesspaper Give-Aways Website
  68. 68. Marketing Mix (4P‘s)Components of the marketing mix Product policy Price policy Communication policy Distribution policy Product innovations  Price  Media advertisement  Distribution systems Product improvements  Price deductions  Sales promotion  Sales organs Product differentiation  Rebates and discounts  Direct marketing  Logistic systems Marking  Delivery conditions  Public relations Naming  Payment conditions  Sponsoring Service performance  Personal communication Assortment planning  Fairs and exhibitions Packaging  Multi-media communication  Employee communication Marketing mix Sub-markets and customer groups
  69. 69. Service marketing (from 4P’s to 7P’s)Comparison of 4P´s and 7P´s 4 P‘s of the classical 7 P‘s of the consumption goods marketing service marketing advertisement product product positioning employees advertisement price positioning physical price facilities process management
  70. 70. AIDA- ModelStep model in 4 phases (Phases could variy) A I D A Attention Interest Desire Action Attract the The customer is The desire for The cusomer customer‘s interested in the the product is probably attention product awakened purchases
  71. 71. AIDA - Action PrincipleThe stage model includes four phases the Customer goes through in order tomake the purchase decisionPhysical reaction Action(economical) The customer buys the product The desire for the product Desire is awakened (demand)Psychological reaction(pre- economical) The customer is interested in Interest the product Attention of the customer Attention for the product is excited
  72. 72. Marketing 3C’s TriangleEnter your subheadline here Customer Distributors Clients Competitors Suppliers
  73. 73. Diamond-Model - National Competitive AdvantagesThesis to assess the competitive abilities of states in terms of individual industries(according to Porter) Coincidence Strategy, structure and competition Factual conditions Demand conditions Related and supporting industries Government
  74. 74. Porter‘s Five Forces AnalysisEnter your subheadline here New Competitors Threat of new competition Competition on relevant Bargening power Bargening prower market = rivalry among of supplier competitors of customer Substitution products = threat of substitution
  75. 75. Five ForcesFive (+1) competitive forces according to Porter (supplement through stakeholder) Potentially new competitors Potential further stakeholder threat through new competitors Potential bargaining power and the ability to intervene in the industry events Competitors/ rivalry between industry suppliers Suppliers Customer bargaining strength of bargaining power of customers suppliers Substitute products threat through substitute products or services
  76. 76. S-Curve Concept - Life CycleRepresentation of the life cycle of technology in the course of time Basic technology Pace setting technology time development phase growth maturity age phases Life cycle of a technology
  77. 77. Marketing Strategy /ConceptStrategic marketing / concepts
  78. 78. Differentiation - Strategic MarketingPosition of the strategic marketing between strategic management and marketingmanagement
  79. 79. Conception Phases of MarketingEnter your subheadline here Situation Analysis 1 Marketing Control 7 2 Marketing Objectives Implementation / 6 Customer 3 Marketing Strategy Realization Marketing Instruments/ 5 4 SBU-Planning Marketing-Mix (Strategic Business Units)
  80. 80. Marketing - Communication PolicyTen-step model of marketing communication Measure effect Step 10 Apply communication measures Step 9 Pre- test, Control of effect, return result to step 7, to apply Step 8 Return result at 5-9 improvements Plan separate communication measures Improvements Step 7 and correctionsBudgeting and media selection (selecting advertising media) Step 6 Step 5 Develop communication strategy Step 4 Define communication targets and target groups Step 3 Derive marketing targets Step 2 Agree on company objectives Step 1 Situation analysis and prognosis for the company
  81. 81. Four Codes of Brand CommunicationCommunication model that implies that there are three more codes next tolanguage responsible for concrete meaning Meaning Language History Symbols Sensorics Style Tell stories Protagonists Sensorial experience Rhetoric Show episodes Figures Stimulation of senses Wording Places of action Noises / colors Shapes / haptics Only the interaction of these four Codes makes the brand communication sustainably successful
  82. 82. Core Competences / Product PyramidCore competences as a base of the product pyramid, which are not easily adaptedby other companies and therefor improve the benefit of the end product End product Core product Core competences BASE are valuable rare difficult to not sub- strength- immitate stitutable ened the more they are used
  83. 83. Marketing Strategy - Influencial FactorsInfluencial factorsOrganizational Attitude toobjectives and change and riskresources Marketing Strategy Competitor Market structure strategies and opportunities
  84. 84. Marketing StrategyMarketing as market-oriented business management / business strategy Procurement Strategy Research and Business Strategy Production Strategy Development Strategy Quality Strategy Human Resources Strategy
  85. 85. Elements of Marketing ConceptConnection between the separate elements and their logical process structure Wishes, requirements Offer of products and demands and services Elements Markets Customer benefit and customer satisfaction Exchange, transactions and relations
  86. 86. Market Areal StrategyDetermination of geographic coverage Market areal strategies Inter- Multi- Local Regional National Global national national Process of geographic expansion
  87. 87. Market Simulation Strategies - Stuck in the Middle Placeholder for own Subheadline Performance II: Preference strategy IV: Advantage high strategy Outpacing strategy Outpacing strategy „Stuck-in-the-Middle“ low high Price Security distance I: Over reaching strategy III: Price /Amount strategy low
  88. 88. Marketing Strategy - Strategic TriangleIntegrated marketing strategies include the strategic triangle of company,customer and competitor Customer Competitve advantage Own Competition Company
  89. 89. Marketing Strategy - Strategic PentagonAccording to Ohmae 1992 Customer Government Currency Company Competitor
  90. 90. Innovation - Demand Pull and Technology PushInterplay between both strategies Company Market
  91. 91. Media Strategy - DimensionsAnalysis and visualization of the six most important parameter of media strategy Percentage of the reached target group Range Design of advertising Frequency of addressing the (for instance: color) and their target persons placement Impact Contacts Dominance Intensity Size, formats, advertising and The number of applied media spot lengths (Media mix) Repetition Frequency and timely intervals of the contacts
  92. 92. Marketing StrategiesStrategies according to individualization degree and customer relation Level of individualization of a product Customized Marketing Individual Marketing high individualization customer individual of product market development Mass-Marketing Relationship Marketing low standardized Individualization of market development customer relationship low high Individualization degree of customer relationship
  93. 93. Strategic MarketingQuestions and Marketing Where? How? When? What is the central When will the company In which market is the orientation of the become active on company active? marketing strategy? the market? Concentration of companys Conscious selection of markets Determination of market entry activities on particularly attractive and definition of future strategies time in compliance of the previous and promising markets with long-term orientation development and production effort
  94. 94. Marketing OrientationsOrientation of the company on the turnover market Starting Point Medium Objectives “ Produce as much Expansion / rationalization of Profit on increased Products/ Performance production and procurement volume as you can. ” Production orientation (seller‘s market) Products/ Performance Sales-political Profit on accordant “ Write off what instruments volume you‘ve produced. ” Sales orientation (saturation tendency) Market- research Bundle of Profit on long-term Customer wishes marketing satisfaction of “ Produce what you measures customers can write off. ” Market orientation (buyer‘s market)
  95. 95. Cost LeadershipThe strategy of a company to reach sustainable competitive advantage be lowcosts is differentiated in 8 methods Economies of scale Economies of scope Experience effects Economies of learning Product design Process design Residual effects Capacity utilization Input-Costs the operational effectiveness Cost leadership
  96. 96. Differentiation StrategyThe strategy of a company to differentiate themselves positively from thecompetition from the customer’s point of view is separated in 6 different methods Price Image Support Design Quality Not differentiated Differentiation Strategy
  97. 97. Market Field Strategies according to AnsoffAnsoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies Markets Products/ Existing New Performance Market penetration Market development  Market presence  Internationalisation Existing  Market suppression  Market segmentation Product development Diversification  Product innovation  Vertical diversification New  Product differentiation  Horizontal diversification  Lateral diversification
  98. 98. Market Area StrategiesBasic principles for market areas / market development International Strategies  Multinational market  International market  World market National Strategies  Local market  Regional market  Cross regional market  National market
  99. 99. Marketing - STP-StrategiesStrategies of market davelopment S T P Segmenting Targeting Positioning Market segmetation, Segment evaluation, Positioning versus Differentiation. segmentation criteria to target market determination Establishment of a competition divide the markets and target group position in each target segment. into clearly defined determination. Selection of Selection and communication of customer groups the most attractive market a concept segments
  100. 100. Competition Strategies Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies Overall market Differentiation strategy Cost leadership • performance/quality • price/costsDegree of competition • uniqueness • standard product Differentiation focus Cost focus • specific need • limited need • relatively price-inelastic • price elastic Sub-market Performance advantage Cost advantage Competitive advantage
  101. 101. Competition Strategies Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies Overall market Strategy of quality Strategy of aggressive leadership cost leadershipDegree of competition Strategy of selective Strategy of selective Quality leadership Cost leadership Sub-market Performance advantage Cost advantage Competitive advantage
  102. 102. Competition StrategiesMatrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies Strategic advantage Singularity from Cost advantage Strategic customers perspective target object Extensive Industry wide differentiation cost leadership Limitation to one segment Focusing
  103. 103. Market Field Strategies according to AnsoffAnsoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies Product Existing New Market Existing Market penetration Market development New Product development Diversification
  104. 104. Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GEEnter your subheadline here Market- attractiveness  Specializing in few  Fight for the market strength  Maximum investments leadership high  Overcoming weaknesses  Concentration on Invest  Usage of strength  Retreat when missing preservation of existing Develop  Strengthening of poorly strength signs for continuous performing areas growth  Search for low risk  High investments in  Defending of position medium expansion possibilities attractive segment Devest  Minimizing of investments  Concentration of  Defense against Develop investments of attractive competitors  Rationalizing of internal and low risk areas processes  Increasing productivity  Defense of position in  Realization of profit Selective action  Sales with increasing most profitable area  Concentration of most Profit priority profits low  Improvement of product attractive segments  Reduction of fixed costs line  Defense of existing  No investments  Minimizing investments strength Competitive strength low medium high
  105. 105. Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GEMatrix of norm strategies (threefold division of axis ) Keep High Investment or retreat Investment market leadershipMarket attractiveness Absorption and Medium Transition Growth gradual divestment Absorption and gradual Low Divestment Absorption divestment Low Medium High Relative competitive advantages
  106. 106. Market GrowthRepresentation of market sizes, like market potential, market volume and marketgrowth in the course of timeAmount / Value Market Potential 6 Sales Volume Provider A Sales Volume Provider B 5 Sales Volume Provider C 4 Sales Volume Provider D 3 2 Market Volume 1 0 Time Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4
  107. 107. Outpacing-StrategieIncrease in profitability by maximizing quality (high customer benefit) and costreduction high Cost reduction Target of Offer differentiation outpacingQuality/Customer benefit Innovator Follower low expensive cheap Price / Costs
  108. 108. Innovation Strategies - Innovation PentagramA tool of innovation management Motive: Which motive targets the innovation? Business system: With what kind of Advantage: What kind of business system advantages does the is the innovation innovation provide? implemented? Timing: When are we Revenue model: How is the applying these measures? revenue generated?
  109. 109. Marketing Concepts - DimensionsPlatzhalter für Ihre eigene Subheadline
  110. 110. Internationalization StrategiesPlaceholder for own Subheadline This is a placeholder text. This text can be replaced with your own text. The text demonstrates how your own text 3 4 high will look when you replace the placeholder Integration advantage Global Transnational with your own text. marketing marketing If you don’t want to use the style and size of the fonts as used in this placeholder it’s possible to replace it by selecting different options. 1 2 low International Multinational marketing marketing low high Differentiation advantage
  111. 111. Marketing Planning /Objectives
  112. 112. Marketing Management - ProcessRepresentation of the ideal type process of marketing management Analysis phase Marketing situation analysis Determination of market segments and marketing targets Four classic phases Definition of marketing strategy Planning phase Determination of marketing budget Determination of marketing measures Implementation phase Implementation of marketing measures Control phase Control of marketing results
  113. 113. Marketing-Planning ProcessMarketing as a process devided in the five steps of market analysis, marketingobjective, strategy, marketing instruments and success control Market analysis Where are you? (actual-condition) What is the initial situation? Marketing targets Wher do you want to be? (establish objectives) Marketing strategy How will you reach your objectives? Marketing instruments Which instruments will be used? Success control Analysis of the difference between target and result
  114. 114. Marketing TargetsEconomic and non-economic objectives of a business Economic marketing targets Non-economic marketing targets Close connection to general Connecting to mental processes of economic company objectives buyer (purchase behavior) revenue / profitability customer retention profit contribution / Return-on-Investment customer satisfaction growth (revenue/sales/profit) name recognition rationalizing attitude (image / sympathie) capacities repurchase rate security (risk distribution) level of distribution market position /market share effects of knowledge strength of purchase intention
  115. 115. Goal criteria − SMARTThe 5 criteria that define a goal so that it can be used in project management Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time-bound Objectives have A goal It should be The objective The goal has to to be specific achievement attractive for the needs to be set within a and positively should be project team to achievable in a time frame. described. measurable. reach the goal. realistic way.
  116. 116. Marketing Objectives - Target PyramidPlaceholder for own Subheadline Corporate Retention of the economic and legal independency, increasing objectives development of flexibility Marketing Financial Increase in sales, improvement of objectives target company image Price Communication Distribution Preparation of contract conclusions policy target target target PR- objectives Exhibition objectives Advertisement Managing customer data, raise purchase objectives interest, increasing popularity of brand
  117. 117. Marketing objctives / Hierarchical levels of objectivesObjective system in form of a hierarchy Object of the company Company objective Function targets Marketing targets are function targets Instrumental target Levels of objectives and marketing instruments
  118. 118. CR-Marketing - Target HierarchyOperative and strategic main and sub objectives Company related sub-objectives - Positioning on the market Corporate - Employee loyalty objectives - Employee motivation - Innovation Profit / Yield Customer related sub-objectives -Customer contribution margin Marketing overall targets - Customer loyalty Costs / Productivity / Revenue / Sales - Customer satisfaction - Perceived performance quality