International Food Security
Dialogue 2014
May 2nd, 2014: University of Alberta
Theme: “Enhancing Food Production,
Gender E...
Participatory Plant Breeding
in Honduras: An Economic
Impact Assessment
Sebastian Daly Kindsvater
Dr. Sally Humphries
Dr. ...
Background
• PPB project: funded by IDRC/USC Canada-
CIDA since 1999
• Project goals:
– Increase food security through imp...
Background
• PPB: Participatory Plant Breeding
– A plant breeding process whereby seed varieties
are designed, tested and ...
Motivation
• Prior studies claim:
– PPB variety adoption and CIAL membership are
associated with increased yield levels
• ...
Research Questions
• Does PPB variety adoption have a positive
effect on bean yield levels?
• Does CIAL membership have a ...
Methods/Data
• Primary data collected: Spring and Fall 2012
• Bean yield data based on farmer reporting
• 314 surveys from...
Take Home Messages
1) Variety adoption decisions are complex:
• Rankings/Previous studies
• Yield is not the only adoption...
1)Variety Adoption Decisions are
Complex
Variety Categories and Traits
Rank Yield Drought
Resistance
Flood
Resistance
Pest
Resistance
Disease
Resistance
Taste Days...
Variety Adoption Rates by Season
Spring 2012 (n=127) Fall 2012 (n=140)
68%
64%
40%
21% 18%
39%
11%
18% 21%
Old-CIAL New-CI...
2) PPB Variety Adoption has no
Positive Effect on Yields in 2012
Yield by Variety Type and Season
998
808
868
972
911
848
Spring 2012 (n=124) Fall 2012 (n=140)
PPB Traditional Conventional
Yield by Variety Type and Season
Spring 2012 Fall 2012
PPB TRADITIONAL CON PPB TRADITIONAL CON
0
0 10 20 30 40
Individual ...
Non-Parametric Test of Yield
Distributions
• Kruskal Wallis equality of populations rank
test shows no difference between
...
OLS Regression and PSM Results
• Spring: PPB adoption has no effect on yields
• Fall: PPB adoption has a negative effect o...
3) The Impact of CIAL
Membership on Yields is Unclear
Yield by CIAL Membership and Season
1001
726
805 838
979 967
Spring 2012 (n=124) Fall 2012 (n=142)
Old-CIAL New-CIAL Non-C...
OLS Regression and PSM Results
• Spring: CIAL membership has a positive effect
on yields
• Fall: CIAL membership has a neg...
Conclusions
• PPB adoption may not have a positive effect
on yield levels
– High and low yielding varieties within each
ca...
Conclusions
• The impact of CIAL membership on yield levels is
unclear in 2012
– Spring 2012: Positive effect
– Possibly r...
Final Thoughts
• Given yield fluctuations by season and variety
type, our results support arguments for
increased access t...
THANK YOU
Happy to answer any questions
Qualitative Responses
CIAL Member Perception of Benefits
21%
79%
Has your income increased as a result of CIAL membership?
(n=199)
No (n=41) Yes...
Focus Group Responses: Ranked
Benefits
1) Access to Improved seed varieties
2) More food/better nutrition
3) Better grain ...
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Economics: Participatory Plant Breeding in Honduras: Assessing the Economic Impact of Variety Adoption and CIAL Membership on Food Security using Propensity Score Matching

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  • Increase agricultural productivity ....
  • Adopted variety: the variety planted as main variety (identified by farmers)
  • Economics: Participatory Plant Breeding in Honduras: Assessing the Economic Impact of Variety Adoption and CIAL Membership on Food Security using Propensity Score Matching

    1. 1. International Food Security Dialogue 2014 May 2nd, 2014: University of Alberta Theme: “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World”
    2. 2. Participatory Plant Breeding in Honduras: An Economic Impact Assessment Sebastian Daly Kindsvater Dr. Sally Humphries Dr. Getu Hailu
    3. 3. Background • PPB project: funded by IDRC/USC Canada- CIDA since 1999 • Project goals: – Increase food security through improvement of maize and bean varieties by Honduran farmers – Increase productive capacity of farmers through capacity building – Increase economic development by value addition to local production, linking local economies to markets, etc.
    4. 4. Background • PPB: Participatory Plant Breeding – A plant breeding process whereby seed varieties are designed, tested and diffused by farmers – Seed varieties produced as a result of the PPB process: PPB varieties • CIAL: Local Agricultural Research Committee – Teams of farmers conduct plant breeding research to determine which varieties are best suited to local conditions
    5. 5. Motivation • Prior studies claim: – PPB variety adoption and CIAL membership are associated with increased yield levels • Studies lack quantitative evidence • We intend to further understanding of the economic impacts of the PPB approach focusing on bean production.
    6. 6. Research Questions • Does PPB variety adoption have a positive effect on bean yield levels? • Does CIAL membership have a positive effect on bean yield levels?
    7. 7. Methods/Data • Primary data collected: Spring and Fall 2012 • Bean yield data based on farmer reporting • 314 surveys from 40 communities • Our analysis will focus on 30 communities • Kruskal-Wallis Test, Ordinary Least Squares, Propensity Score Matching
    8. 8. Take Home Messages 1) Variety adoption decisions are complex: • Rankings/Previous studies • Yield is not the only adoption consideration 2) PPB variety adoption may not have a positive effect on yields in 2012: • High and low yielding PPB varieties • Econometric analysis (OLS, PSM, K-W test) 3) The impact of CIAL membership on yields is unclear in 2012: • Spring : Positive effect on yield • Fall: Negative effect on yield • Econometric analysis (OLS,PSM)
    9. 9. 1)Variety Adoption Decisions are Complex
    10. 10. Variety Categories and Traits Rank Yield Drought Resistance Flood Resistance Pest Resistance Disease Resistance Taste Days to Maturity Sale Value 1 Marcelino (*) Marcelino (*) Marcelino (*) Amadeus (***) Marcelino (*) Vaina Rosada (**) Vaina Rosada (**) Marcelino (*) 2 Macuzalito (*) Cedron (*) Vaina Rosada (**) Macuzalito (*) Amadeus (***) Marcelino (*) Macuzalito (*) Deoro (***) 3 Cedron (*) Carrizalito (***) Macuzalito (*) Cedron (*) Chepe (*) Deoro (***) Carrizalito (***) Macuzalito (*) (*)PPB (**)Traditional (***)Conventional (n=245) • PPB varieties: improved by farmers through formal research (design testing diffusion) • Traditional varieties: improved by farmers through informal research (testing diffusion) • Conventional varieties: improved by scientists through formal research (design testing diffusion)
    11. 11. Variety Adoption Rates by Season Spring 2012 (n=127) Fall 2012 (n=140) 68% 64% 40% 21% 18% 39% 11% 18% 21% Old-CIAL New-CIAL Non-CIAL PPB Traditional Conventional 69% 69% 61% 22% 17% 28% 9% 14% 11% Old-CIAL New-CIAL Non-CIAL PPB Traditional Conventional
    12. 12. 2) PPB Variety Adoption has no Positive Effect on Yields in 2012
    13. 13. Yield by Variety Type and Season 998 808 868 972 911 848 Spring 2012 (n=124) Fall 2012 (n=140) PPB Traditional Conventional
    14. 14. Yield by Variety Type and Season Spring 2012 Fall 2012 PPB TRADITIONAL CON PPB TRADITIONAL CON 0 0 10 20 30 40 Individual Bean Variety (Spring 2012) 0 1000200030004000 YieldKilos/Hectare 0 10 20 30 40 Individual Bean Variety (Fall 2012)
    15. 15. Non-Parametric Test of Yield Distributions • Kruskal Wallis equality of populations rank test shows no difference between PPB, traditional and conventional in either season, w/r/t yield levels SPRING 2012 FALL 2012 Variety Type # Obs Chi Squared w/ Ties Probability # Obs Chi Squared w/ Ties Probability PPB 70 1.395 d.f.=2 0.498 93 3.150 d.f.=2 0.207 Traditional 34 31 Conventional 20 16
    16. 16. OLS Regression and PSM Results • Spring: PPB adoption has no effect on yields • Fall: PPB adoption has a negative effect on yields (relative to traditional varieties) SPRING 2012 FALL 2012 ATET (z-value) OLS Coefficient (t-stat) ATET (z-value) OLS Coefficient (t-stat) -2.307 (-0.02) 0.031 (0.21) -101.393 (-1.08) -0.342** (-2.08)
    17. 17. 3) The Impact of CIAL Membership on Yields is Unclear
    18. 18. Yield by CIAL Membership and Season 1001 726 805 838 979 967 Spring 2012 (n=124) Fall 2012 (n=142) Old-CIAL New-CIAL Non-CIAL
    19. 19. OLS Regression and PSM Results • Spring: CIAL membership has a positive effect on yields • Fall: CIAL membership has a negative effect on yields SPRING 2012 FALL 2012 ATET (z-value) OLS Coefficient (t-stat) ATET (z-value) OLS Coefficient (t-stat) 339.839*** (3.93) 0.024 (0.16) -407.230*** (-3.55) -0.092 (-0.55)
    20. 20. Conclusions • PPB adoption may not have a positive effect on yield levels – High and low yielding varieties within each category – PPB does not dominate other categories in either season – PPB and conventional varieties may come from the same origins
    21. 21. Conclusions • The impact of CIAL membership on yield levels is unclear in 2012 – Spring 2012: Positive effect – Possibly resulting from better productive practices, access to improved seed varieties (focus group answers) – Fall 2012: Negative effect – Entrepreneurial of CIAL members may be more inclined to take risks – Yield may not be the most important adoption characteristic for Old-CIAL members (eg. commercial value)
    22. 22. Final Thoughts • Given yield fluctuations by season and variety type, our results support arguments for increased access to a broad range of varieties (agrobiodiversity and resilience) • Our study highlights the complexity of impact assessment and mixed methods studies
    23. 23. THANK YOU Happy to answer any questions
    24. 24. Qualitative Responses
    25. 25. CIAL Member Perception of Benefits 21% 79% Has your income increased as a result of CIAL membership? (n=199) No (n=41) Yes (n=158)
    26. 26. Focus Group Responses: Ranked Benefits 1) Access to Improved seed varieties 2) More food/better nutrition 3) Better grain storage/More personal satisfaction and self-esteem 4)Better productive practices/Better ability to teach children and family 5)Ability to produce new seed varieties 6)Leadership and the participation of women 7) More opportunities to generate income 8) Better quality of life 9) Better access to credit/Increased productivity

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