Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Shocks and Gender-Asset Dynamics

610 views

Published on

Presentation at Dhaka Gender Workshop, June 2014

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Shocks and Gender-Asset Dynamics

  1. 1. Impact of Shocks on Gender Differentiated Asset Dynamics in Bangladesh Muntaha Rakib, Julia Anna Matz June 18, 2014 Corresponding author: muntaha_rakib@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Outline • Background • Objectives • Data and sampling • Results • Conclusions • Policy suggestions • Some preliminary results from ongoing paper 2
  3. 3. • To analyze economic well-being of a household or a community, asset analysis is necessary – converted into cash for consumption – collateral in the credit market – buffer stock against shocks • Goal of gender responsive development – not necessarily to ensure equal control over assets – but that both have control over important assets 3 Background Why asset and gender analysis?
  4. 4. Why assets and shocks are gender differentiated • Types of asset differ by different types of ownership • husband • wife • joint • Men and women experience shocks differently due to • different roles and responsibilities • different ability to withstand shocks • some shocks only affect women (divorce, death of husband etc.) (White 1992, Antonopoulos and Floro 2005. Quisumbing et al. 2011, Frankenberg et al. 2003; Quisumbing 2009, Goldstein 1999; Dercon and Krishnan 2000; Duflo and Udry 2003). 4 Background cont.
  5. 5. How assets and shocks are interlinked • Control over assets • increases income • reduces vulnerability to shocks • helps in moving out of poverty • Shocks affect assets  force selling tangible assets  foregoing future investment in non-tangible assets  trapped in poverty 5 Background cont.
  6. 6. Which assets and shocks? Assets • Natural capital – Land • Physical capital – Consumer durables – Agricultural tools – Vehicles – Jewelry • Livestock – Poultry – Cattle • Financial capital – Outstanding credit Shocks • Climatic shocks – Flood – Cyclone – Drought • Other negative shocks – Dowry/wedding expenses – Death/illness • Positive shocks – Dowry receipt/inheritance – Remittances 6 Context
  7. 7. Objectives • To explore the impact of shocks on intrahousehold asset dynamics and gender differentiated ownership and to look at which assets husbands and wives try to keep intact within their asset portfolio 7
  8. 8. Data and Sampling • Two waves of panel data • Bangladesh Climate Change Adaptation Survey 2010 is used as a baseline • 800 agricultural households in 40 unions (administrative units) were surveyed in 2010 • Resurvey was conducted on the same from June to October 2012 to construct a panel 8
  9. 9. Asset ownership and prevalence of shocks • Households were able to accumulate land, livestock, and nonland physical assets between the two survey rounds • Women held fewer livestock and physical assets than their husbands • Husbands own 96 percent of the households’ total land area 9 Type of shock Mean Share of households affected by weather shocks according to household/community reports Flood 0.38/0.32 Drought 0.45/0.52 Cyclone/tornado 0.31/0.29 Share of households affected by other negative shocks Death or illness of a household member 0.26 Dowry or wedding expenses 0.05 Share of households affected by positive shocks Receipt of a remittance 0.20 Receipt of a dowry or inheritance 0.04 • Reported household and community-level shocks, between 2010 and 2012
  10. 10. Impact of shocks on intrahousehold asset dynamics 10 Impact of shocks on the comprehensive asset index (fixed effects estimates) Results *, **, *** Significant at 10%; 5% and 1% respectively Note: Standard errors are clustered at the household level and are given in parentheses
  11. 11. 11 Impact of shocks on intra household asset dynamicsResults *, **, *** Significant at 10%; 5% and 1% respectively. Note: Standard errors are clustered at the household level and are given in parentheses Land Physical Livestock Husband Wife Joint Husband Wife Joint Husband Wife Joint (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Flood -0.025 (0.343) -0.096 (0.074) 0.266 (0.170) -0.013 (0.010) -0.001 (0.004) -0.003 (0.006) -0.089 (0.067) -0.142* (0.085) -0.043 (0.042) Drought 0.229 (0.297) -0.039 (0.081) 0.154 (0.187) -0.012 (0.010) -0.005 (0.004) -0.012** (0.005) -0.086 (0.072) 0.079 (0.067) 0.045 (0.035) Cyclone 0.598** (0.278) -0.132 (0.089) 0.352* (0.183) -0.021** (0.009) -0.001 (0.004) 0.003 (0.005) 0.065 (0.069) 0.010 (0.072) -0.040 (0.040) Death/ illness -0.019 (0.239) 0.058 (0.075) 0.054 (0.100) -0.001 (0.005) 0.009*** (0.003) 0.005 (0.003) -0.003 (0.042) -0.011 (0.041) -0.006 (0.023) Dowry payment -0.403 (0.592) -0.007 (0.042) -0.005 (0.183) -0.005 (0.013) 0.008 (0.007) 0.003 (0.008) -0.166 (0.110) -0.053 (0.125) -0.121** (0.057) Remittance -0.918*** (0.278) 0.013 (0.083) -0.283** (0.126) 0.009 (0.008) 0.006* (0.004) 0.003 (0.004) 0.052 (0.061) 0.141** (0.067) 0.024 (0.025) Inheritance/ dowry receipts 1.121** (0.524) -0.174 (0.218) 0.018 (0.182) -0.023* (0.013) -0.002 (0.006) 0.012* (0.007) 0.122 (0.104) 0.004 (0.113) 0.023 (0.023) R-squared 0.031 0.011 0.026 0.033 0.021 0.020 0.023 0.030 0.018 N 1,356 1,356 1,356 1,356 1,356 1,356 1,356 1,356 1,356 Impact of shocks on the natural, physical and livestock assets (fixed effects estimates)
  12. 12. Financial assets • Flood and cyclone reduce credit – covariate – less collateral • Droughts increase credit – area specific – seasonal in nature • Remittances are associated with more credit – more collateral available 12 Results
  13. 13. Impact of shocks on disaggregated physical capital by type of ownership Husbands – remittances increase stock of agricultural tools and consumer durables instead of jewelry and poultry – flood and cyclone negatively affect cattle and consumer durables Wives – remittance receipts increase jewelry and poultry rather than consumer durables and agricultural tools – flood and cyclone reduce stock of poultry – drought and dowry negatively affect consumer durables and vehicles Joint – husbands and wives jointly diversify asset portfolio towards jewelry and cattle from agriculture tools and vehicles – dowry payment reduces joint poultry 13 Results
  14. 14. Conclusions • Cyclone negatively affect husbands in general • Negative non-weather shocks adversely affect both husbands’ and wives’ assets • Sale of livestock is commonly used as a coping mechanism • Jointly owned assets are protected, other than for coping with dowry and drought, which are anticipated in terms of time but not in terms of severity • Husbands’ Income generating tools such as land, vehicles and agricultural assets are generally protected 14
  15. 15. Policy suggestions • Initiating programs to protect women’s assets – those are generally found to be beneficial to children’s well-being (health, education, and nutrition) • Encouraging women’s ownership of assets that are not readily sold to cope with shocks – assets increase female bargaining power which is associated with more social and human capital of women • Reforming and enforcing inheritance laws to protect female inheritance – land ownership enables women to be more active in financial markets • Laws prohibiting dowry practice should be strictly implemented – awareness on this issue together with the provision of credit could enhance the asset holdings of both spouses • Policy design needs to incorporate the protection of gendered ownership of assets in the event of shocks – Social protection programs for instance 15
  16. 16. Acknowledgments 16

×