Gender Impacts of KickStarttreadle pumps in East Africa John Ngige and Beatrice Salasya Presented at the GAAP year 3 workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, January 2013
Introduction to the project KickStart is a social enterprise that designs and markets low cost manual irrigation pumps in Africa, popularly known as Money Maker Pumps (MMP), aimed at lifting poor people out of poverty. Given that women are generally poorer than men, it was expected that women would acquire MMPs. However, recent sale records show that the share of women pump buyers is only 20% in Kenya and 5% in Tanzania.
Introduction (2) For both efficiency and equity, it is important to understand the factors driving low take up by women, and also to understand gender differences in impact of the MMP on household wellbeing including income, health and education of children.
Type of asset being studied “Physical Asset”: MMPs are low cost manually operated irrigation pumps that cost approximately $100 (depending on model). The pumps are designed, manufactured and marketed through the private sector (dealers and distributors). KickStart currently operates in three countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Mali) and distributes to an additional 5 African countries.
Research Questions1. What constraints challenge acquisition and operation of MMP pumps and how does this vary between men and women?2. What are the patterns of intrahousehold control of treadle pumps and how has this impacted on the livelihoods and income of men and women?3. How does owning MMP impact on the asset gap (more generally) between men and women?
Methods: Overview The larger evaluation uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches – however the GAAP study is limited to qualitative methodologies. The study was conducted in Tanzania and Kenya in areas where sales of KickStart pumps were high, among areas with different climatic conditions and gender norms.
Methods: Qualitative Approach Farmers who attended the FGDs were selected from those who had bought pumps some years earlier Tanzania (Mwanza, Tabora and Iringa regions) and Kenya (Central and Western provinces). Gender disaggregated Focus Group Discussions (FGDs: men-only, women-only, and mixed) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). Separate checklists were used to guide the discussions and to probe various issues related to research questions.
Control of KickStart pumps by gender: Preview from the quantitative baseline Kenya Tanzania Female Joint Male Female Joint MaleHip Pump 0.18 0.03 0.80 0.18 0.09 0.79SMMP 0.22 0.02 0.76 0.13 0.07 0.81
Qualitative study resultsData were analyzed along five themes:1. Understanding the pump and its use.2. Main crops irrigated and decision making around main crops.3. Understanding benefits of the pump.4. Understanding challenges of accessing, owning and using the pumps.5. Understanding asset ownership.
Theme 1: The pump and its use In Kenya both men and women had access to information about the pump but in Tanzania women knew less about the pump than men. The decision to buy the pump was discussed by both men and women, but in case of disagreement the men made the final decision. Women preferred the Hip pump to the MMP if they operated themselves due to cultural reasons.
Theme 2: Main crops irrigated and decision making Main reasons for preferring certain crops were: Dual use at home and for market, ready market, minimal work required and fewer external inputs. Men preferred crops that fetch income and are harvested at one time. Women preferred crops that are both sold and are also used at home e.g. leafy vegetables.
Main crops irrigated using MMPCountry Preferred by Men Preferred by WomenTanzania Tomatoes, cabbage, Tomatoes, cabbage, capsicums, amaranth, kales, green cucumber, green maize maizeKenya Cabbages, tomatoes, Kales, cabbages, kales, french beans, tomatoes, local onions vegetables, spinach, onions
Theme 3: Benefits of the pump Increased income that enabled investments including: Education of children, purchase a variety of assets such as land, family houses, rental houses, cattle, TVs, radios, motorbikes, water tanks, and other machines for business, and clothing.• Food security, better nutrition and health. Pumps were used to draw water for domestic use and watering livestock by men and women, relieving women from the drudgery of fetching water.
Benefits of the pump (cont.) Women earned money from their plots and did not have to keep asking their husbands for money hence less conflicts in the house. The necessity of having two people operate the pump made husbands and wives spend more time together – better bonding. Improved social status for both men and women.
Theme 4: Challenges of accessing and using the pumps For most individuals, pumps were accessible within short distances though a few people complained of long distances to the shops. Time taken from hearing about the pump and purchasing ranged from a one day to one year (Kenya) and five years (Tanzania). The reason for the delay was mainly lack of cash – single women and widows were more constrained. Other reasons were lack of full information about the pump and lack of water.
Challenges (cont.) The main challenge using the pump were wearing out of rubbers and lack of spare parts. Single women and widows were challenged using the pump because of the necessity of two people to operate the pump. Those who had the old model of the pumps indicated that they were difficult to operate
Theme 5: Asset Ownership by gender, Tanzania Assets such as land, cattle, motorcycle and machines for business were owned by men. Assets such as houses, furniture, radio, were jointly with their husbands, but women could not make a decision to dispose off or lend out. Women owned household utensils. Most privately owned pumps were owned and controlled by men but used by both gender When women owned the pumps, they were still controlled by men
Theme 5: Asset ownership by gender, Kenya The general statement was that men in male headed households owned all assets including the wife and children in both central and western Kenya. However, probing showed that women were owners of the family house, local poultry and household assets, and men owned high value assets such as land, cattle, commercial plots and rental houses. Decisions to dispose the assets were made jointly by husband and wife.
Preliminary Conclusions - Tanzania The MMP is transforming subsistence farming into more commercial farming. Most decisions on control and use of income accruing from MMP were made jointly but in case of disagreement men made the final decision. Men sold their produce at the market but women sold mainly at farm gate - need to link women farmers to the markets. Current MMPs were more friendly to men than to women – need to design women friendly MMPs.
Preliminary conclusions - Kenya Both men and women are benefitting from the MMP. There was an increase in the participation of both men and women in decision making - with regard to the use of the pump and the accruing income. Clear identification of gender differentiated asset ownership could not be established because of the cultural perception that the males were the overall owners of all household assets Lack of cash was the main constraint to accessing the pumps especially for women.
Next Steps Complete analysis and reporting of the quantitative data. Put in place some strategies that make it easier for women to buy and use the MMPs. Some promising pilot initiatives already underway: Results from the layaway program in Kenya is leading to increased purchases by women (30%, up from 20%).