Identifying Gender Dimensions In Your Projects Sept17 2008


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Identifying Gender Dimensions In Your Projects Sept17 2008

  1. 1. Identifying the Gender Dimensions of Your Projects Ruth Meinzen-Dick with Jose Falck-Zepeda, Regina Birner, and Clare Narrod International Food Policy Research Institute
  2. 2. Objectives of the seminar <ul><li>To provide entry points for identifying gender issues for a range of subject areas and stages of the project cycle with the aim of improving proposals, projects, and impacts </li></ul>Page
  3. 3. Seminar overview <ul><li>Why is it important to identify the gender dimensions of your projects? </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying gender issues throughout the project cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from various topic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available </li></ul>Page
  4. 4. Why is it important to identify the gender dimensions of your projects? <ul><li>Contributes to our goals of reducing poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Complies with donor requests </li></ul><ul><li>Meets reporting requirements </li></ul>Page
  5. 5. Reducing poverty <ul><li>Women play key roles in agricultural production, livestock, fisheries, and natural resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Differential uses of women’s and men’s assets and income </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of women’s resources for the welfare of children </li></ul>Page
  6. 6. Reducing poverty <ul><li>Women are more constrained than men in terms of control over and access to resources </li></ul><ul><li>Women often lack the assets and income necessary to exit poverty and are subject to gender-based vulnerabilities, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer benefits/protections under customary or statutory legal systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of decision-making authority and control of financial resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater time burdens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats or acts of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projects that don’t anticipate the unique dimensions of women’s poverty or identify the constraints to women’s full participation often fail to reach their objectives, or may have unintended effects </li></ul>Page
  7. 7. Donor requests & reporting requirements <ul><li>More donors requesting explicit attention to gender in project funding proposals </li></ul><ul><li>A large share of proposals are gender blind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not address the specific different constraints that women and men face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not identify strategies to overcome these constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This reduces the sustainability of the project and its impact on poverty and can inadvertently reinforce gender inequalities, particularly in the next generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IFPRI MTP </li></ul>Page
  8. 8. When does it make sense to pay attention to gender in your research? <ul><li>When there are systematic gender differences in… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes (yield differentials, health and nutrition indicators, poverty rates, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determinants (effects of male and female schooling, male and female land ownership, male and female headship, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processes (when there are differences in the preferences, motivations, and behavior of men and women) </li></ul></ul></ul>Page
  9. 9. Keep in mind <ul><li>Narrow focus on differences between men and women may mask differences among women, e.g. variations by marital status, age, and the size of women’s land holdings </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, religion, caste, class, level of education, etc. may be more or less important in different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Need to give attention to men, as well </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the unitary household </li></ul><ul><li>Gender > female headed households! </li></ul>Page
  10. 10. Identifying gender issues throughout the project cycle Page
  11. 11. Research findings in the policy and project cycles Page Policy Phases Project Cycle Stage General Research Finding Agenda Setting Needs assessment and problem identification Households do not act as one when making decisions Share of resources controlled depends on bargaining power Both local norms and statutory laws determine women’s rights Policy Formulation Project design and formulation Increasing women’s resources controlled by women benefits families Project design features also have gender implications Innovative ways to increase women’s resources have made projects successful
  12. 12. Research findings in the policy and project cycles Page Policy Phases Project Cycle Stage General Research Finding Policy Adoption and Policy Implementation Project implementation and monitoring Build gender-sensitive monitoring into project design and implementation Policy Assessment Evaluation Paying attention to gender in program evaluations can improve performance and general development impacts
  13. 13. Integrating gender: program design phase <ul><li>Collect and analyze information about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The status of women and men (broader socio-economic context) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s and men’s roles in the project activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s and men’s participation in groups involved in the activity/decision-making about the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify constraints and opportunities for both women and men, which can help in designing an intervention that can address the needs of both. </li></ul>Page
  14. 14. Data sources <ul><li>Needs assessments and SWOL analyses to understand the needs of and factors affecting communities </li></ul><ul><li>National or sample surveys , existing ethnographic studies, agency publications , monitoring data, and evaluations of projects (e.g. by NGOs) to understand the socioeconomic and demographic contexts and embedded gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative methods (e.g. rapid or participatory rural appraisals using focus groups discussions, key informant interviews, village discussions, mapping, walking tours, calendars, labor profiles, and seasonal analysis) to understand local perceptions of gender roles </li></ul>Page
  15. 15. Irrespective of the tool(s) chosen, it is important to ensure that: <ul><li>Information is collected from a group of respondents that represent the different socio-economic and demographic groups within communities </li></ul><ul><li>Measures are put in place to ensure respondents from various backgrounds feel comfortable participating, even if it means soliciting those views separately (e.g. through different focus group discussions) </li></ul><ul><li>Information is collected directly from rural women wherever possible </li></ul>Page
  16. 16. Incorporating design elements that address the specific gender needs <ul><li>Training modules on norms around gender relations, women’s and men’s roles in program activities </li></ul><ul><li>Targets for recruiting and training women, but ensure quality of participation, not just numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate strategies for women within male-headed households and female-headed households </li></ul><ul><li>Identify strategies to reach both junior and senior wives in polygamous households </li></ul><ul><li>Hold workshops, trainings, and other project activities at times and venues where women can attend and participate </li></ul><ul><li>Develop tools, communication strategies and training materials for illiterate men and women </li></ul>Page
  17. 17. Page
  18. 18. Targeting <ul><li>Targeting mechanism is important and quota targeting may conflict with program objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30% of participants in the individual fishpond production program mandated by donor to be women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extension agents signed up women by talking to their husbands, but: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s role in fish production project remained limited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women did not know quantity or income from fish production </li></ul></ul></ul>Page
  19. 19. Integrating gender: implementation phase <ul><li>Plan to build gender expertise necessary for the project </li></ul><ul><li>All staff should take ownership of the project’s gender equity goals (don’t leave it to the women) </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships with local organizations that have in-depth knowledge of gender issues in the intervention communities </li></ul><ul><li>Gain support of community gatekeepers (village elders, chiefs, etc.) for the project, including gendered components </li></ul><ul><li>Gender considerations in staffing can be critical for project acceptability (e.g. Progresa ) </li></ul><ul><li>Budget adequate resources for gender specific activities </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate mechanisms to monitor and address gender backlash/conflict in households and communities </li></ul>Page
  20. 20. Integrating gender: evaluation phase <ul><li>Develop a rigorous monitoring and evaluation framework that will record and track gender differences in project implementation and results </li></ul><ul><li>Include all actors—men and women—who can influence or be affected by project performance </li></ul>Page
  21. 21. Evaluation indicators <ul><li>Use indicators to monitor the process as well as to measure the outcome and impact of the intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process indicators encompass actual program implementation as well as activities by project staff (e.g. trainings or provision of an intervention) and participation by stakeholders and program beneficiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome indicators address the direct results of the intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact indicators capture longer-term, indirect social, economic, or environmental results of the intervention’s outcomes </li></ul></ul>Page
  22. 22. 5 key process indicators <ul><li>Percentage of participants or beneficiaries in project activities who are women </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of female-headed households in proportion to overall proportion of female headed households and overall households in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of all project staff at all levels trained in gender analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Does the budget reflect adequate resources for gender specific activities and strategies to ensure that services are delivered to women and men and that gender is integrated throughout the project cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>Can resources spent on female participants and male participants be tracked in the budget? </li></ul>Page
  23. 23. Gender analysis: > Intuition, < Brain surgery <ul><li>What different roles/stakes do women and men have in XXX? </li></ul><ul><li>How might the project affect them differently? </li></ul><ul><li>Will both men and women realistically be able to participate and to benefit? (look at time, assets) </li></ul><ul><li>How might differential participation of men, women affect project activities and impact? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the research contribute to gender equity? </li></ul>Page
  24. 24. Resources <ul><li>Gates Gender Checklist (on IFPRI intranet under donor relations > proposal writing resources) </li></ul><ul><li>FAO website </li></ul><ul><li>ADB website: </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank Gender & Agriculture Sourcebook (coming in October 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>IFPRI Gender tool box: </li></ul>Page