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Gender land deals_ifpribbl


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Gender land deals_ifpribbl

  1. 1. The Gender Implications of Large-Scale Land Deals Julia Behrman, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Agnes Quisumbing IFPRI, World Bank, IFAD Gender & Agriculture Seminar December 17 th 2010
  2. 2. What is new about the current wave of large-scale land deals (‘land grabs’)? <ul><li>Magnitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46.6 mil ha in 203 projects in 81 countries (WB 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex array of drivers including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising oil and food prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uganda, Brazil, Cambodia, Sudan, Pakistan, Ukraine…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority SSA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Area of origin investor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab/Gulf countries: food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East/South Asia: food, fodder, fuel, raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialized countries: biofuels, raw materials, horticulture, speculation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Large-scale land deals in theoretical perspective <ul><li>Inversion of Ester Boserup’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, exogenously induced pressures--rather than endogenous ones--lead to agricultural intensification and subsequent land tenure insecurity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Externally induced change  much higher pressure, and limits on induced institutional innovation </li></ul>
  4. 4. A literature has rapidly emerged to chart the dominant trends of large scale land deals… <ul><li>Cotula, Vermeulen, Leonard, and Keeley, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>FAO, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, Carin and Mann, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Ullenberg, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>von Braun and Meinzen-Dick, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Cotula, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank, 2010 </li></ul>
  5. 5. … but where is discussion of gender in the debate?
  6. 6. Why Gender Matters <ul><li>Women are essential to planting, weeding, harvesting, processing, marketing, food preparation etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity constraints already exist due to lack of key assets and inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Households do not act in a unitary manner when allocating food and non food resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women play a key role in improving household food security and nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Large scale land deals that take resources away from women can reduce the welfare of women and their families (even if there are income gains to men). Including attention to gender is not only a matter of social equity, but is also central to poverty reduction. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Phases of a land deal through a gender lens Graphic Credit: CIP Papa Andina
  8. 8. Phases of a land deal: pre-existing situation <ul><li>What is the existing land tenure system? </li></ul><ul><li>Customary vs. Statuary </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses the land in question? </li></ul><ul><li>Going beyond ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Non ‘agricultural’ uses: i.e. Grazing, Firewood, Water, Medicinal plants </li></ul><ul><li>Private vs. Common property </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local levels of Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who will benefit from new employment opportunities? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Phases of a land deal: consultation & negotiation <ul><li>How is land acquired? </li></ul><ul><li>Legal appropriation of customary land </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Ventures (i.e. contract farming) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal sale of privately held land </li></ul><ul><li>Illegally </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the investors? What is their capacity and track record? </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of investor and interest </li></ul><ul><li>State, sovereign wealth funds, international private sector with state support, private sector without state, domestic investors joint venture, domestic investors alone </li></ul>
  10. 10. Phases of a land deal: consultation & negotiation <ul><li>Who is consulted about the sale/lease of the land? </li></ul><ul><li>National governments (state owned/customary land) </li></ul><ul><li>Local elite and/or chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Local farmer’s associations or communes (privately titled) </li></ul><ul><li>Local small-medium scale landowners (privately titled land) </li></ul><ul><li>How much information is made available to local populations? </li></ul><ul><li>Are men and women both represented in consultations and negotiations? </li></ul><ul><li>Is information accurate? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stages of a land deal: contracts & compensation <ul><li>Types of contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Sale; Concession; Production Sharing; Joint Ventures </li></ul><ul><li>Who is compensated for the sale/lease of the land? </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of contract </li></ul><ul><li>Short (15-20 years); long (50-99 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Investments in public goods </li></ul><ul><li>Non agricultural infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Schools, hospitals, clinics etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Water related infrastructure </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stages of a land deal: contracts & compensation <ul><li>Investments in local labor—plantation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Are local men and women equally hired? </li></ul><ul><li>Do local men and women work in unskilled or managerial positions? Opportunities for advancement? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender division in task allocation, hours worked, wages earned? </li></ul><ul><li>Childcare? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of mechanization? </li></ul><ul><li>Investments in local labor—contract farming </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed evidence on gender implications: increasing demand for women’s paid labor vs. appropriation of women’s crops as they increase in value </li></ul><ul><li>Key questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the contract made with? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any deliberate targeting of participants or crops? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Phases of a land deal: implementation & changes in production structure <ul><li>Eviction and Resettlement </li></ul><ul><li>Are local women and men evicted, resettled or allowed to stay on land? </li></ul><ul><li>Do local women and men benefit from new employment opportunities, extension services and land rights that may accompany resettlement? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of New Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Application outside of the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there concurrent increases in demand for labor? </li></ul><ul><li>Are technologies targeted to women and men farmers, workers? </li></ul><ul><li>Who shoulders environmental and health impacts? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Phases of a land deal: implementation & changes in production structure <ul><li>Crop Choice & Export </li></ul><ul><li>Staple crops vs. biofuels </li></ul><ul><li>Sold into local markets vs. exclusive export </li></ul><ul><li>Will local women and men be impacted by losses in biodiversity? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Phases of land a land deal: enforceability, transparency monitoring & evaluation <ul><li>Are there mechanisms in place to ensure investors follow through on promises to abide by national legislation, invest in infrastructure and work with local populations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What recourse do local people have if investors don’t follow through? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for non governmental enforcement via the media, famers organizations, NGOs, donors, Intl. Orgs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there a M&E system in place? </li></ul><ul><li>Is information about the land deal made available to local men and women? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Case Study: West Kalimantan Indonesia (Julia & White 2010) <ul><li>Oil palm production—corporate plantations & contract farming </li></ul><ul><li>Notable gender impacts include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solely male leaders relied on to sign up farmers, resolve conflict, disseminate information; only men in community consultations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women lack education for high skilled positions  no fixed contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gendering of tasks  spraying, land clearance, fertilizer application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some increase in income for women from (illegal) palm seed oil collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss in biodiversity impacts women’s income generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallholder registration of land in name of male HH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in commercial ‘sex cafes’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement problems </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Whether or not women and men will benefit from land deals depends in part on the rights and responsibilities women and men have prior to the land deal and in part on how the implementation of the land deal will build upon, improve or distort these roles and responsibilities. </li></ul>