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'Engendering Agricultural Research'

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Presentation made by Ruth Meinzen Dick on March 30 2010 at the GCARD conference in Montpellier France

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'Engendering Agricultural Research'

  1. 1. Ruth Meinzen-Dick Agnes Quisumbing Julia Behrman Patricia Biermayr-Jenzano Vicki Wilde Marco Noordeloos Catherine Ragasa Nienke Beintema Engendering Agricultural Research
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You cannot address poverty, especially in Africa and South Asia, without addressing gender issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When to address gender in agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout the R&D cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What might a gender-equitable agricultural R&D system look like? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Way Forward </li></ul>Presentation Overview
  3. 3. Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? A. To improve agricultural productivity & profitability <ul><li>Women are essential to planting, weeding, harvesting, processing, marketing, food preparation etc. </li></ul><ul><li> SE Asia: women up to 90 percent of the labor involved in rice cultivation (FAO 2007). </li></ul><ul><li> SS Africa: women produce up to 80 percent of basic foodstuffs for household consumption and sale (FAO 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>However, women’s productivity is severely constrained by a lack of assets and inputs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Women are disadvantaged with respect to: <ul><li>LAND </li></ul><ul><li> Women are disadvantaged in customary & statutory land tenure systems (Kevane 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN CAPITAL </li></ul><ul><li> Women in S. Asia and SS Africa routinely have less access to extension than males (WB & IFPRI 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li> Women throughout the globe have less access to essential agricultural inputs (Peterman et al 2009) </li></ul>Reducing inequality in human capital, physical capital and inputs between male and female farmers in SS Africa has the potential to increase agricultural productivity by 10-20% (Alderman, Haddad & Udry 1996 )
  5. 5. Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? B. To increase agricultural sustainability <ul><li>Women are the guardians of local knowledge on low impact, low cost climate change coping strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Kenya, targeting female farmers & improved soil fertility </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? C. To improve food security & nutrition <ul><li>Women control household food distribution & are the guardians of household food security. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the resources women control has been shown to improve child health and nutrition (Quisumbing 2003). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? D. To reduce poverty through empowerment <ul><li>Empowerment as “the expansion in people’s ability to make strategic life choices in context previously denied to them” (Kabeer 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Link between high levels of hunger and gender inequality (GHI 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of empowering women through interventions. Example : targeting women in Bangladesh </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impact of Empowerment: Contributions of Women’s Status and Education to Child Malnutrition (1970-95) Page Source: Smith and Haddad 2000 Equalizing women status in SSA would  malnutrition in children by 3 % (1.7 million children) Equalizing women status in S Asia would  malnutrition in children by 13 % (13.4 million children)
  9. 9. Priority Setting Research & Development Extension Adoption Evaluation Gender in Agriculture R&D: The Old Perspective
  10. 10. Priority Setting Research & Development Extension Adoption Evaluation Gender in Agriculture R&D: A New Perspective Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR
  11. 11. Priority Setting Research & Development Extension Adoption Evaluation Gender in Agriculture R&D: A New Perspective
  12. 12. Basic Questions for Gender Integration <ul><li>What different roles/stakes do women and men have in XXX? </li></ul><ul><li>How might the program affect them differently? </li></ul><ul><li>Will both men and women realistically be able to participate and to benefit? (time, assets etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>How might differential participation of men, women affect program activities and impact? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the program contribute to gender equity? </li></ul>Page
  13. 13. How might agricultural R&D look through a “ gender lens ”? <ul><li>1.Involving women in agricultural research and development </li></ul><ul><li>2. Going beyond production technology </li></ul>
  14. 14. Beyond production technology… <ul><li>Gender roles in natural resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple uses of water </li></ul><ul><li>Non timber forest products </li></ul><ul><li>Energy includes cooking uses </li></ul>
  15. 15. Beyond production technology… <ul><li>An expanded concept of the food sector including gardens, fish, livestock, and water. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Beyond production technology… <ul><li>Postharvest processing (not just market-oriented) </li></ul><ul><li>Value chains </li></ul><ul><li>Linkages to health and nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting policies and institutions (addressing constraints to land ownership, credit, etc) </li></ul>
  17. 17. A revitalized agricultural research syste m <ul><li>Identify strategic priorities for gender-equitable agricultural research </li></ul><ul><li>Fully integrate gender into the agricultural R&D system </li></ul><ul><li>Transform the enabling conditions to allow gender-equitable agricultural research to flourish. </li></ul><ul><li>Build necessary partnerships </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Key components for successful gender integration </li></ul><ul><li>Political will (including funds) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for a revitalized agricultural R&D system? </li></ul>Conclusions and Way Forward
  19. 19. <ul><li>Key components for successful gender integration </li></ul><ul><li>Political will (including funds) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for a revitalized agricultural R&D system? </li></ul>Conclusions and Way Forward
  20. 20. Achieving the vision of a gender-responsive agricultural system Commitment, Accountability, Institutional change Strategic research, Methods, Capacity strengthening, Partnerships Management, Donors Agricultural Research and Development Programs Platform on Gender in Agriculture
  21. 21. Proposed Platform Elements <ul><li>Support for Gender Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Gender Research </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Building for Gender-Responsive R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Strengthening Services </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives (small grants, prize) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Services </li></ul>
  22. 22. Making History Together

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