Evaluating impact ofStrengthening Dairy Value Chain projecton Gender Inequality, Asset ownership and control of dairy farmers in NorthWest Bangladesh Addis Ababa 10 January2013 Strengthening the Dairy Value Chain Project
Content• What is SDVC, SDVC GAAP, SDVC GAAP Women Empowerment intervention• Types of Assets studied• Research Questions• M&E Methods• Quantitative Analysis• Qualitative Analysis• Preliminary results• Next steps
MotivationStrengthening the Dairy Value Chain (SDVC) ProjectGoal: Double the dairy-related incomes of smallholder farmers in northwestBangladesh by addressing the major challenges to improving smallholderparticipation in the value chain by• Mobilizing farmers through formation of small holder dairy farmer groups• Building capacities of selected farmer group leaders, dairy collectors, livestock health workers, AI workers• Increasing access to milk markets and productivity enhancing inputsTargeted Beneficiaries: 36,400 smallholder dairy farmers of NorthWest Bangladesh• with weak dairy value chains• prone to natural disasters such as floods• functionally landless (less than 0.5 acres of cultivable land)• and earning about USD 20 – 30 equivalent per monthProgram starts and end: Sept 2007 to Dec 2015Current SDVC M&E data contains valuable information on gender assetgap: Data demonstrates that this program might be having significant effects on genderintegration and the accumulation of assets by women who are part of the program.
MotivationSDVC GAAP InterventionGOAL: Evaluating impact of SDVC interventionsTargeted Beneficiary: SDVC BeneficiaryWhat we did and covered:-analysis on gender roles- gender equity format analysis- asset ownership pattern analysis- analysis on barriers/violence against womenProgram Start and End Date: 2010-2013Why SDVC GAAP intervention important-Many SDVC dairy farmers, farmer group leaders, value chain actors and serviceproviders are women (85 percent of the 36,400 producers; 71 percent of the3425 farmer group leaders; 22 percent of 201 livestock health workers ,9percent of the 333 trained milk collectors and 52 AI workers)-SDVC interventions that can enhance womens ownership and control overcattle and income generated from sale of milk could help narrow the genderasset gap
Motivation:GAAP Women Empowerment interventionKey features of the program• awareness-raising sessions for SDVC groups• engagement of men and Influential peoples- Targeted Beneficiaries: 600 SDVC women producers and theirhusbandsProgram Start and Ends: January 2012- January 2013Program offers an opportunity to conduct a WEempowerment experiment: Design and implement animpacts assessment of the interventions of the SDVC aroundgender integration into the dairy value chain and reducingwomen barriers within the dairy value chain.
Why is the GAAP WE interventionimportant and relevant to GAAP• Early evidence from SDVC suggested it increased women’s time burden• Anecdotal evidence also suggests violence against women is common• The GAAP VAW intervention attempts to engage men to change their perceptions and behaviors related to household work and domestic violence• If effective, it could reduce the time burden of SDVC on women and reduce violence against women and increase asset ownership by women
What types of assets being studiedNatural Human- Land - Mobility- Livestock (cattle, goats and - Knowledge and skill chickens) - Labor (allocation and time use)Physical Social- Jewelry - Group membership- Household assets - Roles and responsibilities- Farm equipment PoliticalFinancial: - Rights (as determined by- Credit governing ideologies and- Savings institutions
Research Questions• How might have the SDVC Project affected the gender asset gap? Specifically, did it narrow, widen or have no effect on the gap• If the intervention widened or had no effect on the gender asset gap, what should be done as a mid-course adjustment to narrow this gender asset gap?• Among SDVC households, what impacts does GAAP WE have on decision making, time use, and domestic violence?• What are the key barriers for women in the dairy value chain in the context of Bangladesh?• How can these results inform improvements in collecting and analyzing M&E data for SDVC phase two and other agriculture value chain Programs
Methods: SDVC/GAAP-WE interventionSDVC Quantitative impact evaluation (CARE-BD / IFPRI / DATA):• Data collected on treatment and non-random comparison group• Baseline in 2008; Endline to be completed by April 2013• Using mixed effects regression, correlation analysis and differences within differences analysisSDVC Quantitative internal M&E data (CARE-BD):• Data collected from randomized selected SDVC beneficiaries halfyearly through semi-structure household surveyGAAP/GAAP WE Qualitative (CARE-BD/GAAP team):• FGDs and KIIs with 11 SDVC groups• Pair Review, Assets Matrix, 24 hour time clock, FGD with (3 FGDs) SDVC groups• Two rounds of DATA collected: to be completed by January 2013
SDVC Quantitative Findings: Dairy related household income Household Average monthly income from milk sales (tk)2500 234220001500 1067 963 10941000 757 675 517500 616 0 Mar-09 (N- 342) Mar-10 (N-892) Jan-11 (N-2472) Apr-12 (2125) Women Men
Control over Dairy related income Who take decision for use of milk sales income90%80%70% 77%60% 62%50% 51%40%30% 28% 24%20% 21% 12% 13%10% 11%0% Jan-11 (N- 2472) Aug-11 (N- 2125) Apr-12 (N- 2125) Men Women Joint
Asset Ownership Patterns Percent of households that report any cattle belonging to women50.0%40.0%30.0% 18.2% 17.7% 19.0%20.0% 11.2% 16.7%10.0% 11.2%0.0% Oct-09 Feb-10 Jun-10 Oct-10 Feb-11 Jun-11 Oct-11 Feb-12 Jun-12
Control over Asset Who take decision to purchase a cow90%80% 84%70% 76%60% 66% 61%50%40% 46%30% 24%20% 13% 11% 9%10% 8% 7% 10% 6%0% 4% 6% Mar-10 (N-892) Aug- 10 (N-2472) Jan-11 (N-2472) Aug-11 (N- 2125) Apr-12 (2125) Women Men Jointly
Control over Asset Who take decision to sale a cow100%90% 88%80% 84%70% 76% 77%60% 61%50%40% 31%30% 16%20% 10% 12% 7%10% 8% 11% 6% 8% 5% 0% Mar-10 (N-892) Aug- 10 (N-2472) Jan-11 (N-2472) Aug-11 (N- 2125) Apr-12 (2125) Women Men Jointly
Household Labor Division (as of April 2012)75% of women say their husbands help them in their household activities73% of women say that their husbands support with the cattle washing69% of women say that their husbands help with the grass collection66% of women say that their husbands help with cattle feeding28% of women say that their husbands help with teaching the children22% of women say that their husbands help with feeding the children9% of women say that their husbands help with the cooking8% of women say that their husbands help with the washing of the children1% of women say that their husbands help with the cleaning of the house.
GAAP Qult Results-Asset Matrix MEN WOMEN Access Control Asset ControlRed = Low Cows Cows Cows CowsYellow = ModerateGreen = High Grass Grass Grass Grass Money Money Money Money Land Land Land Land Feed Feed Feed Feed Milk Milk Milk Milk
GAAP Qult Results – Barrier Tree• Women face barrier to go out side of home or at market places• Women are over burdened with household activity• Producers dont have faith on women LHW• Husbands do not want to give money to deposit at group savings.• Women do not have own income source or own assets to have income.• Women do not get recognition for household activities• Women feels uncomfortable to talk to male veterinary doctor• Women have to depend on their husband for purchasing any goods or assets
GAAP Qult Result:- Access to Resources 51% Child 34% Who actually consume milk 45% Male 30% Whom do they think more important to give 4% milk Female 36% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
GAAP Qult Results – FGD findingsFocused Area Key FindingsAsset • Poultry and cattle were mentioned as important livestock assets (10ownership groups) by womenpattern &dairy income • Cattle were considered important assets because they produced milkmgt. that could be sold and women could move with them • groups had on average, 3.4 cows (range 1 – 7) • Women can buy or own cattle, poultry & gold more easily comparing other valued asset • Most women can manage milk sales income • 12.4% Women have individual cow ownership • Women who owns cattle can take decision on expenditure more easily.Dairy • Work load increased for both women and men. For women, the timeManagement worked increased between 15 and 60 minutes each dayand genderroles • Men are helping more because they appreciate the benefits of adopting new dairy technologies • Children do not gets proper care when mother is busy with HH activities
GAAP Qult Results – FGD findingsFocused Area Key FindingsAccess to input, • Women have easy access to capacity, savings , input andcapacity & Mkt. output market due to project interventions • women can access credit more easily than men. • The person who sold the milk managed the milk income • The quantity of milk sold determined who managed the income with men managing it if much milk was soldNormative • Women cant buy individual assetsattitude andwomen barriers • inherits the lowest quality land and gets the lowest shareProject impact • Significant changes are seen in changing intangible assets, • -an increase in women’s various capacities • the ability to save money in groups • milk production and income from milk sales increased • more recognition of female beneficiaries in the community • 25% participants reported increase in number of cows • Women’s opinion are getting more preference in dairying
Preliminary Conclusions Four Major Women Barriers Control over Workload asset, incom e mgt. Institutions, Mobility ideology
Preliminary Conclusions• A gender assets gap does exist within SDVC households: According to joint decision making the gap is narrowing; according to women’s autonomy in decision making it seems to be widening.• As a result of the SDVC program intervention, women increase their asset holdings, but men remain the controllers of these assets. Historically, the women’s asset ownership rights are not protected• As women are becoming more involved in the SDVC program they are gaining more assets, but they are also working harder and longer hours• Milk consumption patterns are reflective of a wide gender assets gap and needs to be a focus of education and monitoring
Next Steps• Collect data longitudinally by individual not by group. This will make much more powerful analysis possible.• Continue to focus on offering support to women in the entire system – the milk collectors and the livestock health workers as well as the women farmers.• Look into ways to address the major women barriers• Look into ways of addressing the social norms and practical consequences around mobility issues