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Securing Land Rights in Mozambique: Can the community land delimitation initiative in Mozambique be a cost-effective and inclusive alternative?

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Securing Land Rights in Mozambique: Can the community land delimitation initiative in Mozambique be a cost-effective and inclusive alternative? - Hosaena Ghebru
Presentation at MSU/IFPRI conference on “Agricultural Public Investments, Policies, and Markets for Mozambique’s Food Security and Economic Transformation”, Maputo, Mozambique, 20 November 2014

Portuguese version: http://www.slideshare.net/IFPRIDSG/hosaena-port

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Securing Land Rights in Mozambique: Can the community land delimitation initiative in Mozambique be a cost-effective and inclusive alternative?

  1. 1. Securing Land Rights in Mozambique: Can the community land delimitation initiative in Mozambique be a cost-effective and inclusive alternative? Hosaena Ghebru (Ph.D) Presented at a Seminar “IFPRI-MSU Policy Workshop” November 20, 2014 Maputo, Mozambique
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Introduction • New land reforms high on the development agenda: • (High Level) Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor - LPI • USAID, The World Bank, DFID (scaled up financing of land reform projects) • Land governance – integral component of the G-8 alliance for food security • MDGs: Rights based approaches
  3. 3. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE The three (neo-classical) justifications for land rights formalization • Tenure security • Enhance investment • Transferability • Gains from trade • Reallocate land to more efficient users • Credit access • Land as collateral How important are each of these and are they always achievable?
  4. 4. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Introduction: Mozambique • In 2009, the MCC provided more than US$61 million to fund a five-year project • The Community Land Initiative (iTC) – established in 2006 by a group of six donors (DFID, Netherlands, SIDA, Irish Aid, SDC, and DANIDA) • GESTERRA (Capacity Building for Land Management and Administration in Mozambique) program supported bythe Netherlands and Swedish Embassy in Maputo • Community-investor Partnerships supported by IFAD
  5. 5. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Mixed stories: failed reforms • Land titling in Kenya and Madagascar • Have not enhanced tenure security, promoted investment, land and credit markets (e.g. Place and Migot-Adholla 1998, Jacoby and Minten 2006,2008) • Sucessful reforms: • Ethiopia: Low-cost land registration and certification • China: Household responsibility system • India: Computerized registry system, tax-base • Recent innovative reforms: • Community land delimitation initiative – Mozambique • Customary land secretariat – Ghana
  6. 6. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE New land reform approaches: The continuum tenure approachLinksbetweenTenureSecurityandFoodSecurity: EvidencefromEthiopia 6
  7. 7. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE New land reform approaches: The continuum tenure approachLinksbetweenTenureSecurityandFoodSecurity: EvidencefromEthiopia 7
  8. 8. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE New land reform approaches: The continuum tenure approachLinksbetweenTenureSecurityandFoodSecurity: EvidencefromEthiopia 8
  9. 9. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE New land reform approaches: The continuum tenure approachLinksbetweenTenureSecurityandFoodSecurity: EvidencefromEthiopia 9
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Focus of the study and key research questions 1. Assess the factors explaining perceived tenure insecurity for households and the implications of such tenure security on their observed behavior in demanding for formalization of land rights in the country. • Distinction is made between source of risk of tenure insecurity as: : • private or idiosyncratic tenure risks (such as ownership or inheritance related disputes) ; and • collective/systematic tenure risks (such as large-scale land acquisitions by the private sector or expropriation by the government) 2. To investigate how the source/type of tenure risk households face in protecting their land rights affects demand for formalization of individual land rights (DUAT)
  11. 11. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Hypotheses and Data 1. Tenure insecurity is higher the higher the land scarcity is. 2. Households demand for improved land rights is higher in high potential areas (high land values) 3. The higher private or idiosyncratic tenure risks (such as ownership or inheritance related disputes) the higher demand for individual DUAT; while 4. The higher collective/systematic tenure risks (such as large-scale land acquisitions by the private sector or expropriation by the government) the lower the demand for individual DUAT Data used: • TIA-2008 Household survey data: both household and parcel level dataset • Geo-spatial data on agricultural potential, market access, land use and population density
  12. 12. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Variables of interest Tenure security proxy variable • Possession of DUAT • Possession of other land right documentations • Knowledge of the land law • Willingness-to-pay for DUAT • Experience of land related dispute • Perception of land related dispute – private • Perception of land related dispute – Public
  13. 13. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Results: Descriptive analysis
  14. 14. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Results: Descriptive analysis
  15. 15. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Regression results: Determinants of perceived tenure insecurity
  16. 16. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Regression results: Determinants of demand for DUAT
  17. 17. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Regression results: Determinants of demand for DUAT
  18. 18. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Conclusion • Households’ level of tenure insecurity and demand for improved land rights is higher in areas with relatively higher land scarcity and agricultural potential • Results show that the type of perceived tenure insecurity (whether private or collective tenure risks) households encounter dictates their demand and willingness-to-pay for formalization of their individual land rights (DUAT). • The study also revealed that a majority of households (regardless of the gender of the head or the family structure of the household) have shown significant demand for documentation to safeguard their rights over their land. • Willingness to pay for legal documentation of their rights (DUAT) on the type of tenure insecurity farm households encounter, such as: • Parcels with higher perceived tenure insecurity of private nature have higher demand for individual DUAT; while • Parcels with higher perceived tenure insecurity of collective nature have lower demand for individual DUAT • Such results implies the need to avoid a blanket solution approach to land policy
  19. 19. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Obrigado! LinksbetweenTenureSecurityandFoodSecurity: EvidencefromEthiopia a 19 qualquer pergunta?

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