Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
GSSP Research on Medium and Large-Scale Farming
and Agricultural Mechanization in Ghana
Initial survey results & research ...
Structure of seminar
•Introduction
•Questions which motivated the survey
•Seminar objectives
•Key findings on medium-large...
Introduction
3
How will agriculture transform in Africa?
1) Smallholder-led agriculture?
Farmland size 1992-GLSS 3 2006-GLSS5
0-2 ha 56.9...
How will agriculture transform in Africa?
2) Can medium-large scale farmers start small?
3) Does induced technology adopti...
Seminar objectives
•To identify the policy questions based on
initial findings from the survey
•To discuss the conceptual ...
Medium-Large Scale
Farmers and Mechanization
Survey
Conducted in collaboration with Savanna
Agricultural Research Institut...
Medium & Large Scale Farmers
Key findings
8
Small Medium Large
Number of sample farmers 768 850 225
% of farmers who are female 23.2 3.4 2.2
Average cultivated land (...
Farm size dynamics
Sampled farmers with at least 15 years farming experience and initial farm size < 5ha
S
162, [25.3%]
Sm...
Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (1)
• Drop 4th row (repeats), update % count for first 2 rows
• Add table ...
Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (2)
• Drop 4th row (repeats), update % count for first 2 rows
• Add table ...
Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (3)
Small
(n=426)
Medium
(n=631)
Large
(n=188)
Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha ...
Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (4)
Small
(n=426)
Medium
(n=631)
Large
(n=188)
Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha ...
Mechanization: Tractor owners
and hiring market
Key findings
15
Distribution of mechanized plowing across surveyed districts
Farmers who use tractor
plowing
Farmers who use animal
tracti...
Farm size among tractor owners, users and non-users
Owners Non owner-users
(n=753)
Non users (n=688)
(n=402)
Terc. 1 Terc....
18
Gov.
11%
Private
89%
Source of Tractor
Acquisition
Total number of tractors: 487
Tractor acquisition by source
19
M. Ferguson
59%
Farmtrac
13%
J. Deere
9%
Ford
7%
Others
12%
Dominant Tractor Brands
Total number of tractors: 487
Types...
Overall
Terciles of cultivated land
Lowest Middle Highest
How many years hired-in tractor services
before owning? (n=339)
...
Motivation for first tractor purchase
Farm
expansion
51%
Timeliness
22%
Provide services
22%
Others
5%
Why do owners acqui...
Overall
Terciles of cultivated land
Lowest Middle Highest
Percentage of farmers who hire-out
services
First plowing (%) 83...
Small Medium Large
Number of non-tractor owners (n=1441) 739 637 65
Percentage of farmers who hired services
Plowing (n=75...
Non tractor users Tractor users
Number of farmers 364 881
Total hired labor hours/ha
Mean 182 133
Median 119 93
Total fami...
Technology
No tractor use Tractor use
No Yes No Yes
Used fertilizer 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.5
Row planting 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.5
Hybrid se...
Discussion on Research Directions
26
Discussion
• Should we rethink the role of medium-large scale farmers in
agricultural transformation?
What are the implic...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

GSSP Research on Medium and Large-Scale Farming and Agricultural Mechanization in Ghana

1,329 views

Published on

"GSSP Research on Medium and Large-Scale Farming and Agricultural Mechanization in Ghana: Initial survey results & research areas" presented by Nazaire Houssou and Antony Chapoto, April 24, 2014

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

GSSP Research on Medium and Large-Scale Farming and Agricultural Mechanization in Ghana

  1. 1. GSSP Research on Medium and Large-Scale Farming and Agricultural Mechanization in Ghana Initial survey results & research areas Survey conducted in collaboration with Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (CSIR) Presented by Nazaire Houssou Associate Research Fellow, IFPRI-Accra Antony Chapoto Research Fellow, IFPRI-Accra 1April 24, 2014.
  2. 2. Structure of seminar •Introduction •Questions which motivated the survey •Seminar objectives •Key findings on medium-large scale farmers •Key findings on mechanization •Feedback and discussion on research direction 2
  3. 3. Introduction 3
  4. 4. How will agriculture transform in Africa? 1) Smallholder-led agriculture? Farmland size 1992-GLSS 3 2006-GLSS5 0-2 ha 56.9 50.3 2-5 ha 30.8 32.9 5-10 ha 7.8 10.4 10-20 ha 3.0 4.1 20-100 ha 1.5 2.3 4
  5. 5. How will agriculture transform in Africa? 2) Can medium-large scale farmers start small? 3) Does induced technology adoption vary across land abundant and land constrained environments? 5
  6. 6. Seminar objectives •To identify the policy questions based on initial findings from the survey •To discuss the conceptual framework and methodologies to support different analyses 6
  7. 7. Medium-Large Scale Farmers and Mechanization Survey Conducted in collaboration with Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) Category Farm Size by Cultivated area Sample size Small < 5 ha 768 Medium 5-20 ha 850 Large >20 ha 225 Total 1,843 7
  8. 8. Medium & Large Scale Farmers Key findings 8
  9. 9. Small Medium Large Number of sample farmers 768 850 225 % of farmers who are female 23.2 3.4 2.2 Average cultivated land (ha) 2.9 9.5 38.4 Average land holding size (ha) 5.3 16.5 61.6 Median age (years) 42 44 46 Can read and write in any language (%) 31.5 31.1 32.4 Engaged in nonfarm business activity (%) 21.6 23.4 37.8 Demographic characteristics of sampled farmers 9
  10. 10. Farm size dynamics Sampled farmers with at least 15 years farming experience and initial farm size < 5ha S 162, [25.3%] Small (S) 640 S 537 [83.9%] S 340, [53.1%] M/L 178, [27.8%] M/L 197, [30.8%] M/L 192, [30.0%] Initial 5 years 10 years 15 years M/L 103 [16.1%] M/L 98, [15.3%] M/L 102, [15.9%]
  11. 11. Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (1) • Drop 4th row (repeats), update % count for first 2 rows • Add table with rate of fertilizer use across small medium large • Remove median and replace with % of sample • Remove Tillage rows • Remove next table completely Small [n=426] Medium [n=631] Large [n=188] Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% With fertilizer 1.36 85.0 1.49 86.7 1.40 90.4 No fertilizer 0.76 15.0 0.87 13.3 1.01 9.6 Quantity of fertilizer* >0-50kg/ha 0.72 1.4 0.55 1.8 0.48 6.5 50-100kg/ha 0.84 9.1 0.83 9.1 0.59 11.2 100-150kg/ha 1.16 18.0 1.03 14.3 0.82 17.6 150-200kg/ha .95 11.6 1.23 12.6 1.30 9.4 200-300kg/ha 1.14 29.0 1.40 26.7 1.58 25.9 >300kg/ha 2.00 30.9 2.05 35.5 2.13 29.4 *n% is among fertilizer users: small scale n=362; medium scale n=547 and large scale n=170 11
  12. 12. Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (2) • Drop 4th row (repeats), update % count for first 2 rows • Add table with rate of fertilizer use across small medium large • Remove median and replace with % of sample • Remove Tillage rows • Remove next table completely Small (n=426) Medium (n=631) Large (n=188) Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Local variety 1.05 43.7 1.15 33.0 0.93 30.9 Hybrid seed use Mamaba (local) 1.66 2.6 1.61 1.3 1.77 2.7 Pannar (imported) 2.43 2.8 2.45 4.6 1.93 5.3 Improved seed use Obtanmpa 1.50 22.8 1.39 26.5 1.42 34.6 Other improved 1.29 27.7 1.54 34.4 1.63 26.6 Improved (new) 1.77 4.9 1.46 8.1 2.34 5.9 Improved (<3 years recycled) 1.25 14.8 1.46 13.9 1.34 12.8 Improved ( 3 or more years recycled) 1.39 30.5 1.48 38.8 1.45 42.6 12
  13. 13. Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (3) Small (n=426) Medium (n=631) Large (n=188) Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Obtanmpa With fertilizer 1.59 81.4 1.42 88.6 1.47 95.4 No fertilizer 1.29 86.0 1.51 86.0 1.36 87.8 Other Improved With fertilizer 1.38 85.6 1.63 87.6 1.71 88.0 No fertilizer 1.35 84.7 1.42 86.2 1.29 91.3 13
  14. 14. Maize yields on largest mono cropped maize plot (4) Small (n=426) Medium (n=631) Large (n=188) Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Ton/Ha n% Row planted 1.32 84.5 1.42 89.5 1.39 89.4 Broadcasting .97 15.5 1.31 10.5 1.10 10.6 Row planted With fertilizer 1.41 85.3 1.50 87.4 1.43 90.5 No fertilizer .80 14.7 .87 12.6 1.02 9.5 14
  15. 15. Mechanization: Tractor owners and hiring market Key findings 15
  16. 16. Distribution of mechanized plowing across surveyed districts Farmers who use tractor plowing Farmers who use animal traction for plowing Farmers who do not plow District Non-tractor owners Tractor owners Non-bullock owners Bullock owners Ejura 108 119 0 0 26 Techiman 14 1 0 0 202 Kintampo North 58 9 0 0 154 Yendi 135 112 1 0 21 Gushiegu 172 91 5 1 31 Kasena Nankana East 99 10 31 11 9 Bawku Municipal 36 5 79 54 21 Sissala East 131 45 17 19 16 Total 753 392 133 85 480 16
  17. 17. Farm size among tractor owners, users and non-users Owners Non owner-users (n=753) Non users (n=688) (n=402) Terc. 1 Terc. 2 Terc. 3 Terc. 1 Terc. 2 Terc. 3 Terc. 1 Terc. 2 Terc. 3 Landholding (ha) Mean 14.5 30.1 72.2 5.3 9.1 22.8 3.7 7.1 20.4 Median 10.5 20.3 48.6 3.8 7.3 15 2.4 5.3 12.1 Land cultivated (ha) Mean 7.4 15.9 45 2.6 5.7 14.6 1.7 4.4 12.1 Median 7.7 16.2 34 2.8 5.7 10.9 1.6 4.3 8.9 NB: terciles by land cultivated 17
  18. 18. 18 Gov. 11% Private 89% Source of Tractor Acquisition Total number of tractors: 487 Tractor acquisition by source
  19. 19. 19 M. Ferguson 59% Farmtrac 13% J. Deere 9% Ford 7% Others 12% Dominant Tractor Brands Total number of tractors: 487 Types of tractors owned New 21% Used 79% New or Used Tractor?
  20. 20. Overall Terciles of cultivated land Lowest Middle Highest How many years hired-in tractor services before owning? (n=339) 9.7 8.8 10.3 10.2 Less than five years (%) 18.3 38.9 23.0 15.8 Five to ten years (%) 30.7 33.3 31.1 30.4 More than ten years (%) 51.0 27.8 45.9 53.8 How many years since owning a tractor? (n=397) 3.6 3.1 3.4 4.2 Less than five years (%) 77.8 78.8 82.1 72.5 Five to ten years (%) 15.4 16.7 11.2 18.3 More than ten years (%) 6.8 4.5 6.7 9.2 Mean tractors owned per farmer (n=402) 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.4 20 From tractor user to tractor ownership
  21. 21. Motivation for first tractor purchase Farm expansion 51% Timeliness 22% Provide services 22% Others 5% Why do owners acquire tractors? Total number of tractor owners: 402 21
  22. 22. Overall Terciles of cultivated land Lowest Middle Highest Percentage of farmers who hire-out services First plowing (%) 83.2 82.0 81.7 85.8 Maize shelling (%) 19.5 17.2 18.3 22.8 Carting farm products and inputs (%) 35.5 38.5 38.1 29.9 Ratio of tractor owner to farmers served (median) 1:60 1:60 1:51 1:67 Years providing plowing services (n=302) 5.0 4.1 4.8 6.1 22 Hiring-out mechanization services among tractor owners
  23. 23. Small Medium Large Number of non-tractor owners (n=1441) 739 637 65 Percentage of farmers who hired services Plowing (n=750) 45.3 58.9 61.5 Shelling (n=338) 17.3 30.5 24.6 Carting (n=375) 20.0 32.3 32.3 Experience with service rental (years) Plowing 7.7 9.5 12.5 Shelling 5.6 6.3 6.6 Carting 6.3 7.0 11.8 23 Source: IFPRI/SARI Survey on medium and large-scale famers and mechanization survey, 2013 Hiring-in tractor services
  24. 24. Non tractor users Tractor users Number of farmers 364 881 Total hired labor hours/ha Mean 182 133 Median 119 93 Total family labor hours/ha Mean 431 224 Median 253 125 Input use and farming practice Row planting 85.4 88.8 Weedicide 57.7 87.1 Fertilizer 77.5 90.5 Hybrid seed 4.4 6.7 Improved seed 50.0 60.2 24 Source: IFPRI/SARI Survey on medium and large-scale famers and mechanization, 2013 Mechanization and input use – for largest maize plot only
  25. 25. Technology No tractor use Tractor use No Yes No Yes Used fertilizer 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.5 Row planting 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.5 Hybrid seed - 1.6 - 2.3 Improved seed (new) 1.1 1.7 1.4 1.6 25 Maize yield (ton/ha) under mechanization and input use Source: IFPRI/SARI Survey on medium and large-scale famers and mechanization, 2013
  26. 26. Discussion on Research Directions 26
  27. 27. Discussion • Should we rethink the role of medium-large scale farmers in agricultural transformation? What are the implications for induced technology adoption? • Why yield-enhancing technology adoption is not so different across farm sizes? Why yield response to fertilizer and improved seed is not high across all farm sizes? Why hybrid seed adoption rate is so low across all farm sizes? • Can medium-large scale farmers lead mechanization in Ghana? Is farmer-to-farmer hiring market an avenue to smalholder mechanization? • What outstanding research topics can be addressed using the data? Any suggestions on methodologies/conceptual framework? • Welcome collaboration to use data!!!!! 27

×