Mechanization and Agricultural Transformation in Asia and Africa: Sharing Development Experiences: Pakistan

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"Mechanization and Agricultural Transformation in Asia and Africa: Sharing Development Experiences: Pakistan", presented by S. G. Abbas, at NSD/IFPRI workshop on "Mechanization and Agricultural Transformation in Asia and Africa", June 18-19, 2014, Beijing, China

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Mechanization and Agricultural Transformation in Asia and Africa: Sharing Development Experiences: Pakistan

  1. 1. Mechanization and Agricultural Transformation in Asia and Africa: Sharing Development Experiences: Pakistan Dr. S. G. Abbas Director (Farm Mechanization) Pakistan Agricultural Research Council Islamabad - PAKISTAN
  2. 2. • Very Brief Status of Farm Mechanization in Pakistan • Issues and Challenges • Transformation in Farm Mechanization • Solutions based on Experiences • Recommendations. Outlines of the Presenation
  3. 3.  Population: (June 2010) – about 180 Million  Rural population: – 110.5 Million (about 63.7%)  Geographical area: – 79.6 million ha.  Contribution of Services Sector to GDP: – (53.3%)  Contribution of Industrial Sector to GDP: – (25.2%)  Contribution of Agric. to GDP: – 21.5%  Major crops – (7.0%); Minor crops – (2.4%)  Livestock – (11.4%); Fishery – (0.4%); Forestry – (0.3%)  Total Size of the Agriculture Economy: Rs.3016.6 Billion  Employment by Agriculture: – 45% of total labor force  Cultivated area: – 21.21 million ha (70% canal irrigated)  Highly diversified climate:- suit to cultivate a number of crops when temperate ranges from 40 plus to minus 40 degrees from North to South (2,200 KM). Agriculture Economy of Pakistan
  4. 4.  Population --- Pakistan is 6th most populated country in the world  Wheat --- 9th largest producer in the world, and 3.0% of GDP  Rice --- 1.3% GDP, edge for Basmati rice  Cotton --- 4th largest producer in the world, 1.6% GDP, major export and agro-industrial crop, major source of employment in value chains, Nearly 80% total cotton production took place in Punjab  Sugarcane --- 0.7% in GDP  Livestock --- Pakistan falls in the top 15 most livestock populous countries of the world. Pakistan ranks  2nd in buffalo population; 13th in cattle population; 10th in sheep population; 3rd in goats population  Fruits --- Pakistan has comparative advantage in the production of many dry fruits and Kinnow production in citrus family Pakistan’s Position in the World Agriculture
  5. 5.  Major contributor in national economy as it is:  The only provider of food to growing population – rising status  Supplier of raw material to industries Cotton to ginning and textile sector; Sugarcane sugar mills; Wheat to flour mills; Other food grains to poultry and feed industries Fruits and vegetables to processing industries; Wood to furniture manufacturers and house building  Largest source of employment in the country  Source of industrial development  Source of foreign exchange in the country Export of cotton, yearn, textile, rice, fruits, vegetables, processed food Importance of Agriculture for Pakistan
  6. 6. Farm Households & Farm Area Composition (%) 85% farm households cultivate nearly 45% of agricultural lands Punjab and Sindh should concentrate more on marginal and small farmers KPK should concentrate more on marginal farmers Marginal, small and medium sized farms need more attention in Balochistan Farm size Units Punjab Sindh KPK Baloch PAK. Marginal (upto 5 ac.) % Farms 56.0 45.9 78.5 28.4 57.6 % Area 16.3 12.6 31.0 3.5 15.5 Small (5 - 12.5 ac.) % Farms 29.4 36.6 16.1 34.3 28.1 % Area 31.0 27.7 28.3 14.6 27.9 Medium (12.5-25 ac.) % Farms 9.5 9.6 3.2 20.0 8.8 % Area 21.6 16.5 12.9 17.9 19.1 Large (25-50 ac.) % Farms 3.9 5.4 1.4 10.3 3.9 % Area 16.5 17.7 11.1 17.4 16.3 Landlords (> 50 ac.) % Farms 1.2 2.5 0.7 6.9 1.6 % Area 14.6 25.6 16.7 46.5 21.2 Source: Agriculture Census, 2000
  7. 7. Cropping Patterns by Farm Size Groups (% Crop Area) Crop types Marginal (upto 5 ac) Small (5-12.5 ac) Medium (12.5-25 ac) Large (25-50 ac.) Landlord (> 50 ac.) All Pakistan Wheat 43.3 41.2 40.5 39.0 35.6 40.4 Rice 11.0 14.1 12.3 12.3 11.1 12.5 Cotton 12.3 13.4 15.1 14.1 14.0 13.7 Maize 8.7 3.5 1.9 1.6 1.7 3.7 Sugarcane 3.0 3.9 3.7 3.7 4.9 3.8 Potato 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.4 Oil Seeds 0.9 1.8 2.3 2.4 2.7 1.9 Pulses 1.7 3.3 6.1 9.4 11.3 5.4 Fodder 12.0 11.8 10.6 9.2 6.9 10.6 Vegetables 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.1 3.4 2.0 Orchard 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.6 4.0 1.6 Source: Agriculture Census, 2000
  8. 8. Current Prices of Tractors (with Taxes) Model Pak. Rupees Approx. US$ (Range 55HP) 744,720 7,500 PW (Range 55 HP) 756,320 7,600 (Range 65 HP) 828,240 8,300 (Range 75 HP) 1,053,280 10,500 (Range 85 HP) 1,158,840 11,600 4 x 4 (Range 85 HP) 1,502,200 15,000 These are existing prices for MF and New Holland (the two most popular tractors in market) The proposed budget announced on 03 June, 2014 maintains the tax level and prices are likely to be unchanged during July 2014 to June 2015.
  9. 9. Agricultural Mechanization Issues and Challenges 1. Mechanization Policy and Strategy formulation (non-existent until now) 2. National Network of Agricultural Mechanization (needs revival) 3. Machinery Testing Lab. Accreditation (Needs improvement) 4. Drying & Storage (Storage capacity is an important issue) 5. Livestock Mechanization (Only poultry sector has adopted few innovative technologies. Lots of work in Livestock sector is needed) 6. Mechanized Sugarcane planting and harvesting 7. Mechanization of Pulses crops
  10. 10. 8. Harvesting of Basmati Rice. The European 2nd hand wheat CH are being used for Rice harvesting. This causes a lot of grain damage to rice 9. Mechanized fruit and vegetable planting and picking 10. Up scaling of seed processing machinery. 11. Energy Efficient & Environment Friendly Technologies (Introduction of Solar power for Agricultural purposes need to be encouraged) 12. Topography (laser land leveling can play double benefits. (a) Increased water efficiency (2) Reclaim land for agricultural purposes Agricultural Mechanization Issues and Challenges
  11. 11. Transformation in Farm Mechanization Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI) Former Farm Machinery Institute (FMI)
  12. 12. 1985: Reaper-windrower: 35,000 units 1995: Zero-till Drill: 7,000 units 2002: Wheat Straw Chopper: 5,000 units 2002: Paddy Thresher: 6,000 units Technologies Commercialized
  13. 13. Fertilizer Band Placement Drill 2009 onward: 8,000 (Punjab Govt.) Technologies Commercialized
  14. 14. Mobile Flat-bed Dryer Olive Oil Extraction Unit Milking Machine for Buffaloes Mango Picking Machine Technologies Commercialized
  15. 15. Solar-cum-Gas Fired Dates Dryer Solar House Dates Dryer Mobile Seed Processing Unit Seeder For Combined Harvested Paddy Fields Technologies in Progress
  16. 16. Solutions based on experiences
  17. 17. Experiences
  18. 18. Experiences (Government) Government of Punjab (1980s): • Rural Supply Cooperative Corporation’s (RSCC) established Farm Services Centers (FSC) with facilities such as: • Tractor sale and service • Tractor and implements repair facilities • Tractor rental facilities (within District) • Lessons learnt: • Over-staffing / under-staffing at certain locations (due to Government’s job) • Fix number of tractors / equipments (irrespective of number of farmers at certain location) • Fixed office timings (as that of Government) 8 AM to 2 PM with Sunday OFF • Lesser flexibility of prices, rental charges, etc. • Non-professional attitude
  19. 19. Experiences (Private – Combine Harvesting) Started from Punjab in 1987: With the financial back-up support from Agricultural Development Bank (ADBP) Contractors imported new / old combine harvesters from Italy, Germany, and Holland with a minimum of FIVE Combine Harvesters (CH) in their stock: • CH started working from South of Punjab where wheat harvesting starts a month earlier than in the North. • Engaged staff from rural youth to operate these CH. • After-sale service is usually provided by the CH after-sale service staff • In most cases advance booking of CH is done to operate at certain locations. • Within 2-3 years after introducing CH in private sector above 50% of the Punjab wheat crop was being Combine Harvested. • Smart contractors used the same combine for Rice harvesting, but unfortunately WITHOUT changing the threshing mechanism / sieves, tyres, etc. (that results in relatively more broken rice ) Lessons learnt: • Formal training institutes are lacking to train CH operators, repair and maintenance • Dealers are making sky high profits on spare-parts
  20. 20. Experience (During an assignment in Sudan 2011) Government pools large number of farmer’s land and contracts it out for multinationals / national firms for farming. • The firms usually purchase larger tractors / farm machinery and operates from a central place to cultivate the seasonal crops. • The large capacity tractors and farm equipment carry lots of after-sale service, repair and maintenance problems. • The firms have tendency to leave and the expensive equipment / could transform into junk as no local farmer can afford to buy or operate these used machinery. • Lessons learnt: • Lesser local farmer’s interest as usually the large firms hire their own technical and non technical staff • Too expensive for developing nations
  21. 21. Recommendations Developing Nations and their Government’s should support in establishing “Contract Farming” through financial support to the younger generation: • By extending liberal credit line facilities to establish their own businesses (Details are available on http://www.parc.gov.pk/index.php/en/2014-01- 22-03-26-43 • Encourage Tractor / Matching Farm Equipment Contractors: • Encourage Combine Harvester Contractors • Encourage Laser-land Leveling Contractors • Introduce Full Package of “Transfer of Technology (ToT)” e.g. Rice Transplantation technology – Nursery, Transplanting, Weeding, Harvesting • Legislative Cover on Farm Equipment Rental Service • Establish Farm Equipment Operational Training Institutes (with the help of Private Sector)
  22. 22. Thank you

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