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Webinar: COVID-19 risk and food value chains (presentation 1)

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Webinar: COVID-19 risk and food value chains (presentation 1)

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Presentation "Food Consumption and Food Security during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Addis Ababa" by Kalle Hirvoven, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

Presentation "Food Consumption and Food Security during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Addis Ababa" by Kalle Hirvoven, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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Webinar: COVID-19 risk and food value chains (presentation 1)

  1. 1. Food Consumption and Food Security during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Addis Ababa Kalle Hirvonen International Food Policy Research Institute with Gashaw Tadesse Abate (IFPRI) & Alan de Brauw (IFPRI) 11 December 2020
  2. 2. Background ▪ Considering the population of 100+ million, Ethiopia has managed to keep COVID-19 infection rates relatively low: o First 3-4 months: very slow increase in COVID-19 cases. o December 7: 113,735 tested positive; 80,803 recovered; and 1,755 deaths. o Most cases have been in the capital, Addis Ababa. ▪ Rapid government response after 3 days of the first confirmed case - Social distancing measures (school closure, banning large gathering, etc.) - Awareness creation on preventive measures (hand washing, facemasks, etc.) - State of Emergency declared (e.g., with provisions that prevent layoffs, eviction of tenants) - Social protection response (i.e., expanding the Urban-PSNP; new food banks) ▪ The country never went into a full lockdown severely restricting movement
  3. 3. Phone Surveys ▪ Building on a recent large, representative household survey in Addis Ababa administered in October 2019 and February 2020. ▪ Phone survey conducted in early May with 600 households, follow up in June, July and August (low attrition rates; < 5 %). ▪ Focus on (self reported) income changes & food and nutrition security. ▪ Comprehensive food consumption modules administered in October 2019, February 2020 and August 2020. RCT Phone surveys Baseline End-line R1 R2 R3 R4 (Sep 2019) (Feb 2020) (May 2020) (June 2020) (July 2020) (Aug 2020)
  4. 4. During the COVID-19 pandemic in May, June & July: ▪ High adherence to the recommended practices to mitigate the transmission risk. ▪ In all 3 rounds, at least 35% of respondents report being extremely stressed (0-10 scale). Stress levels considerably higher among the poorer households.
  5. 5. All rounds: More than 50 % report a loss in income Change in income levels compared to usual incomes
  6. 6. No changes in household dietary diversity score (HDDS) ▪ HDDS = A widely used measure of food security. ▪ Group food consumption into 12 food groups (cereals, vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, dairy, etc.). ▪ Score ranges between 1 and 12 with higher values indicating better food & nutrition security.
  7. 7. No changes in household food consumption budgets
  8. 8. Composition of food consumption budgets ▪ A shift from some relatively expensive calories (e.g., vegetables) to cheaper ones (e.g., staples): o consumption of staples increased o consumption of pulses and vegetables decreased o no significant change in other food categories o same story if we measure consumption in calories ▪ Disaggregated analysis show no/minimal difference in composition of consumption between households: o “income loss” vs. “no income loss” o “job loss” vs. “no job loss”
  9. 9. Summary and conclusions ▪ Very high self-reported stress levels, concentrated among the relatively poor ▪ In each round, more than 50% of households report a loss in income ▪ Despite this, we see little/no changes in household food consumption levels or dietary diversity when we compare the phone survey data collected in August 2020 to the data collected before the pandemic in September 2019. ➢The initial COVID-19 shock in Addis Ababa was temporary and most households were able to cope relatively well using savings or income from safety nets (Urban-PSNP) and other support systems. ➢ Suggestive/indirect evidences: (i) the need for better measurement of income loss and its magnitude; (ii) food value chains have largely been resilient to the pandemic.
  10. 10. More info and recording of this webinar: https://bit.ly/COVID-FVC

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