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Land tenure and perceived tenure security in the era of social and economic transformation in Africa

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PIM Webinar with Dr. Hosaena Ghebru (IFPRI) presenting findings from a recent set of studies in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, and Nigeria that examined land access and perceived tenure security across various market, ecological, demographic, and cultural dynamics. More information about the webinar, including recording and presentation, at http://bit.ly/31NeMzp

PIM Webinars aim to share findings of research undertaken as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM), discuss their application, and get feedback and suggestions from participants. Recordings and presentations of the webinars are freely available on the PIM website: http://bit.ly/PIM-Webinars

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Land tenure and perceived tenure security in the era of social and economic transformation in Africa

  1. 1. PIM Webinar Land tenure and perceived tenure security in the era of social and economic transformation in Africa Hosaena Ghebru International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) July 2, 2019 Photo: Mitchell Maher / IFPRI
  2. 2. Introduction 2 Changes that affect customary land tenure systems were witnessed in many parts of the developing world (Cotula and Neves 2007). African countries undertook land tenure programs to safeguard land rights of smallholders and enhance investment and agricultural productivity through: • Improving land administration • Enhancing land tenure security Mixed results with regard to success: • Potential economic and social impacts (enhancing tenure security, investment, credit access and land market participation) • Low uptake rate of reform programs (e.g., registration and certification) • Sustainability issues
  3. 3. Introduction (Why?) 3 Consensus on the need to enhance tenure security but existing knowledge gap on how to measure it and the level of disaggregation required Formalization of individual land rights has long been seen as a silver bullet to address issues of tenure insecurity; but for whom and at what level? Many African countries implement programs to improve land tenure security • to secure land rights of individuals/households/communities The effectiveness and sustainability of these programs hinge on • solid understanding of the derivers of tenure insecurity of individuals, households and communities • proper implementation and targeting of the programs Thus, this study aims at addressing the knowledge gap: 1. Assessing the potential regulatory and institutional challenges in maintaining good land governance (focusing on 10 African countries using the LGAF framework) 2. Investigating the drivers of tenure insecurity and understand what works? Where? and why? (using household survey data from four African countries including a unique gender-disaggregated data from Mozambique)
  4. 4. The status quo: regulatory and institutional challenges to good land governance 4 The analysis draws on the results from the LGAF framework, a diagnostic land governance tool developed by the World Bank, to examine challenges in the implementation and enforcement of legal and institutional framework (Deininger et al., 2011) for more on the LGAF methodology and process Under the LGAF methodology: “A” represents the best option towards a good land governance scenario; “B” represents the second-best set of options that make progress towards good land governance; “C” represents a country struggling to meet the criteria for good land governance; and “D” represents countries not actively improving land governance.
  5. 5. Recognition of land rights of vulnerable groups 5 NA: Data not available
  6. 6. Enforcement and implementation challenges 6
  7. 7. Accessibility and sustainability of land service delivery systems 7 NA NA NA NA
  8. 8. Drivers of perceived tenure insecurity 8
  9. 9. Data source 9 Country Ethiopia Malawi Ghana Mozambique Nigeria Data Sources IFPRI’s Ethiopia FtF Survey of 2015 LSMS-Integrated Household Survey IV (IHS4) 2016/17 EGC- ISSER Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey Mozambique TIA survey 2014 and TIA supplemental survey 2015 LSMS-ISA General Household Survey 2012/13 Individuals 27543 53885 16158 19192 29315 Households 6693 12447 2238 3278 2977 Parcels 22161 14118 5982 10298 5893
  10. 10. Patterns and trends of tenure insecurity To be integrated later
  11. 11. Results: Sources of tenure insecurity 11 Figure 4 Perceived tenure insecurity at household level
  12. 12. Drivers of perceived land tenure insecurity: role of land market and economic vibrancy 12 Effect of land market vibrancy and economic vibrancy on perceived tenure insecurity †community proportion of households who participate in the land market through land purchase, rent/sharecrop in/out, loan †† 1 if community proportion of households who have house with modern roofing material NIG MOZ ETH GHA MAL Community-level prevalence of land market † Proportion of households with latest land owned within 10 yrs Community level economic vibrancy†† VARIABLES • Prevalence of land markets is associated with eroding perceived tenure security of households in all four countries.
  13. 13. Drivers of perceived land tenure insecurity: role of social dynamics 13 Effect of social dynamics on perceived tenure insecurity NIG MOZ ETH GHA MAL Plot holder is immigrant/non-indigine Community proportion of households where the head and spouse are immigrants/non-indigine Plot holder is female VARIABLES • Similarly, social dynamics is associated with higher prevalence of perceived tenure security of households indigene NA NA
  14. 14. Drivers of perceived land tenure insecurity: other factors 14 Other factors NIG MOZ ETH GHA MAL Social connectedness Political connectedness Legal literacy VARIABLES • Social and/or political connectedness is associated with enhancing perceived tenure security of households • Legal literacy (knowledge of land laws/procedures also enhances perceived tenure security (especially, women) NA NA NA NA NA
  15. 15. In-depth gender-disaggregated analysis from Mozambique 15
  16. 16. Data and method 16 Type Gender Total Female Male Head/Principal 928A 2350B 3278 Spouse 1798C 1798 Total 2726 2350 5076 Note: Sub sample A and B used for Inter household analysis- Type I household Sub sample B and C used for Intra household analysis- Type II household
  17. 17. Empirical method & variables 17 Household level probit estimation using two proxy indicators for tenure insecurity: Type 1 (collective tenure risk) (Tife)- takes the value 1 if the respondent perceived that it is likely to lose land ownership/use right due to land expropriated/confiscated by the government/private investor; and 0, otherwise. Type 2 (individual tenure risk) (Tifp) takes the value 1 if the respondent perceived that it is likely to lose land ownership/use right due to private land dispute (inheritance, border, divorce, etc); and 0, otherwise. Gender disaggregated analysis: • Inter household (male heads vs female head) and • Intra household (male heads vs female spouses) The explanatory variables represent household, individual and community level characteristics
  18. 18. Econometric Results Table1(cont…) 18 Explanatory Variables¥ Type-2 (individua l tenure risk) Type-1 (collective tenure risk) Type-2 (individual tenure risk) Female head 0.042* -0.076*** 0.151**** (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) Female Spouse (married women) -0.217**** (0.02) Pseudo R2 0.1962 0.2211 0.1422 Observations 3188 3172 4981 Prob>Chi2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Pooled sample
  19. 19. 7/2/2019 19 Inter-household Explanatory Variables¥ Pooled sample Intra-household Female Spouse Male head Female head Experience of dispute 0.092**** 0.043* 0.057** 0.081** (0.02) (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) Age of the respondent 0.001* -0.001 0.001 0.003*** 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Political connectedness -0.019 -0.036 -0.056** 0.05 (0.02) (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) Social connectedness -0.141**** -0.125*** -0.142**** -0.101** (0.02) (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) Respondent is indigenous -0.064**** -0.027 -0.035 -0.042* (0.02) (0.03) (0.04) (0.02) Respondent received legal advice on land related matters -0.004 -0.108** 0.182**** -0.112** (0.03) (0.05) (0.03) (0.06) Respondent practice non-farm activity 0.117**** 0.180**** 0.075**** 0.105*** (0.02) (0.03) (0.02) (0.04) Community level land market vibrancy†† 0.142**** 0.239**** 0.097 0.033 (0.03) (0.04) (0.06) (0.06) Community proportion of households where the head and/or spouse are migrants 0.151**** 0.031 0.142**** 0.091* (0.03) (0.04) (0.04) (0.05) Community level land abundance†††† -0.059** -0.057 -0.044 -0.099* (0.02) (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) Plot is inherited -0.160**** -0.164**** -0.022 0.078 (0.02) (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) Plot is purchased -0.057*** -0.038 -0.045 -0.076** (0.02) (0.03) (0.04) (0.04) Plot cultivated with permanent crops (trees) -0.143**** -0.084*** -0.093**** -0.065* (0.02) (0.03) (0.02) (0.04)
  20. 20. 7/2/2019 20 Inter-household Explanatory Variables¥ Pooled sample Intra-household Female Spouse Male head Female head Experience of dispute 0.092**** 0.043* 0.057** 0.081** (0.02) (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) Age of the respondent 0.001* -0.001 0.001 0.003*** 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Political connectedness -0.019 -0.036 -0.056** 0.05 (0.02) (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) Social connectedness -0.141**** -0.125*** -0.142**** -0.101** (0.02) (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) Respondent is indigenous -0.064**** -0.027 -0.035 -0.042* (0.02) (0.03) (0.04) (0.02) Respondent received legal advice on land related matters -0.004 -0.108** 0.182**** -0.112** (0.03) (0.05) (0.03) (0.06) Respondent practice non-farm activity 0.117**** 0.180**** 0.075**** 0.105*** (0.02) (0.03) (0.02) (0.04) Community level land market vibrancy†† 0.142**** 0.239**** 0.097 0.033 (0.03) (0.04) (0.06) (0.06) Community proportion of households where the head and/or spouse are migrants 0.151**** 0.031 0.142**** 0.091* (0.03) (0.04) (0.04) (0.05) Community level land abundance†††† -0.059** -0.057 -0.044 -0.099* (0.02) (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) Plot is inherited -0.160**** -0.164**** -0.022 0.078 (0.02) (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) Plot is purchased -0.057*** -0.038 -0.045 -0.076** (0.02) (0.03) (0.04) (0.04) Plot cultivated with permanent crops (trees) -0.143**** -0.084*** -0.093**** -0.065* (0.02) (0.03) (0.02) (0.04)
  21. 21. Land market vibrancy on women land access 21 37.8 47.5 49.1 51.2 28.6 31 41.9 56.7 vibrant less vibrant vibrant less vibrant vibrant less vibrant vibrant less vibrant Ethiopia Mozambique Nigeria Malawi Proportion of parcels with women land holders
  22. 22. Land market vibrancy on youth land access 22 42.9 51.2 50.9 49.1 39.9 37.2 44.1 56 vibrant less vibrant vibrant less vibrant vibrant less vibrant vibrant less vibrant Ethiopia Mozambique Nigeria Malawi Proportion of parcels with land holders in the age group of [15-35]
  23. 23. Policy implications 23 Customary tenure system under more scrutiny/pressure in areas with commercial agriculture or more vibrant land markets, and, hence: • Interventions should focus on institutional support to tackle capacity issues with the traditional system (overlapping land rights) • Traditional leaders acting as managers of rural (even urban land) instead of as custodians of the land (due to the increase in land values) • Information asymmetry (communities/traditional leaders’ lack of comprehensive knowledge of the potential market value of their land) Legal literacy programs seems to enhance tenure security of women (both female heads and spouses) and can be considered as less costly and sustainable policy measure towards safeguarding land rights Results also imply that land rights registration/documentation programs should: • Consider intra-household dimensions (parcel based and systematic to avoid scenario of intra-household land grabbing) • Better results if packaged with legal literacy programs to avoid elite capture situations • Be deemed sufficient if implemented at community level in areas that are less commercialized (traditional agriculture) Ensure sufficient local resourcing (minimizing donor dependence) → sustainability of interventions Overall, programs which aim to enhance land tenure security should take into consideration the context and peculiar characteristics of communities and groups of households during program formulation and implementation phases.
  24. 24. Thank You! Q&A https://pim.cgiar.org/knowledge-center/webinars/ https://pim.cgiar.org/2019/06/20/webinar-land-tenure-ghebru/

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