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Involvement and career preferences of rural male and female youth in India

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CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets Workshop on Rural Transformation in the 21st Century (Vancouver, BC – 28 July 2018, 30th International Conference of Agricultural Economists). Presentation by Prakashan Chellattan Veettil, Bidhan K. Mohapatra, Prabhakaran T. Reghu (International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), India) and Samarendu Mohanty (International Potato Centre (CIP), Vietnam)

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Involvement and career preferences of rural male and female youth in India

  1. 1. Involvement and career preferences of rural male and female youth in India Prakashan ChellattanVeettil Agricultural Economist, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) E-mail: pc.veettil@irri.org Authors: Prakashan C.Veettil, Bidhan Mohapatra, Prabhakaran Reghu & Samarendu Mohanty PIM Workshop at ICAAE 2018 28th July 2018
  2. 2. The Context  Fast transition economies : sectoral transformation – pushing out from agriculture  The aging and youth abandoning agriculture  Implications of youth not being part of agricultural and rural development • Political, economic, social and demographic effects • Future trajectories of the agri-food sector in the developing world depend on the involvement of youth  Attract and retain youth - Agriculture profession intellectually stimulating and economically rewarding
  3. 3. The Indian Context  Largest youth population involved in agri.  > 40% of farmers - wanted to quit farming (NSSO, 2005)  Youth policy dynamic engagement with youth • Agricultural research – youth centric : build rural youth capacity for a viable economic enterprise • Developing businesses and lucrative employments in agricultural sector • Introduce modern tools and processes (e.g. digital agriculture)
  4. 4. Some questions?? 1. Are (male and female) youths involved in agriculture and value chain activities, and if so what level? 2. What are young persons’ perceptions of agriculture as a possible career?  Do male youth preferences differ from female youths? 3. How can (male and female) youth be attracted to agriculture? 4. How can changes be made in the way farming is conducted?
  5. 5. Sampling  Conducted in 2015 in three major rice-growing states of eastern India  Five districts were chosen in each state based on three criteria: (1) rice production intensity, (2) agro-ecological zone and (3) irrigation status  In each district, the top two rice-growing blocks were chosen. In each block, five villages were selected randomly (# 15 districts, #30 blocks, #150 villages)  Census in all 150 villages, enlisting youths (15 to 29 years old) in rice farming HH  From this list, around 10 males and 7 females were selected randomly (#1316 male and #922 female youth)
  6. 6. Youth sample Variables Male (n=1316) Female (n=922) Pooled (n=2238) Age in years (%) 15 to 20 38.9 39.5 39.1 21 to 25 28.6 29.3 28.9 26 to 29 32.5 31.2 31.9 Marital status (% of married) 32.8 64.6*** 45.9 Education (levels completed) (%) Non-literate 6.8 20.2*** 12.3 Primary schooling (classes 1 to 4) 5.9 6.5 6.1 Sec. schooling (classes 5 to 10) 53.6 48.7** 51.6 Hr. Sec. schooling (classes 11 to 12) 21.0 16.1*** 18.9 Graduate & above 12.8 8.6*** 11.0
  7. 7. Youth sample Variables Male (n=1316) Female (n=922) Pooled (n=2238) Primary occupation Farming 27.9 5.9*** 18.9 Labour 20.3 1.6*** 12.6 Salaried 5.5 0.7*** 3.5 Self-employed 11.8 0.5*** 7.2 Student 31.2 23.9*** 26.9 Homemaker 0.0 65.3na 28.2 Other 3.3 2.1* 2.8 Migration status (migrated1) 22.3 1.9*** 13.9
  8. 8. Involvement and willingness to choose agri. as career21.2 83.5 22.4 77.6 28.6 59.8 24.5 72.3 3.7 68.9 3.4 50.9 16.2 66.9 7.2 61.9 12.3 76.1 14.9 67 24.3 62.3 17.3 68.0 Involved Willingness Involved Willingness Involved Willingness Involved Willingness Bihar Odisha West Bengal Total Male Female Pooled
  9. 9. Rice value chain and allied activities as a career 6.5 26.9 2.1 8.1 3.3 37.4 8.9 49.5 2.0 15.2 1.6 4.2 0.3 15.1 2.5 21.6 4.6 22.1 1.9 6.5 2.1 28.2 6.3 38.0 Involved Willingness Involved Willingness Involved Willingness Involved Willingness Paddy Value Chain Seed Value Chain Agri Inputs & Services Total Male Female Pooled
  10. 10. Variables Bivariate probit - Marginal effects RP & RVC RP only RVC only No involvement Youth characteristics Gender (dummy: Male -1) 0.012*** (0.003) 0.100*** (0.021) 0.030*** (0.009) -0.143*** (0.023) Age (dummy): 21 to 25 yrs 0.003 (0.003) 0.023 (0.022) 0.009 (0.010) -0.035 (0.024) Age (dummy): 26 to 29 yrs 0.010** (0.004) 0.102*** (0.028) 0.013 (0.011) -0.125*** (0.030) Education (years completed) 0.000 (0.001) -0.004 (0.008) 0.003 (0.003) 0.001 (0.009) Primary occupation (dummy) Farming 0.005 (0.005) 0.056* (0.031) 0.006 (0.015) -0.067* (0.035) Salaried 0.000 (0.003) -0.075*** (0.019) 0.047 (0.037) 0.029 (0.042) Student -0.004* (0.002) -0.106*** (0.020) 0.012 (0.016) 0.098*** (0.027) Factors affecting youth involvement across rice production and value chain activities (𝑛 = 2,238)
  11. 11. Variables Bivariate probit - Marginal effects RP & RVC RP only RVC only No involvement Household head characteristics Gender (male – 1) -0.006 (0.005) -0.035 (0.031) -0.013 (0.016) 0.054 (0.036) Age (years) 0.000 (0.000) -0.004*** (0.001) 0.000 (0.000) 0.003*** (0.001) Primary occupation (dummy) : Farming 0.002 (0.003) 0.045* (0.024) -0.002 (0.013) -0.045*(0.028) Household and social attributes Caste: OBC 0.005* (0.002) 0.039* (0.020) 0.010 (0.008) -0.054** (0.022) Caste: SC 0.005* (0.003) 0.047** (0.022) 0.010 (0.010) -0.063*** (0.024) Caste: ST 0.001 (0.003) 0.054* (0.029) -0.006 (0.011) -0.049 (0.031) # adults involved in farming -0.001 (0.001) -0.024** (0.012) 0.003 (0.004) 0.022* (0.013) Share of food expenditure (%) 0.000*** (0.000) -0.001** (0.000) 0.000*** (0.000) 0.001*** (0.000) Primary income source: Farming 0.006** (0.003) 0.010 (0.021) 0.027** (0.011) -0.044* (0.024)
  12. 12. ATE of youth current involvement on career choice Youth involvement Responses Preferred career choice Agriculture Salaried Business Not decided Rice farming Male 0.089*** (0.026) -0.163*** (0.022) 0.076*** (0.028) 0.008 (0.044) Female 0.041* (0.021) -0.062*** (0.015) 0.029 (0.027) 0.017 (0.020) Pooled 0.081*** (0.018) -0.114*** (0.015) 0.091*** (0.021) -0.046** (0.020) Rice value chain Male 0.054*** (0.018) 0.015 (0.017) -0.065*** (0.014) -0.025** (0.025) Female 0.021 (0.014) -0.018** (0.009) -0.003 (0.014) 0.004 (0.012) Pooled 0.045*** (0.012) 0.004 (0.011) -0.034*** (0.010) -0.028** (0.012)
  13. 13. Support required for youth 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Credit Irrigation Innovative technology Input service Farm mechanisation Technical training Agriculture as profession Female Male 0 25 50 75 Credit Business training Subsidy on investment Market intelligence Govt procurement Paddy value chain Female (n=217) Male (n=515) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Credit linkage Seed production Training Subsidy on investment Linkage with Govt scheme Market intelligence Seed value chain Female (n=51) Male (n=156) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Credit linkage Subsidy on investment Business training Technical training Agri. Service provision Female (n=206) Male (n=662)
  14. 14. Conclusion  Low level of youth involvement vis-à-vis their willingness.  Female involvement in agriculture and value chain activities are very low.  Youths are interested in agriculture, if it transformed to more entrepreneurial and service oriented sector  The paddy value chain and agri-services are the emerging two opportunities  Policy support and facilitation essential for such transformation:  Credit linkage,Technical/business training, Investment support and market intelligence  Policy support is gender sensitive
  15. 15. Thank you

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