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Gender-responsive asset-based approach to enhance the transformative potential of value chain development in Guatemala, India and Peru


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CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets Workshop on Rural Transformation in the 21st Century (Vancouver, BC – 28 July 2018, 30th International Conference of Agricultural Economists). Presentation by Dietmar Stoian (Bioversity International, France), Gennifer Meldrum (Bioversity International, Italy), Hugo Lamers (Bioversity International, The Netherlands), Trent Blare (World Agroforestry Centre, Peru), Marlène Elias (Bioversity International, Italy), Jason Donovan (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico)

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Gender-responsive asset-based approach to enhance the transformative potential of value chain development in Guatemala, India and Peru

  1. 1. Gender-responsive asset-based approach to enhance the transformative potential of value chain development in Guatemala, India and Peru D. Stoian, G. Meldrum, H. Lamers, T. Blare, M. Elias & J. Donovan Pre-conference workshop "Rural Transformation in the 21st Century: The Challenges of Low-Income, Late-Transforming Countries" Vancouver, Canada, 28th July 2018
  2. 2. Point of departure Advances in methodological guidance for gender-equitable value chain development (VCD), but still gaps in terms of: • Trade-offs • Household and business assets • Smallholder enterprises
  3. 3. 1) How and why do socio-economic benefits of value chain development vary across value chains, collective enterprises, households and household members? 2) How does gender affect benefits and decision making in smallholder enterprises and households? 3) What conditions and interventions favour more gender- equitable benefits derived from value chain development? Key research questions
  4. 4. Methodology: Evolution from 5Capitals to 5Capitals-G Phases Methods 1) Context analysis Review of scientific & grey literature Key informant interviews (KII) Focus group discussions (FGD) 2) Enterprise assessment (n=8) KII, FGD and validation workshops with representatives of community forest enterprises, producer companies, and cooperatives 3) Household assessment (n=543) Gender-differentiated interviews in households selected at random (at least 30 per enterprise) Donovan & Stoian (2012) Livelihood and business assets: human, social, natural, financial and physical capital -G forthcoming (2018) 5Capitals (2012): 22 case studies (Asia, Africa, LAC, USA) 5Capitals-G (2018): 8 case studies (Guatemala, India and Peru)
  5. 5. Case study overview Value chain Country Nature of VC Salient context features Timber Guatemala (Petén) Global VC for certified wood (mahogany, tropical cedar and semi-precious woods) • 25-year concessions granted on 350,000 ha of tropical broadleaf forest (Maya Biosphere Reserve) • Concessions managed by community forest enterprises • FSC certification NTFPs Guatemala (Petén) Global VC for Chamaedorea palm (xate), allspice and chicle; domestic VC for breadnut (ramón) Millets India (Tamil Nadu) Domestic VC for small-grained millets • Small-grained millets: part of traditional diets in Kolli Hills • High nutritional value • Low requirements of labor and other inputs for cultivation • High drudgery in processing Wild tree fruits India (Karnataka) Domestic VC for Garcinia gummigatta (uppage), Garcinia indica (kokum) and pickle mangoes (Mangifera indica, appe midi) • High market value of NTFPs • Increased pressure on forests • Women with rich knowledge (values, uses, processing), but little voice in forest committees Cocoa Peru (S. Amazon) Global VC for conventional and differentiated cocoa • Cocoa: alternative to illicit coca • High dependence on cocoa • Economic diversification needs
  6. 6. Focus areas of value chain development approaches Areas Cases Level Productivity Postharvest/ Processing Business organization & development Access to finance Enabling environ- ment Gender equity Timber (Guatemala) Ent. hh n.a. NTFPs (Guatemala) Ent. hh n.a. Millets (India) Ent. hh Wild fruit trees (India) Ent. hh Cocoa (Peru) Ent. hh Priority interventions Limited interventions No interventions Some interventions
  7. 7. Asset building/erosion in relation to value chain development at enterprise (Ent.) and household (hh) levels Capitals Cases Levels Human Social Natural Physical Financial Timber (Guatemala) Ent. hh n.a. NTFPs (Guatemala) Ent. hh n.a. Millets (India) Ent. hh Wild fruit trees (India) Ent. hh Cocoa (Peru) Ent. n.a. hh Strong asset building Some asset erosion High asset erosion Some asset building Stagnant assets
  8. 8. Degree of gender equality in ability to participate in, make decisions about, and benefit from VCD Timber (GUA) NTFPs (GUA) Millets (India) Wild fruit trees (India) Cocoa (Peru) Normative elements that influence gender relations in VCD Enabling environment for gender- equitable VCD Participation of women and men in different nodes of the value chain Participation of women and men in collective enterprises Gendered division of unpaid household labour Gender-differentiated access to and control over household assets and VCD benefits Highly equitable Somewhat inequitable Highly inequitable Fairly equitable
  9. 9. Conclusions (1) Case studies reflect broad variation of benefits derived from VCD across value chains, smallholder enterprises, households and household members Key determinants are: 1) Conduciveness of enabling environment 2) Degree of business organization of smallholders 3) Asset endowments of smallholder enterprises 4) Asset endowments of smallholder households 5) Access of members to enterprise and household assets 6) Position of smallholder enterprises and household members in the chain 7) Normative roles influencing gender and age in VCD 8) Incomplete VCD interventions
  10. 10. Conclusions (2)  Often clear labor division (men in timber vs. women in NTFPs)  Gender-differentiated access to assets at both hh and enterprise levels  Decision-making at enterprise level skewed toward men  At hh level, gender-inequitable decision making as regards natural and physical capitals, more equitable regarding to human, social, financial capitals  VCD interventions vary significantly in their coverage of gender equity  Focus areas for women engagement in VCD interventions include:  Active roles on boards of directors in smallholder enterprises  Productive activities (e.g. NTFPs) and, to a lesser extent, processing  Strengthening of business and marketing skills  Access to finance (microfinance)
  11. 11. Conclusions (3) Factors that allow men, women and youth from smallholder households to participate equitably in value chains include: • Secure de jure and de facto access to agricultural and forest resources, with equitable rights across and within households • Differentiated opportunities for men, women, and youth across a portfolio of value chain and other livelihood activities • Conducive service environment that integrates technical, business and financial services, with a differentiated offer as per the conditions and needs of men, women and youth
  12. 12. Implications (1) 1) Income/financial effects of VCD may be modest at hh level  broader asset lens at hh and enterprise level (5Capitals-G) allows to detect asset building across capitals, with relevance for sustainable production and securing VCD benefits 2) Building assets at smallholder enterprise level can lead to asset building at hh level (positive feedback loops) … 3) … but need to allow for time lag 4) …and 'trickle down' usually limited to included groups  excluded groups may not benefit (e.g. Guatemala) or be worse off (e.g. lower caste groups, non- member women in India) 5) Anticipate staggered building of assets and consider trade-offs  strategies for context-specific sequence of asset building
  13. 13. Implications (2) 6) Challenge to achieve both short-term and long-term gains  need also for long- term VCD strategy to encourage gender-equitable use of assets 7) Promising options for more gender equitable VCD:  Gender-differentiated capacity development across portfolio of VC, with production, processing and marketing options for women closer to their homesteads  Focus on financial literacy, use of ITC, and business management skills  Provisions for women (e.g. childcare in enterprises), involving mean in hh activities  Improvements in enabling environment (e.g. land tenure) and service delivery (complementary and customized services)
  14. 14. Thank you @BioversityInt Dietmar Stoian