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Gender in Policies, Institutions and Markets


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This poster was presented by Katrina Kosec (PIM / IFPRI) for the pre-Annual Scientific Conference meeting organized for the CGIAR research program gender research coordinators on 4 December.
The annual scientific conference of the CGIAR collaborative platform for gender research took place on 5-6 December 2017 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, where the Platform is hosted (by KIT Royal Tropical Institute).

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Gender in Policies, Institutions and Markets

  1. 1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS FLAGSHIP 6 • How do access to and control over inputs and resources affect productivity of men and women, and what other factors might explain observed differences in productivity? • How can interventions improve women’s empowerment and agricultural outcomes for women and families? • How do different drivers of agricultural transformation affect gendered roles in agriculture? • How can the separate studies and approaches to gender analysis throughout CGIAR reinforce each other, and contribute to a coherent contribution to attainment of the System Level Outcomes (SLOs)? Other PIM flagships • Flagship 1: What is the demand for technology and extension methods that effectively meet women’s needs and how are these technologies being adopted by women? • Flagship 2: What are systemic barriers (for example in access to land) that constrain livelihood strategies for young men and young women? How do processes of migration and labor market dynamics affect gender roles in agriculture? What are the differential impacts of public expenditures on heterogeneous groups of men and women? What is the degree of inclusion of women in the design and advocacy of policies, and what are methods to lift barriers to their involvement? • Flagship 3: Which interventions increase gender equity in control of assets and in opportunities for employment along value chains? • Flagship 4: How can social protection programs assist women and men, change intrahousehold dynamics, and include gender in targeting and choice of instruments for delivery? • Flagship 5: How can we strengthen the tenure security of particular groups, especially women, going beyond legislation in order to address customary authorities and gender norms that hinder improvements in women’s rights to land, water, and other resources? IMPACT PATHWAYS AND THEORY OF CHANGE Gender research in PIM contributes to two cross-cutting intermediate development outcomes (IDOs) of the CGIAR Strategy and Results Framework: “Equity and inclusion achieved” (CC2.1) and “National partners and beneficiaries enabled” (CC4.1). These have knock-on effects on many other IDOs, primarily those under the SLO1 on poverty reduction. The equity IDO is the direct target for the empirical research on gender roles in agriculture, development of monitoring tools, and testing of equity-enhancing innovations – such as those that strengthen value chains, or social protection programs that target vulnerable women. The capacity IDO is the direct target for the work on gender research methods. EXAMPLES OF ONGOING RESEARCH FLAGSHIP 1: Technological innovation and sustainable intensification Timothy Sulser (IFPRI) is developing a framework for incorporating gender into long-term structural modeling—in particular, the IMPACT model—to assess the increase in yields and total agricultural output if women had the same access to productive resources as men. Marzia Fontana (LSE) (BioSight project) is looking at ways to strengthen the gender analytical lens of bio-economic modeling through the Dynamic Agricultural Household Bio- economic Simulation Model (DAHBSIM) in Malawi. FLAGSHIP 2: Economywide factors affecting agricultural growth and rural transformation Isabel Lambrecht (IFPRI) and Berber Kramer (IFPRI) are using a mixed methods approach to look at whether women would prefer to be economically empowered through alternative non-farm income generating activities that are better aligned with local gender norms in Ghana rather than through agriculture. Danielle Resnick (IFPRI) is looking at how the governance of informal food retail trade in cities in Zambia, Ghana, and Nigeria, inclusive of regulatory and taxation regimes, affects women employed as vendors of fresh fruit, vegetables, and prepared foods. Tewodaj Mogues (IFPRI), Valerie Mueller (ASU), and Florence Kondylis (World Bank) are conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that bring a gender lens to community-based advisory services in rural areas of Mozambique and Tanzania. FLAGSHIP 3: Inclusive and efficient value chains David Laborde (IFPRI) and Tess Lallemant (IFPRI) are developing a framework for analyzing gender-specific impacts of agricultural price distortions and incentives in Uganda. FLAGSHIP 4: Social protection for agriculture and resilience Melissa Hidrobo (IFPRI), Amber Peterman (UNICEF), and Shalini Roy (IFPRI) are using quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the impact of transfers, given primarily to women, on gender dynamics and intimate partner violence in Ecuador and Bangladesh. Daniel Clarke (IFPRI) and Neha Kumar (IFPRI) are examining the willingness to pay for agricultural insurance among men and women in Bangladesh and analyzing the differences related to women’s involvement in agricultural decision making. FLAGSHIP 5: Governance of natural resources Sophie Thesis (IFPRI), Nicole Lefore (IMWI), Ruth Meinzen-Dick (IFPRI), and Elizabeth Bryan (IFPRI) are developing a framework for examining the intrahousehold distribution of benefits from technology adoption, focusing on small-scale irrigation technologies in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania. FLAGSHIP 6: Cross-cutting gender research and coordination Melissa Hidrobo (IFPRI), Cheryl Doss (Oxford), and colleagues are using vignettes to understand production and consumption in dairy farming households in Senegal. Kelly Jones (IFPRI), Kate Ambler (IFPRI), and Michael O’Sullivan (World Bank) are analyzing how including women’s names on contracts influences women’s empowerment in cash crop values chains. Dina Najjar (ICARDA) and colleagues are analyzing the extent of social, economic, and political empowerment and the challenges faced by women workers in various types of employment in rural Egypt. Akhter Ahmed (IFPRI), Hazel Malapit (IFPRI) and colleagues are designing a survey-based method to expand the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) to measure empowerment of women in value chains in Bangladesh and the Philippines. Katrina Kosec (IFPRI) and Brian Holtemeyer (IFPRI) are looking at how income shocks affect the employment and migration decisions of individual men and women in agriculture- dependent households in Kyrgyzstan. Jennifer Twyman (CIAT) and colleagues are conducting a mixed methods study in climate- smart villages in Colombia and Nicaragua around joint decision making in agriculture. Greg Seymour (IFPRI), Cheryl Doss (Oxford) and Paswel Marenya (IFPRI) are studying the impact of women’s empowerment on the decision to adopt conservation agriculture practices in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania. Valerie Mueller (ASU) and colleagues are evaluating the extent to which three-wheel motorized trucks, widely used in Ghana for transportation of crops, differently affect men and women to better understand the distributional consequences of their adoption within households. The gender research within PIM addresses the policy and institutional foundations for barriers to equity between women and men, and how to reduce or remove them. More generally, PIM’s work on gender seeks to understand the specific ways in which gender roles and relations condition success in reducing poverty, improving health and nutrition, and improving management of natural resources. This general objective reflects PIM’s role as host of the CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research. Gender in PIM is featured both through a dedicated flagship – Flagship 6, Cross-cutting Gender Research and Coordination – and through gender work conducted in other flagships. P H O T O : © F A R H A K H A N / I F P R I ADDRESSING THE POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO Gender research and coordination in the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) PSTR_2017_PIM_Gender.indd 1 11/30/2017 3:41:45 PM