Nutrition presentation seminar feb13


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The Nigeria Comprehensive Food Security Vulnerability Assessment (CFSVA) was conducted in conjunction with the World Food Program (WFP) to increase understanding of the impact of food insecurity on lower income Nigerians in order to provide relevant information for policy makers on how to better address the root causes of hunger, malnutrition and vulnerability. This assessment relies on national household data from the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA).
Study highlights:
• Most Nigerians work in the Agricultural sector
• Livelihoods that are agriculture related are disproportionately poor
• Poverty is more prevalent in rural areas, and also in the Northern regions (particularly the North West and North East)
• There are major regional differences in educational attainment, in addition to large gender gaps in education in rural areas and the Northern regions
• Women in poorer wealth quintiles are less likely to breastfeed
• Very few Nigerians have access to proper refuse disposal facilities or to safe and hygienic sources of water
• Poorer households have reduced access to proteins (particularly animal based proteins)
• Huge divide exists between urban and rural households in terms of access to resources, living standards, and food security status

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Nutrition presentation seminar feb13

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTEThematic study on food insecurityand vulnerability in NigeriaOluyemisi Kuku-Shittu, Astrid Mathiassen, Amit Wadhwa,Lucy Myles and Akeem AjibolaNSSP Seminar Series,Feb 14, 2013
  2. 2. Introduction A Comprehensive Food Security and VulnerabilityAnalysis (CFSVA). Attempt to develop broad-basednational indicators on food security and vulnerabilityof various segments of a population across regions. Joint report with WFP Data: Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA).• National bureau of statistics (NBS) and the WorldBank.• Approx. 5000 respondents who are interviewedevery two years.• This analysis relies on post-harvest data
  3. 3. Key Findings Food insecurity and poverty are intricately linked The poorest livelihoods are found in agriculture Households that engage in agriculture and otheractivities fare better than those in agriculture alone The vulnerable and food insecure are mostly foundin rural areas and the North West and North Eastregions of Nigeria While most households in all regions and at allwealth levels purchase food, rural households andpoorer households (by wealth and livelihood) alsorely heavily on own food production.
  4. 4. Key Findings Nigerians generally consume a starchy diet, butwealthier households are able to afford morenutrient rich foods (including animal basedproteins) than poorer households. Households protect vulnerable householdmembers in terms of food allocations, althoughdifficult tradeoffs may occur in poorerhouseholds. Poor households engage in extreme copingstrategies to deal with food shortages
  5. 5. Dimensions of food securityAvailability• Domestic production• Commercial imports• Reserves and food aidAccess• Household production• Financial resources topurchase food• Food prices andmarkets• Existence offormal/informal socialsafety netsUtilization• Care and feedingpractices• Food preparation• Intra-householddistribution• Biological utilization offood consumedFood SecurityStability
  6. 6. What is food security?“Food security exists when all people, atall times, have physical, social, andeconomic access to sufficient, safe andnutritious food which meets their dietaryneeds and food preferences for an activeand healthy life.”– World Food Summit, 1996
  7. 7. VulnerabilityThe probability of an acute decline inaccess to food, or consumption, often inreference to some critical value thatdefines minimal values of humanwellbeing.
  9. 9. Food Consumption Score The Food Consumption Score (FCS) is a composite scorebased on dietary diversity, food frequency and the relativenutritional importance of different food groups The FCS serves as a proxy for current food security The FCS is calculated by observing the frequency by whichhouseholds consume various food items over a seven dayrecall period Each food item is put into a category and the categoriesare given a weight based on its relative nutritional value The FCS was developed and extensively used by WFP infood security assessments
  10. 10. Food Consumption Groups Food consumption groups are created from the FCS based onstandard thresholds A FCS of 21 is a minimum. A FCS below 21 assumes a householddoes NOT to eat at least staple foods and vegetables on a dailybasis and is thus considered to have a poor diet. A FCS between 21 and 35 reflects borderline food consumption. AFCS of 35 assumes daily consumption of staple and vegetablescomplemented by consumption of oil and pulses 4 days per week.Food consumption group Standard thresholdPoor food consumption 0 – 21Borderline food consumption 21.5 - 35Acceptable food consumption >35.5
  11. 11. Wealth Index:A proxy indicator of household level wealth The wealth index is a composite index which attempts to measurewealth without relying on income and expenditure data The index is created by using a form of data reduction analysiscalled Principle Component Analysis (PCA) A number of variables are used collectively to describe the wealthof a household. In Nigeria, 16 variables were used to constructthe wealth index After creating the index, the households are ranked and placed inquintiles to describe wealth groups within the populationAssets Households amenities• TV• Mobile phone• Iron / sewing machine• Refrigerator / stove• Electricity generator• Car• Sofa / chairs / table• Improved walls / roof / floor• Improved drinking water• Improved sanitation• Electricity• Cooking fuel
  12. 12. Distribution of households withunimproved amenities1929323642444869850 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90rooffloorcell phonedrinking watertoiletelectricityouter wallcooking fuelrefuse disposal
  13. 13. Livelihood groups Due to the lack of proper income data we relyon time use data to assign householdlivelihood groups. Household members reports time spent inincome generating activities. Total time spentin each activity is added for all householdmembers. We assign the household to a livelihoodgroup according to the proportion of timespent in the income generating activities.
  14. 14. Description of livelihood profilesLivelihood group DefinitionSubsistence farmer, fisherman orhunter only All time use in subsistence activities onlyMixed crop or cash crops only All time use in agricultural activities onlyMainly agriculture with otheractivitiesMore than 50 percent of time in agriculture, with otheractivitiesMainly industrial laborerMore than 50 percent of time use as an industryemployeeMainly small business (craftsman) Mainly self employed artisans and craftsmenMainly business/commerceMainly managing a business, involved in sales, and otherlarger commercial activitiesMainly livestock/poultry More than 50 percent of time use in animal husbandryMainly professionalsSalaried workers in public or private sector withprofessional qualifications.Mainly service laborersMore than 50 percent of time use in provision of servicesthat require no rigorous qualificationAgricultural & non agriculturalmixed activitiesCarries out a variety of livelihood activities in agricultureand other sectorsNon agricultural mixed activitiesCarries out a variety of activities in the non-agriculturalsector.
  15. 15. Distribution of total householdsin each livelihood group3.815. 4.00510152025Percent
  17. 17. Household characteristicsHousehold head (%) Basic literacy(%)male household head spouseZoneNorth central 89 56 33North east 97 50 29North West 98 62 45South East 71 61 68South South 77 72 75South West 79 73 73SectorUrban 82 78 72Rural 86 55 42
  18. 18. On average about half of the householdmembers are dependents (children or elderly)91126468810235260 10 20 30 40 50 60< 3 years3-5 years6-14 years15-59 years60+ yearsfemalemale
  19. 19. Health: Breastfeeding andsupplementation.Percentage of childrenexclusively breast fedfor first six monthsPercentage of childrengiven vitamin AsupplementationWealth quintilePoorest 11 37Poorer 11 38Moderate 15 56Wealthier 14 64Wealthiest 21 74
  20. 20. Health: Access to unimprovedamenities by geographic region5048393424272045705034333936265296969387876567970 20 40 60 80 100 120North centralNorth eastNorth westSouth eastSouth southSouth westUrbanRuralRegionZonerefuse disposaltoiletdrinking water
  23. 23. Geographic distribution of wealth25.536. 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%North CentralNorth EastNorth WestSouth EastSouth SouthSouth WestUrbanRuralRegionSectorpoorest poorer moderate wealthier wealthiest
  24. 24. Poorest livelihood groups by sector28109892900% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Mainly livestock productionSubsistence farmer, fisher, hunterMixed crop or cash crops farmerurbanrural
  25. 25. Vulnerability: High food expenditures48%27%62%50%64%73%39% 41%29%0%20%40%60%80%NationalUrbanRuralNorthCentralNorthEastNorthWestSouthEastSouthSouthSouthWestSector ZoneFood expenditure share >75% by region
  26. 26. Vulnerability: High Food expendituresby livelihood group71666140 413678293454190102030405060708090
  27. 27. Food Sources by geographic area58596667707273621411161413192012262818171454240 20 40 60 80 100 120North centralNorth eastNorth westSouth eastSouth southSouth westUrbanRuralRegionSectorPurchasedAway from homeOwn production
  28. 28. Food sources by wealth quintile• Poorer households rely more on own production, but purchased foodis the most important category for in all wealth groups56626772751012151820312415840 20 40 60 80 100 120PoorestPoorerModerateWealthierWealthiestPurchasedAway from homeOwn production
  29. 29. Food sources by livelihood group505961697071557072617610810202017818201220373026108936972430 20 40 60 80 100 120Subsistence farmer, fisher, hunterMixed crop or cash crops farmerMainly agriculture with other activitiesMainly industrial laborerMainly self-employed artisansMainly business/commerceMainly livestock productionMainly professionalMainly service laborerMixed activitiesNon-agricultural mixed activitiesPurchasedAway from homeOwn production
  31. 31. Mean number of days per week food itemis consumed at home6. 10 20 30NationalNorth CentralNorth EastNorth WestSouth EastSouth SouthSouth WestUrbanRuralRegionSectorcereals and tuberspulsesvegetablesfruitmeat and fishmilksugaroilDays
  32. 32. Frequency food item is consumed bywealth quintile-starches111213161988868582800% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%PoorestPoorerModerateWealthierWealthiestrarely (0-2 times per week) sometimes (3-5 times per week) frequently (6-7 times per week)
  33. 33. Frequency food item is consumed bywealth quintile- animal proteins372515128272927192036465969720% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%PoorestPoorerModerateWealthierWealthiestrarely (0-2 times per week) sometimes (3-5 times per week) frequently (6-7 times per week)
  34. 34. Food consumption categories bywealth quintile95542201512141371808282850 20 40 60 80 100 120PoorestPoorerModerateWealthierWealthiestWealthquintilePoorBorderlineAcceptable
  35. 35. Intrahousehold food allocations: Householdmembers with least diverse dietMen Women ChildrenPoorest47 26 27Poorer43 21 36Moderate69 18 13Wealthier72 17 11Wealthiest79 12 8
  36. 36. Causes of food shortages625541621363710141685290 10 20 30 40Civil unrest/riotsCrop pest damageDroughtSmall land sizeLack of farm inputsOther reasonsFinancial hardshipHigh food pricesRuralUrban
  37. 37. Most frequent coping strategies fordealing with food shortages• Poorer households use more severe coping strategies0 2 4 6 8 10PoorestPoorerModerateWealthierWealthiestGo a whole day and night withouteating anythingGo to sleep at night hungry becausethere is not enough foodHave no food of any kind in yourhouseholdBorrow food, or rely on help from afriend or relative
  38. 38. Recommendations Better funding for data collection efforts Culturally appropriate interventions to bridge gender gapin education Targeted food support for low income breastfeedingwomen Local and State government need to do better inproviding water and sanitation amenities Improved access to animal proteins Maximum support for ATA to increase opportunities andincomes for poor rural farmers.