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Measuring the global readiness of airline
websites:
Are they speaking the world’s languages?
Peter O'Connor & Zaheer A. Sh...
Agenda
• Introduction
– Inspiration for GRI, Glocalization, History of GRI, Limitation of
previous studies, Language weigh...
INTRODUCTION

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 3
Inspiration for GRI

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 4
Glocalization
• Dochakuka (meaning indigenization)
• Relevance to tourism
• Airlines
– try to be global to achieve
economi...
History of GRI
• Augustine, Surynt, and Jens (2008)
• O'Connor (2011)

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 6
Why?
• Measures & Indices aid stakeholders in
understanding the environment
• CPI & GDI

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide ...
Website with English and
Korean versions is typically
rated globally ready on a par
with another website with
English and ...
Language Weights
Language

Internet users

English

27%

Chinese

24%

Spanish

8%

Japanese

5%

Portuguese

4%

German

...
PARAMETERS

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 10
Language & Content

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 11
Means of payment

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 12
Bookings Engine

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 13
Address Elements

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 14
Currency

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 15
Email Support

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 16
Social Media Links on the website

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 17
Part of Alliances

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 18
Why logistics/shipping was removed?

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 19
RESEARCH METHOD

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 20
Case of two airlines
Airline 2

Airline 1
Parameter

English

Mandarin

Parameter

English

Korean

Language

1

1

Langua...
Effect of weighting language
• Previous studies
– GRI 1 = (6+7)/2 = 65%
– GRI 2 = (6+7)/2 = 65%

• Weighed approach
– GRI ...
Criteria used for Evaluation
Parameter

Criteria used to evaluate the website elements

Content

Same language as language...
Data
98 airlines with 293 language
versions
Language versions

Number of websites

10

1

9

4

8

3

7

4

6

2

5

7

4
...
RESULTS

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 25
Content – 93%
• Others had parts of their home pages
(images, text, or text in images) in a
different language than intend...
Alternate payment methods – 27%
• 73% of websites accepted only Visa or
MasterCard

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Numbe...
Bookings engine – 87%
• Most are paying attention to the
importance of language throughout the
entire customer experience
...
Non-US address – 81% (49% did not
ask for an address)
• Widespread adoption of electronic
ticketing
• Airlines aware of di...
Currency converter – 26%
• Airlines do not realise the importance of
allowing users to see prices in different
currencies
...
Emails
• 96 / 293 emails replied
• 77% (74) in the same language (74/293 =
25.3%)
• Average email turnaround time was 37
h...
Social media – 27%
• Chinese social media links like Weibo also
gaining traction

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number ...
Airline alliance – 36%
• Star Alliance - 8 airlines
• SkyTeam - 6 airlines
• OneWorld - 5 airlines

ENTER 2014 Research Tr...
GRI
Highest – 59%
Lowest – 1%

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 34
CONTRIBUTION & CONCLUSION

ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 35
Contribution
• Language parameter given weight according
to the online usage of each particular
language
– Website with Ma...
Conclusions
• GRI improved by attributing weights to language –
to be done the same with other parameters
• GRI at 21% low...
Thank you
Peter O'Connor & Zaheer A. Shaik
zaheer.shaik@essec.edu
ENTER 2014 Research Track

Slide Number 38
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Measuring the Global Readiness of Airline Websites: Are they speaking the World’s Languages?

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Measuring the Global Readiness of Airline Websites: Are they speaking the World’s Languages?

  1. 1. Measuring the global readiness of airline websites: Are they speaking the world’s languages? Peter O'Connor & Zaheer A. Shaik ESSEC Business School Paris, France ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 1
  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction – Inspiration for GRI, Glocalization, History of GRI, Limitation of previous studies, Language weights • Parameters – Language & Content, Means of payment, Bookings engine, Address elements, Currency, Email support, Social media, Alliances • Research method – Criteria used for evaluation • Results • Contribution & Conclusion ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 3
  4. 4. Inspiration for GRI ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 4
  5. 5. Glocalization • Dochakuka (meaning indigenization) • Relevance to tourism • Airlines – try to be global to achieve economies of scale ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 5
  6. 6. History of GRI • Augustine, Surynt, and Jens (2008) • O'Connor (2011) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 6
  7. 7. Why? • Measures & Indices aid stakeholders in understanding the environment • CPI & GDI ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 7
  8. 8. Website with English and Korean versions is typically rated globally ready on a par with another website with English and Mandarin versions (other parameters being equal) Limitation of previous GRI studies • Language given equal weight Parameters Original GRI GRI of hotel websites GRI of airline websites Language Yes Yes Yes (modified) Content No Yes Yes Payment option Yes Yes Yes Bookings option No Yes Yes Address elements Yes Yes Yes Logistics/shipping Yes Yes No Currency Yes Yes Yes Email support No No Yes Social media links on the website No No Yes Part of alliances No No Yes ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 8
  9. 9. Language Weights Language Internet users English 27% Chinese 24% Spanish 8% Japanese 5% Portuguese 4% German 4% Arabic 3% French 3% Russian 3% Korean 2% Rest 17% http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 9
  10. 10. PARAMETERS ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 10
  11. 11. Language & Content ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 11
  12. 12. Means of payment ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 12
  13. 13. Bookings Engine ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 13
  14. 14. Address Elements ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 14
  15. 15. Currency ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 15
  16. 16. Email Support ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 16
  17. 17. Social Media Links on the website ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 17
  18. 18. Part of Alliances ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 18
  19. 19. Why logistics/shipping was removed? ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 19
  20. 20. RESEARCH METHOD ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 20
  21. 21. Case of two airlines Airline 2 Airline 1 Parameter English Mandarin Parameter English Korean Language 1 1 Language 1 1 Content 1 1 Content 1 1 Payment 0 1 Payment 0 1 Bookings 1 1 Bookings 1 1 Address 1 1 Address 1 1 Currency 1 0 Currency 1 0 Email 0 1 Email 0 1 Social Media 0 0 Social Media 0 0 Alliances 1 1 Alliances 1 1 ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 21
  22. 22. Effect of weighting language • Previous studies – GRI 1 = (6+7)/2 = 65% – GRI 2 = (6+7)/2 = 65% • Weighed approach – GRI 1 = (6*0.27)+(7*0.25)/8 = 42.1% – GRI 2 = (6*0.27)+(7*0.002)/8 = 20.4% ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 22
  23. 23. Criteria used for Evaluation Parameter Criteria used to evaluate the website elements Content Same language as language version = 1, else = 0 Payment option Credit card only = 0, else = 1 Bookings engine Bookings engine in the same language = 1, else = 0 Address elements US specific address elements only = 0, else = 1 Currency Currency conversion available = 1, else = 0 Email support Email reply in same language = 1, else = 0 Social media link on the website Link to Facebook (Weibo) in same language = 1 No link or a link to a different language page = 0 Part of any alliance = 1, else = 0 Part of an alliance ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 23
  24. 24. Data 98 airlines with 293 language versions Language versions Number of websites 10 1 9 4 8 3 7 4 6 2 5 7 4 11 3 10 2 18 1 38 Total 98 ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 24
  25. 25. RESULTS ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 25
  26. 26. Content – 93% • Others had parts of their home pages (images, text, or text in images) in a different language than intended ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 26
  27. 27. Alternate payment methods – 27% • 73% of websites accepted only Visa or MasterCard ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 27
  28. 28. Bookings engine – 87% • Most are paying attention to the importance of language throughout the entire customer experience ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 28
  29. 29. Non-US address – 81% (49% did not ask for an address) • Widespread adoption of electronic ticketing • Airlines aware of diverse physical location of users ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 29
  30. 30. Currency converter – 26% • Airlines do not realise the importance of allowing users to see prices in different currencies ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 30
  31. 31. Emails • 96 / 293 emails replied • 77% (74) in the same language (74/293 = 25.3%) • Average email turnaround time was 37 hours and 17 minutes ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 31
  32. 32. Social media – 27% • Chinese social media links like Weibo also gaining traction ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 32
  33. 33. Airline alliance – 36% • Star Alliance - 8 airlines • SkyTeam - 6 airlines • OneWorld - 5 airlines ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 33
  34. 34. GRI Highest – 59% Lowest – 1% ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 34
  35. 35. CONTRIBUTION & CONCLUSION ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 35
  36. 36. Contribution • Language parameter given weight according to the online usage of each particular language – Website with Mandarin and English versions rated differently than one with English and Korean versions • Without weighting – GRI = 65% • With language weighting – GRI = 42.1% & 20.4% • Moving towards weighted GRI where all parameters are weighted according to importance ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 36
  37. 37. Conclusions • GRI improved by attributing weights to language – to be done the same with other parameters • GRI at 21% lower than previous studies – Airline may be less globally ready than hotel and ecommerce websites – Weighted approach may have significantly reduced the value • Improvements in social media (27%) and alliances (36%) • Future correlation with other parameters such as profit, sales, human index etc. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 37
  38. 38. Thank you Peter O'Connor & Zaheer A. Shaik zaheer.shaik@essec.edu ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 38

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