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Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE:
Case studies & Research Outlook
Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI
Research Fello...
Structure
• Introduction to IES
• Nat Vent Simulation in IES-VE
• ASHRAE ‘Zero-Net Energy’ (ZNE) Challenge
• Research outl...
IES Background
• Founded 1994 with HQ in Glasgow;
• Offices in UK, Ireland, USA, India;
• Delivering sustainable solutions...
IES-VE Software
Building Performance Analysis Technology
- Traditionally our focus was on creating
analysis tools for buil...
IES SCAN / ERGON
ERGON - Import,
manage and interrogate
real building data /
schedules and use them
inVE simulations.
IES-...
NAT-VENT SIMULATION IN IES-VE
Nat Vent Simulation Studies
• Assess occupant comfort conditions (PMV) with respect
to air temperature, velocity, air qual...
Relevant Modules
Key IES-VE Simulation modules:
• MacroFlo – Simulate bulk air-flow driven
by wind pressure and buoyancy f...
MacroFlo
Incorporates models of:
• external wind pressure based on empirical
data;
• stack effect (buoyancy);
• flow chara...
MicroFlo
Features
• Air flow and heat transfer in and around buildings;
• Simulate both internal and external air flow and...
VistaPro result Visualisation
• Visualisation and analysis (Post-processing);
• Room and Node state display
• HVAC process...
Performance Components
• Pre-built manufacturer assemblies imported
to the Virtual Environment, providing a mix of
geometr...
ASHRAE NET-ZERO ENERGY CASE STUDY
Credit to Liam Buckley (IES) and the ASHRAE IES ZNE Team
5,000 m2 (53,600 ft2), 3- storey commercial office:
• Minimum window-to-wall ratio: 30%
• Minimum Energy Code: ASHRAE 90.1...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
The Design Team’s Meetings
• Realistic design in a challenging climate
• Boulder, Colorado
• ...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Early Baseline EUI Target
• Baseline EUI: 33 kBtu/ft2/yr
• Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/yr
• Targe...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
The Final Architectural Design • New Baseline EUI: 53 kBtu/ft2/yr
• Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/y...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
60 Second Virtual Tour of The Final Architectural Design
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Solar Shading & PV-T Optimization
• Limit Solar Gains in Summer
• Maximize Solar Gains in Win...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Renewable Wind Energy
• Net Zero Goal – More Renewables!
• Building shape funnels wind (+3ft/...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort
• Run Natural Ventilation simulations w...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
• Diurnal Swing ~ 30 degrees.
• Summertime heating setpoints were relaxed to
(65°F/58°F) in c...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort
• Internal Operable Windows to Atrium
•...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
• Proof of Concept:
ECM: Atrium Design
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Adaptive Thermal Comfort in the Offices
• Office Cross-Ventilation in Summer • Office Cross-V...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Future-Proofing the ZNE Status
• WeatherShift morphed the weather file 50 years.
• (2000-2014...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Future-Proofing ECM: Passive Down-Draught Evap. Cool Tower
Moisture
Content
Added
Air
Tempera...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Thank You – Questions/Comments
Research Outlook
EINSTEIN Project
• EINSTEIN: Simulation Enhanced Integrated
Systems for Model-based Intelligent Control(s)
• Funding: EU-f...
Fault Detection
– Knowledge / Rule-based:
uses expert user
experience
– Data-driven: uses
historical building data,
Statis...
Prediction / Optimisation
• Multi-objective control optimisation;
• Complies with user-specified
constraints (e.g. comfort...
Overall Integration
Building Data
IES-SCAN
Modelling /
Prediction
Fault Detection
/ Optimisation
Intervention
(DSS / Contr...
Useful Links
IES-VE Software
• MacroFlo: https://www.iesve.com/software/ve-for-engineers/module/MacroFlo/462
• MicroFlo: h...
Thank you!
Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI
Research Fellow, Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd.
Adjunct Lecturer, N...
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Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE: Case studies & Research Outlook

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Daniel Coakley of IES spoke on the topic of “Modelling Natural ventilation in the IESVE: Case studies & Research Outlook” at a half day seminar on 20th April 2016, organised by Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), for researchers, designers, engineers & architects.

Published in: Environment

Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE: Case studies & Research Outlook

  1. 1. Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE: Case studies & Research Outlook Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI Research Fellow, Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd. Adjunct Lecturer, National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG) Secretary, ASHRAE Ireland Technical Seminar: Ventilative Cooling & Overheating , April 20, CIT, Cork
  2. 2. Structure • Introduction to IES • Nat Vent Simulation in IES-VE • ASHRAE ‘Zero-Net Energy’ (ZNE) Challenge • Research outlook: Building Operations
  3. 3. IES Background • Founded 1994 with HQ in Glasgow; • Offices in UK, Ireland, USA, India; • Delivering sustainable solutions from building to city-scale; • Main software: – IES-VE (Building simulation) – IES-SCAN (Building operations)
  4. 4. IES-VE Software Building Performance Analysis Technology - Traditionally our focus was on creating analysis tools for building design. - Our tools now encompass a bigger picture of the built environment allowing for analysis on a bigger scale (e.g. city or community level) and at different building life stages. - Understanding and analysing ‘real’ data at the Building Operation stage can drive actions which: - Improve occupancy comfort. - Reduce energy use & CO2. - Reduce costs
  5. 5. IES SCAN / ERGON ERGON - Import, manage and interrogate real building data / schedules and use them inVE simulations. IES-SCAN is a customisable web based portal and integrated data environment for operational data analysis complete with capability for energy forecasting, simulation
  6. 6. NAT-VENT SIMULATION IN IES-VE
  7. 7. Nat Vent Simulation Studies • Assess occupant comfort conditions (PMV) with respect to air temperature, velocity, air quality etc.; • Demonstrate energy / cost savings by reducing need for mechanical ventilation / cooling; • Minimise overheating risk; • Analysis of effectiveness of various ventilation strategies, based on location / climate: – Natural, Mechanical or Mixed-mode strategies; • Evaluate feasibility of designs such as: – Single-sided ventilation, DSF, cross-ventilation, whole-building ventilation, Conventional systems, Displacement, Buoyancy, etc.; – Novel performance components – PCM, Solar collectors, Windcatcher etc.
  8. 8. Relevant Modules Key IES-VE Simulation modules: • MacroFlo – Simulate bulk air-flow driven by wind pressure and buoyancy forces using a fast multi-zone thermo-fluid solver; • MicroFlo – CFD analysis engine for internal / external air flow studies; • ApacheHVAC – detailed HVAC design and analysis; • ApacheSim – dynamic thermal simulation for building performance and load forecasting; • VistaPro – results visualisation and analysis engine.
  9. 9. MacroFlo Incorporates models of: • external wind pressure based on empirical data; • stack effect (buoyancy); • flow characteristics of cracks / large openings; • two-way flow; • resistance due to grilles and wall friction; • Rayleigh instability. Inputs: • Building geometry & constructions; • Opening properties (e.g. wind exposure, free opening area etc.) • Weather data (wind speed, direction etc.) • ApacheSim / HVAC information; • ERGON profiles (if required) Outputs: • Air-flow mass / volume for openings; • Air-flow velocities; • Aggregated room / zone level air flows etc.
  10. 10. MicroFlo Features • Air flow and heat transfer in and around buildings; • Simulate both internal and external air flow and thermal problems; • Pre-set initial conditions for quicker convergence; • Discretisation options: Upwind (default), Hybrid and Power Law; • A simulation monitor enables you to run, pause and re-start calculations. Inputs: • Boundary conditions (Air / surface temperatures, mass-flows, gains etc.) • Surface object properties (e.g. grilles); • Shading surfaces (e.g. buildings, topographical etc.) • CFD components (e.g. Radiators, air heat source) Outputs: • internal air flow temperature, direction and velocity • external air flow direction and velocity • external static pressure
  11. 11. VistaPro result Visualisation • Visualisation and analysis (Post-processing); • Room and Node state display • HVAC process display – Sensible cooling & heating, – Humidification and heating – De-humidification and cooling – Adiabatic mixing, cooling • Time stepping • Comfort Zones • State frequency provides a very powerful visual overview of a node’s air conditions for a given date
  12. 12. Performance Components • Pre-built manufacturer assemblies imported to the Virtual Environment, providing a mix of geometry and thermal data as per manufacturer specification • Components fall into three distinct categories: – Object – placed within rooms (e.g. CFD heat source, Monodraught CoolPhase) – Space – part of the building model geometry (e.g. Windcatcher) – Panel – placed on a surface (e.g. ActiMass activated concrete thermal mass)
  13. 13. ASHRAE NET-ZERO ENERGY CASE STUDY Credit to Liam Buckley (IES) and the ASHRAE IES ZNE Team
  14. 14. 5,000 m2 (53,600 ft2), 3- storey commercial office: • Minimum window-to-wall ratio: 30% • Minimum Energy Code: ASHRAE 90.1-2010 • Maximum Site Energy Use Intensity (EUI): 0 • Occupants: 268 • Minimum ventilation: ASHRAE 62.1-2007 • Plug loads: 8 W/m2 (0.75 W/ft2) • Occupied Heating Setpoint: 21°C (70°F) • Occupied Cooling Setpoint: 24°C (75°F) • Data Centre Load: 6 kW • Elevators: 2 Elevators in Core of Building • Service Hot Water: 1 gallon/day/person • Utility Rates: US-EIA Flat rates • The use of one design tool ASHRAE ZNE Challenge
  15. 15. Zero-Net Energy Design Model The Design Team’s Meetings • Realistic design in a challenging climate • Boulder, Colorado • TMY15 (2000-2014) • -4° to 93°F [-20 to 34oC] ext. dry bulb • 6% to 100% ext. RH • Large diurnal swings (30°F)
  16. 16. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Early Baseline EUI Target • Baseline EUI: 33 kBtu/ft2/yr • Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/yr • Target EUI Reduction: 13 kBtu/ft2/yr
  17. 17. Zero-Net Energy Design Model The Final Architectural Design • New Baseline EUI: 53 kBtu/ft2/yr • Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/yr • Target EUI Reduction: 33 kBtu/ft2/yr
  18. 18. Zero-Net Energy Design Model 60 Second Virtual Tour of The Final Architectural Design
  19. 19. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Solar Shading & PV-T Optimization • Limit Solar Gains in Summer • Maximize Solar Gains in Winter • Maximize PV-T Potential Incident Solar Radiation:
  20. 20. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Renewable Wind Energy • Net Zero Goal – More Renewables! • Building shape funnels wind (+3ft/sec) • Wind = power • PV-T Panels • PV-T and waste heat combo • Payback <5 years Predominant Westerly Winds
  21. 21. Zero-Net Energy Design Model ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort • Run Natural Ventilation simulations with operable windows/vents; overheating. • Relocate printer stations & coffee stations to north office areas. Re-evaluate. • Utilize summertime diurnal swing and night-purge. • Expose thermal mass of internal floors. • No offices above 25°C for 5% of occupied time (104 hours/year). • No offices above 27°C for 1% of occupied time (21 hours/year).
  22. 22. Zero-Net Energy Design Model • Diurnal Swing ~ 30 degrees. • Summertime heating setpoints were relaxed to (65°F/58°F) in cooling season. • Analysis of operative temperature: ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort Outside Dry-Bulb Temperature (°F) Effective Night Purge Control (11pm-3am) PPD (%) Snapshot:
  23. 23. Zero-Net Energy Design Model ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort • Internal Operable Windows to Atrium • Atrium is Negatively Pressurized. Temp.OP (°F) Snapshot: 60-80°F PPD (%) Snapshot: 0-20%
  24. 24. Zero-Net Energy Design Model • Proof of Concept: ECM: Atrium Design
  25. 25. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Adaptive Thermal Comfort in the Offices • Office Cross-Ventilation in Summer • Office Cross-Ventilation in Spring/Fall • Warm air rising and mixing. • Cool air falling, but radiant floor eliminates cold draughts at ankles. During winter, preheated OA is mechanically supplied to spaces.
  26. 26. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Future-Proofing the ZNE Status • WeatherShift morphed the weather file 50 years. • (2000-2014) to (2046-2065). • Projected EUI improved!?! • Warmer Winters • Warmer Summers • 1,500 more hours between 60-75°F • Internal Adaptive Comfort Ranges were uncomfortable. • Some cooling is required
  27. 27. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Future-Proofing ECM: Passive Down-Draught Evap. Cool Tower Moisture Content Added Air Temperature Decreased
  28. 28. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Thank You – Questions/Comments
  29. 29. Research Outlook
  30. 30. EINSTEIN Project • EINSTEIN: Simulation Enhanced Integrated Systems for Model-based Intelligent Control(s) • Funding: EU-funded Marie Curie IAPP Project (3 years) • Partners: IES and TCD • Topics – Fault Detection – Prediction – Optimisation – Overall system integration
  31. 31. Fault Detection – Knowledge / Rule-based: uses expert user experience – Data-driven: uses historical building data, Statistical Methods, Empirical Data, Machine Learning – Model-based; uses a calibrated detailed system model
  32. 32. Prediction / Optimisation • Multi-objective control optimisation; • Complies with user-specified constraints (e.g. comfort); • Fault-tolerant control; • Integrates predicted weather conditions, building thermal response, occupancy and economics (i.e. electricity / gas tariff);
  33. 33. Overall Integration Building Data IES-SCAN Modelling / Prediction Fault Detection / Optimisation Intervention (DSS / Controls)
  34. 34. Useful Links IES-VE Software • MacroFlo: https://www.iesve.com/software/ve-for-engineers/module/MacroFlo/462 • MicroFlo: https://www.iesve.com/software/ve-for-engineers/module/MicroFlo/463 • DiscoverIES Blog: https://www.iesve.com/discoveries/ ASHRAE Lowdown Showdown Case Study • CIBSE Article: http://www.cibsejournal.com/technical/down-to-zero-winner-of-ashrae-modelling- competition/ • IES Blog: http://blog.iesve.com/index.php/2015/10/14/the-ashrae-lowdown-showdown-we-won/ • LowDown Showdown Video Overview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsbms0uB6w8
  35. 35. Thank you! Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI Research Fellow, Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd. Adjunct Lecturer, National University of Ireland Galway Secretary, ASHRAE Ireland Email: daniel.coakley@iesve.com Web: www.iesve.com Technical Seminar: Ventilative Cooling & Overheating , April 20, CIT, Cork

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