TEACHERS – A MAJOR FACTOR FORSUCCESSFUL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMSArja Virta, Professor in History and Social Science Education,H...
Finland – country inNorhern EuropeArea: 340 000 squarekilometersPopulation: 5,3 million;density 17 people / squarekmTypica...
OTSIKKOTekstiä
Characteristics ofFinnish Education
5Characteristics of Finnish EducationLaukkanen (2008), Niemi et al. (2012), Sahlberg (2011)1.  Common, consistent and long...
The case of Finland is unique n Europe§  The administration of Finnish schools is decentralized.§  Most of the Finnish p...
7The Finnish educational system§  The Finnish educational systemconsists of§  comprehensive school (=basiceducation) (gr...
Education system ofFinland8
COMBINING EQUITY ANDQUALITY IN EDUCATION§  The present learning society andthe global information society havegenerated a...
Teaching and learning in comprehensiveschools2/26/13§  Education is provided free ofcharge including all textbooksand war...
General EducationalIdeas in the CoreCurriculum- Learning depends on thelearners previously constructedknowledge, motivatio...
School subjects in comprehensive school(total number of lessons hours, yearly)12Mother tongueand literature(Finnish/Swedis...
Special education in Finland is preventingdrop-outs§  8.5 % of all students are with special educationneeds.§  Special e...
Australia	  Austria	  Belgium	  Czech	  Republic	  Denmark	  Finland	  France	  Germany	  Greece	  Hungary	  Iceland	  Ire...
Upper Secondary Education§  50 % of the students go the upper-secondaryschool;and another 50 % take vocational studies.§...
Teachers and TeacherEducation2/26/13
§  Universities have reponsibilityfor educating teachers forcompulsory education (basiceducation), upper secon daryschool...
2/26/13Characteristics of Teacher Educationin Finland§  All teacher education for general education takes place inunivers...
2/26/13Teachers’ Qualifications bySchool Forms in Finland(based on Jakku-Sihvonen & Niemi 2006, 11)Age School form Teacher...
§ UNIVEStructure of Academic DegreesDEAGREESStructure ofBachelors degree180 ECTS credits3 yearsMasters degree120 ECTS cre...
2/26/13Impact of the Bologna Process(reform in the begining of 2000s)§  The programmes for teacher education were reforme...
The present vision in Finnish teacher education ofthe ideal teacher§  high-level subject knowledge and pedagogical conten...
2/26/13Primary School Teacher Education(MA, teaching grades 1–6) (adapted from Jakku-Sihvonen & Niemi 2006, 38)Components ...
2/26/13Education of Subject-specific Teachers(= grades 7-9 and upper secondary) (ibid.,39)Components BA 180ECTSMA 120ECTST...
DEGREE STRUCTURE:KINDERGARTEN TEACHER EDUCATION§  BA 180 ECTS•  Language & Communication Studies 20 ECTS•  Basic 25 ECTS ...
2/26/13Components of Subject TeacherEducation§  Subject Studies in the Faculties of Humanities /Science / Social Sciences...
2/26/13CharacteristicsDouble qualifications:§  Teacher education departments provide education forteacher qualifications ...
2/26/13Characteristics (both in primary and secondaryschool teacher education)§  Internship / teaching practice§  Practi...
§  The quality of supervision in teacher training schools isconsidered to be particularly high§  The functional connecti...
2/26/13Selection of students to teacher education§  Primary school teacher education§  A highly popular study programme ...
APPLICANTS IN NUMBERS:CLASS TEACHER EDUCATION, TURKU
2/26/13Selection of students to subjectteacher education§  MAIN STRUCTURES OF SELECTION1.  Step 1: entrance tests to subj...
2/26/13Main elements of the selectionprocedures to subject teacher studies§  Large variations between universities andsub...
2/26/13Aptitude tests for subject teacher educationDifferent variations:§  Individual interviews§  Group interviews§  P...
2/26/13Assessment and supervision procedures insubject teacher educationStudies in generaleducation and subjectdidactics§...
2/26/13The purpose of assessment in teacher education§  Assessment is not art for art’s sake butinstrumental in supportin...
2/26/13Sustainable assessment – something for teachereducation§  Sustainable assessment can be seen as assessment for the...
2/26/13Authentic assessment in teacher education§  Purpose: to support the students’ professionallearning and development...
§  The quality of supervision in teacher training schools is consideredto be particularly high§  The functional connecti...
2/26/13Examples from history didactics1. beginning of the autumn§  DESCRIBE your teachers (good teacher, bad teacher, tea...
2/26/133. during the winter and spring§  CONSTRUCTING THE PORTFOLIO§  selections from previous essays and other work§  ...
2/26/13Examples from teaching practice(assessment & supervision)§  Criteria for assessment (for example): students’commit...
2/26/13examples§  REFLECTION BOOK in teaching practice§  Contents:§  student teacher’s reflections on his/her experienc...
2/26/13Teacher EducationProgrammes in TurkuStudy Programmes:§  Master’s programmes (major: education) qualifying forclass...
2/26/13Other EducationalProgrammes in Turku§  The Faculty of Education also offers in-service courses for kindergartentea...
ACTIVE IN INTERNATIONALCOOPERATION§ Research projects and programmes§ Global academic networks§ Student & staff exchang...
All Finnish Departments of TeacherEducation are also research institutionsRATIONALE§  The present learningsociety and the...
Scope of Researchinterests§  Research at macro-level promotesunderstanding of how to secure equality withhigh levels of p...
§  CENTRE FOR LEARNING RESEARCH in Turku§  A joint research unit of the Faculty of Education and the Department ofPsycho...
المعلمون عامل أساسي لنظم التعليم الناجحة الانعكاسات القائمة على تعليم المدرسين الفنلنديين
المعلمون عامل أساسي لنظم التعليم الناجحة الانعكاسات القائمة على تعليم المدرسين الفنلنديين
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المعلمون عامل أساسي لنظم التعليم الناجحة الانعكاسات القائمة على تعليم المدرسين الفنلنديين

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Arja Virta, Professor in History and Social Science Education,
Head of the Department of Teacher Education,Vice-Dean of Faculty of Education

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المعلمون عامل أساسي لنظم التعليم الناجحة الانعكاسات القائمة على تعليم المدرسين الفنلنديين

  1. 1. TEACHERS – A MAJOR FACTOR FORSUCCESSFUL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMSArja Virta, Professor in History and Social Science Education,Head of the Department of Teacher Education,Vice-Dean of Faculty of Education
  2. 2. Finland – country inNorhern EuropeArea: 340 000 squarekilometersPopulation: 5,3 million;density 17 people / squarekmTypical: low rate ofcorruption;Stability in economyQualified labour force2/26/13
  3. 3. OTSIKKOTekstiä
  4. 4. Characteristics ofFinnish Education
  5. 5. 5Characteristics of Finnish EducationLaukkanen (2008), Niemi et al. (2012), Sahlberg (2011)1.  Common, consistent and long-term policy- basic structures for teacher & comprehensive education are based onlong-term development (1970s decisive decisions)à continuous work2.  Educational equality- need to mitigate socio/economic backgrounds- education is free (books, meals, health care, …)- well-organised special education (inclusion) and counselling(personalisation of education)3.  Devolution of decision power to the local level- leadership and management at school level (headmaster/ Principal)- teachers are responsible for local curriculum and assessment4.  The culture of trust and co-operation are based onteachers’ professionalism (as academic experts):- no private tutoring or evening schools
  6. 6. The case of Finland is unique n Europe§  The administration of Finnish schools is decentralized.§  Most of the Finnish pupils go to the nearest schools.§  Schools are autonomous.§  High performance of Finnish pupils in global assessments onstudents’ learning achievements, like PISA.§  Parental trust on teachers and schools: there are no inspection orexternal evaluation systems in Finnish schools.§  On-going research projects focused on these issues:§  Quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) as a form of governance ofbasic education§  School choice policies and their effects on restructuring of publicschooling2/26/13
  7. 7. 7The Finnish educational system§  The Finnish educational systemconsists of§  comprehensive school (=basiceducation) (grade 1–9),§  upper secondary school or vocationalschool (grade 10–12),§  higher education (3 + 2 years) and§  adult education.
  8. 8. Education system ofFinland8
  9. 9. COMBINING EQUITY ANDQUALITY IN EDUCATION§  The present learning society andthe global information society havegenerated a greater need foreducation and educational researchthan ever before2/26/13
  10. 10. Teaching and learning in comprehensiveschools2/26/13§  Education is provided free ofcharge including all textbooksand warm meals every day.§  A school day is five lessonsduring the first two yearsand up to seven lessons afterthat(19 – 30 lessons per week).§  A school year is 190 schooldays
  11. 11. General EducationalIdeas in the CoreCurriculum- Learning depends on thelearners previously constructedknowledge, motivation, and…… learning is an active and goal-oriented process… collective problem-solving… Learning is situational,2/26/13
  12. 12. School subjects in comprehensive school(total number of lessons hours, yearly)12Mother tongueand literature(Finnish/Swedish)42Other domesticlanguage 6(Swedish or Fin)Foreignlanguages16Voulntarylanguage12Mathematics32Sciencesubjects31Civics , religion orethics 11History , socialstudies 10Physicaleducation , music ,visual arts, craft56Optional subjects
  13. 13. Special education in Finland is preventingdrop-outs§  8.5 % of all students are with special educationneeds.§  Special education need students:§  55 % are integrated into normal classes :§  30 % are attending special education classes,located in mainstream schools§  15 % in special schools§  An Individual Education Plan13
  14. 14. Australia  Austria  Belgium  Czech  Republic  Denmark  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Iceland  Ireland  Italy  Japan  Korea  Mexico  Netherlands  New  Zealand  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Slovak  Republic   Spain  Sweden   Switzerland  Turkey  United  Kingdom  United  States  400  425  450  475  500  525  550  575  0   10000   20000   30000   40000   50000   60000   70000   80000   90000   100000  PISA ScienceperformanceCumulative expenditure (US$ converted using PPPs)
  15. 15. Upper Secondary Education§  50 % of the students go the upper-secondaryschool;and another 50 % take vocational studies.§  In the upper secondary schools students haveabout 30 lesson hours per week§  There are 50 mandatory courses and 15-20courses by free choice§  The national matriculation examination.
  16. 16. Teachers and TeacherEducation2/26/13
  17. 17. §  Universities have reponsibilityfor educating teachers forcompulsory education (basiceducation), upper secon daryschools, and also forkindergartens and pre-schools.§  It is the responsibility ofeducational faculties; some ofthem have units in two cities§  Universities of arts have alsoteacher education§  Every university has a trainingschool (or two), which areadministratively part ofuniveristyOuluRovaniemiSavonlinnaHelsinkiRaumaKokkolaVaasaTampereJyväskylä JoensuuTurkuDepartments of TeacherEducation in Finland
  18. 18. 2/26/13Characteristics of Teacher Educationin Finland§  All teacher education for general education takes place inuniversities§  All these teachers take MA level degrees§  Primary school teachers (= class teachers) (for grades 1-6) major in education§  Subject-specific teachers in compulsory school fromgrades7–9, and in senior secondary school (=13–19 year olds)§  Note: Kindergarten teachers (children 1–6 year) take BA,majoring in pedagogy§  Teacher education for vocational schools is arranged bycolleges for vocational teacher training (and in some subjects,in universities)
  19. 19. 2/26/13Teachers’ Qualifications bySchool Forms in Finland(based on Jakku-Sihvonen & Niemi 2006, 11)Age School form Teachers’qualification0–6 Kindergarten Kindergarten teachers(BA)6 Optional pre-school Kindergarten teachers(BA) or class teachers7–12 Basic education (compulsory) grades 1-6 Class teachers (MA),subject teachers13–15 Basic education (compulsory) grades 7 -9 Subject-specific teachers(MA, MSc)16 – Upper secondary schools Subject-specific teachers(MA, MSc)16 – Vocational schools Vocational or subjectteachers
  20. 20. § UNIVEStructure of Academic DegreesDEAGREESStructure ofBachelors degree180 ECTS credits3 yearsMasters degree120 ECTS credits2 yearsDoctoral degree(Licentiate degree)4 years
  21. 21. 2/26/13Impact of the Bologna Process(reform in the begining of 2000s)§  The programmes for teacher education were reformedon basis of the recommendations given by the nationalworking group in education§  Introduction of the ECTS system§  All programmes divided to BA and MA level degrees(basically even before the Bologna process)§  Analysis of core substance in every course§  MA as basic requirement for teaching in schools fromelementary level
  22. 22. The present vision in Finnish teacher education ofthe ideal teacher§  high-level subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge,and knowledge about how knowledge is constructed,§  academic competences, like research skills; skills to usepedagogically Information and Communication Technology, skillsneeded in the processes of developing a curricula,§  social skills, like communication skills; skill to cooperate with otherteachers,§  knowledge about the school as an institute and its connections tosociety (school community and partners, local contexts andstakeholders),§  moral knowledge and skills, like the social and moral code of theteaching profession,§  competence needed for developing one’s own teaching and theteaching profession.§ 2/26/13
  23. 23. 2/26/13Primary School Teacher Education(MA, teaching grades 1–6) (adapted from Jakku-Sihvonen & Niemi 2006, 38)Components of Class Teacher Education BA 180ECTSMA 120ECTSTotal 300ECTSMain Subject (general education):pedagogical studies; educational research;scientific writing; theses60 includingteachingpractice; BAthesis80 (MAthesis20-40ECTS(practice)140subject studies in school subjects for grades1 to )60 60Academic studies, minor subjects 25 0 - 35 25 - 60Other studies (language, ICT…) 35 5 – 40 40 -75
  24. 24. 2/26/13Education of Subject-specific Teachers(= grades 7-9 and upper secondary) (ibid.,39)Components BA 180ECTSMA 120ECTSTotal 300ECTSAcademic studies in themain subject60 (incl. BAThesis 10ECTS inmain subject60-90 (inclMA thesis20-40ECTS)120 - 150Academic studies in minorsubjects25 - 60 0 - 30 25 - 90Subject teachers’pedagogical studiesgeneral education; subjectdidactics, practice25-30 30-35 60 (min. 20teachingpractice)Other studies 35 - 40 0-30 35-70
  25. 25. DEGREE STRUCTURE:KINDERGARTEN TEACHER EDUCATION§  BA 180 ECTS•  Language & Communication Studies 20 ECTS•  Basic 25 ECTS & Intermediate Studies 35 ECTS in Education•  Professional Studies 60 ECTS•  Minor Subject Studies or Electives 40 ECTS
  26. 26. 2/26/13Components of Subject TeacherEducation§  Subject Studies in the Faculties of Humanities /Science / Social Sciences (etc.)§  Teacher Studies:a) educational studiesb) subject didacticsc) practical training§  Provision of teacher training taking place in Departmentsof Education / Teacher Education; and practical trainingin University training schools
  27. 27. 2/26/13CharacteristicsDouble qualifications:§  Teacher education departments provide education forteacher qualifications on two levels:§  Primary teacher + 60 ECTS subject studies à able toteach also at higher grades in compulsory school(grades 1–9)§  Subject matter teacher + 60 ECTS primary teachers’curriculum studies (also qualified for 1–9)§  Primary teacher + special education teaching
  28. 28. 2/26/13Characteristics (both in primary and secondaryschool teacher education)§  Internship / teaching practice§  Practical training / internship is mainlyorganised in university training schools(”normal schools”), which belong to theFaculty of Education§  Depending on resources, part of internshipcan be arranged in municipal schools§  Qualification as a teacher: directly aftergraduation
  29. 29. §  The quality of supervision in teacher training schools isconsidered to be particularly high§  The functional connection between teacher trainingschools, departments of teacher education and otheruniversity departments§  Applying educational and didactical theory and know-how in practiceEvaluation of teaching practice and supervision2/26/13Selection ofstudents toteacher education
  30. 30. 2/26/13Selection of students to teacher education§  Primary school teacher education§  A highly popular study programme (10-15 % ofapplicants are yearly selected; about 20 % ofbeginning students are males)§  Entrance tests§  the national test for educational programs (VAKAVA),based on literature [common test for primary teachers andsome other programs with general education as major] ANDbest of these applicants are invited to§  local entrance tests at teacher education departments(variations in test forms: interviews, group interviews,problem-solving tasks, tests on mathematical thinking etc.)
  31. 31. APPLICANTS IN NUMBERS:CLASS TEACHER EDUCATION, TURKU
  32. 32. 2/26/13Selection of students to subjectteacher education§  MAIN STRUCTURES OF SELECTION1.  Step 1: entrance tests to subject departments, and step 2:later on, specific aptitude tests for teacher studies [mainalternative]2. Direct selection to subject teacher studies§  (part of) students are selected at the same time to subject studies+ teacher education [directly aptitude tests + subject mattertests] – in some universities: languages, mathematics, chemistry,physics; religious education [not very usual]§  physical education, household economy, sloyd/handicraft, music,arts [in these subjects, the main procedure](VARIATIONS between universities and departments in selectionto subject studies)
  33. 33. 2/26/13Main elements of the selectionprocedures to subject teacher studies§  Large variations between universities andsubject areas§  SOME MAIN COMPONENTS§  preliminary selection (in some cases)§  aptitude tests [normally a board of three universityteachers assess the applicants]§  additional tasks / assignments / performance tests§  (in some cases) assignments / tasks given in advance§  (in some cases) written tests, used combined toaptitude tests
  34. 34. 2/26/13Aptitude tests for subject teacher educationDifferent variations:§  Individual interviews§  Group interviews§  Presentations (applicant has for instance task tobe done in advance and to present in testsituation)§  Group discussions; problem-solving tasks ingroup§  Combination of a written test and aptitude test
  35. 35. 2/26/13Assessment and supervision procedures insubject teacher educationStudies in generaleducation and subjectdidactics§  Assessment as in anyacademic studies:§  Course evaluations(examinations,assignments, seminars,portfolios)§  Both formative andsummative asessments§  Scale 5–1, or pass/fail§  Internship / teachingpractice§  Scale: pass /fail§  Assessment closelyconnected to feedbackand supervision§  A teacher student can geta description of thecontents of internship [e gof specific skills trained]
  36. 36. 2/26/13The purpose of assessment in teacher education§  Assessment is not art for art’s sake butinstrumental in supporting other purposes; has adouble duty in teacher training: both assessmentof learning and for learning (feedout / feedback/feedforward). FOCUS more and more on ’forlearning’ purposes§  àPreparing for a profession, professionaldevelopment, life-long learning§  à sustainable assessment (cf. Boud 2000)
  37. 37. 2/26/13Sustainable assessment – something for teachereducation§  Sustainable assessment can be seen as assessment for thelearning society§  Essential:§  confidence in the learners’ capacity to learn; telling aboutstrengths – not emphasising weaknesses à§  assessment – promoting learning and development, notpreventing it§  emphasis on self-assessment and peer assessment; self-monitoring; assessing is not (only or mainly) a domain forexternal assessors§  effective self-assessment requires the clarification of criteria andstandards§  à capacity to assess and to think criticallySEE: Boud, D. 2000. Sustainable assessment: rethinking assessment for the learning society.Studies in Continuing Education 22(2),151-167
  38. 38. 2/26/13Authentic assessment in teacher education§  Purpose: to support the students’ professionallearning and development, reflection of one’sown development and learning§  Elements of this both in teaching practice andsubject didactics (portfolios, written reflectionson one’s own development, analysis of previousbeliefs and own school history; analysis of one’sown goals; analysis of own teaching);§  Linking theory to practice, general education andsubject didactics to own school practicies andprofessional learning
  39. 39. §  The quality of supervision in teacher training schools is consideredto be particularly high§  The functional connection between teacher training schools,departments of teacher education and other university departments§  Applying educational and didactical theory and know-how in practice§  Evaluation of teaching practice and supervision2/26/13
  40. 40. 2/26/13Examples from history didactics1. beginning of the autumn§  DESCRIBE your teachers (good teacher, bad teacher, teacher whohad an influence on you…)§  What kind of teacher would you become2. during the autumn§  YOU AND HISTORY§  how did you become interested in history; how did you study at school and inuniversity; what have been important learning experiences for you§  describe your ‘philosophy of teaching history’ now (your goals as teacher)§  OBSERVATIONS FROM LESSONS; “anatomy of a history lesson”§  OBSERVATIONS FROM HISTORY LESSONS IN CULTURALLYDIVERSE CLASSES
  41. 41. 2/26/133. during the winter and spring§  CONSTRUCTING THE PORTFOLIO§  selections from previous essays and other work§  early reflections revisited (e g ‘philosophy of teaching’)§  NEW THEMES§  THEME 1: your development as a teacher (reflections ondevelopment and learning during teacher studies, criticalincidents during the year)§  THEME 2: history and social studies teachers’ competence;what is it – where are you now; - here also practical examples:lesson plans, teaching materials + analysis of themPRESENTATION IN SEMINARS; written feedback
  42. 42. 2/26/13Examples from teaching practice(assessment & supervision)§  Criteria for assessment (for example): students’commitment, interaction skills, subjectknowledge, goal orientation, assessment skills;responsibility; goals and criteria become morechallenging towards the end of practicum§  FEEDBACK is a form of assessment; interactiveassessment; assessment discussions§  SELF-ASSESSMENT; PEER ASSESSMENT
  43. 43. 2/26/13examples§  REFLECTION BOOK in teaching practice§  Contents:§  student teacher’s reflections on his/her experience,ideas and feelings during the practicum, about thelessons, successes and failures§  written feedback from supervisors§  lesson plans and other stuff created during thepracticum§  can be used as a basis in discussions with thesupervisors
  44. 44. 2/26/13Teacher EducationProgrammes in TurkuStudy Programmes:§  Master’s programmes (major: education) qualifying forclass teacher posts in primary education§  Master’s programmes in sloyd (handicraft)§  Kindergraten teacher education§  Pedagogical studies for subject teachers (minors)qualifying for subject teacher posts in secondaryeducation for subject students majoring in University’sother faculties.§  Pedagogical studies for subject teachers, focus on adultand vocational schools§  Special eduction teachers
  45. 45. 2/26/13Other EducationalProgrammes in Turku§  The Faculty of Education also offers in-service courses for kindergartenteachers as well as class and subject teachers§  Pedagogical Studies for higher education teachers§  PhD studies§  Llees – International Master’s Program
  46. 46. ACTIVE IN INTERNATIONALCOOPERATION§ Research projects and programmes§ Global academic networks§ Student & staff exchanges§ Joint curriculum development
  47. 47. All Finnish Departments of TeacherEducation are also research institutionsRATIONALE§  The present learningsociety and the globalinformation societyhave§  generated a greaterneed for education andeducational researchthan ever beforeHighlights§  Creating equity, competenceand expertise§  Supporting individual andcollaborative knowledge andskills in science and technology§  National and transnationalresearch on educational policyand systems assessing§  Social equity and justicethrough life course2/26/13
  48. 48. Scope of Researchinterests§  Research at macro-level promotesunderstanding of how to secure equality withhigh levels of performance in Finnisheducation in an increasingly competitiveglobal environment from local…toglobal…from national…to transnational2/26/13
  49. 49. §  CENTRE FOR LEARNING RESEARCH in Turku§  A joint research unit of the Faculty of Education and the Department ofPsychology.§  Research focuses on the long-term development of basic competences (reading,mathematics and science), motivation,metacognition, and social relations inschool Learning§  Important research areas are the use of technology in developing learningenvironments and the challenges of rapid technological and organizationalchanges for expertise development in different fields, such as medicine, businessadministration and engineering.OTHER AREAS OF INTEREST§  Teaching and Learning processes in various school subjects and related areas§  Multicultural education§  Teachers’ work; teacher education2/26/13

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