Dr. Michelle P. Kelly, BCBA®- D










Undergraduate Special
Education Program
ASD track and LD track
ABA Courses
Clinical Practicum
Free electiv...
What is behavior?

3
What is Applied Behavior
Analysis (ABA)?

4









ABA is an applied science
ABA consists of principles and procedures
ABA addresses the educational needs of...
Mental Health: A report of the U.S. Surgeon General
(1999; p. 164)

“Thirty years of research demonstrated
the efficacy of...
Reinforce effectively
 Visual schedules
 Token boards
 Behavior contracts
 Fluency-based instruction
 Reducing proble...
 Reinforce

effectively

Visual schedules
 Token boards
 Behavior contracts
 Fluency-based instruction
 Reducing prob...
“I’ve tried reinforcement and
it doesn’t work”

9
Positive reinforcement is any stimulus,
when presented after the occurrence of a behavior,
that increases the
future occur...
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

Ignore inappropriate behavior
Reinforce immediately
Reinforce contingently
Individualize the reinforc...
1.

Ignore inappropriate behavior

12
“Catch them being
good”

13
1.
2.

Ignore inappropriate behavior
Reinforce immediately

14
1.
2.
3.

Ignore inappropriate behavior
Reinforce immediately
Reinforce contingently

15
1.
2.
3.

4.

Ignore inappropriate behavior
Reinforce immediately
Reinforce contingently
Individualize the reinforcers

16
3

types:
1- ask
2- observe
3- test
Cooper, Heron & Heward (2007)

17
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Ignore inappropriate behavior
Reinforce immediately
Reinforce contingently
Individualize the reinforcers
...
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

Ignore inappropriate behavior
Reinforce immediately
Reinforce contingently
Individualize the reinforc...
20
21
22
23


See video # 1

24
25


Reinforce effectively

 Visual

schedules

Token boards
 Behavior contracts
 Fluency-based instruction
 Reducing pr...







Across
Across
Across
Across
Across

a
a
a
a
a

task
session
day
week
month


The Premack Principle, often called
"grandma's rule"



A high frequency activity can be used to
reinforce low frequen...
myausomeson.blogspot.com






3 students with autism and behavior disorders
Given 6-minute access to play materials contingent upon
completion ...
Reinforce effectively
 Visual schedules


 Token

boards

Behavior contracts
 Fluency-based instruction
 Reducing pro...
Token Economies
“One of the most important technologies of
behavior modifiers and applied behavior
analysts over the last ...




1.

2.
3.

“A behavior change system” (Cooper, Heron
& Heward, 2007, p. 560)

3 components:
Target behaviors
Tokens
...


goldintheclouds-faith.blogspot.com
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

Select tokens
Identify target behaviors and
rules
Select backup reinforcer
How many tokens needed
When a...
© Dar Al-Hekma College 2013
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Portable
Value does not change
Durable
Can be unique
Can control
Immediate delivery
Easy to general...
Reinforce effectively
 Visual schedules
 Token boards


 Behavior

contracts

Fluency-based instruction
 Reducing pro...





Document
Specifies a contingent relationship
Completion of a behavior and access to a
specified reward

(Cooper, H...




1st grade
student
Hillcrest
School, New
Jersey, USA
55
© Dar Al-Hekma College 2013
57


1.
2.

3.

3 parts:
Description of the task
Description of the reward
Task record
Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007, page 552
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Contract must be negotiated and agreed
upon
Follow guidelines for reinforcing effectively
It should be fai...
Reinforce effectively
 Visual schedules
 Token boards
 Behavior contracts


 Fluency-based


instruction

Reducing p...
Fluency in responding involves the following:












Easy to do
Mastery
Flexible
Smooth
Remembered
Can app...
http://www.fluency.org/Zemke_Binder_2003_Training.pdf
Fluent=
accurate and fast

64
Maintenance
Endurance
Stability
Application
Generativity


See video # 2

66
67
S -- say
A -- all
F -- fast
M -- minute
E -- every
D -- day
S -- shuffle


See video

69
70
71
Reinforce effectively
 Visual schedules
 Token boards
 Behavior contracts
 Fluency-based instruction


 Reducing

pr...
1.

Behavior is affected by the environment

2.

Behavior is purposeful- serves a function

3.

Need to teach replacement ...
1.

Behavior is affected by context

Use A-B-C model




We need to analyze antecedents and consequences
Antecedents: c...
2. Behavior is purposeful- serves a function
S
T
E
A
M
www.ideachampions.com
Sensory
T
E
A
M
www.ideachampions.com
Sensory
Tangibles
E
A
M
www.ideachampions.com
Sensory
Tangibles
Escape
A
M
www.ideachampions.com
Sensory
Tangibles
Escape
Attention
M
www.ideachampions.com
Sensory
Tangibles
Escape
Attention
Medical
www.ideachampions.com
3. Need to teach replacement behaviors
Reinforce effectively
 Visual schedules
 Token boards
 Behavior contracts
 Fluency-based instruction
 Reducing proble...
Questions?
mkelly@dah.edu.sa
www.dah.edu.sa

84
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for I...
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Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for Individuals with Special Needs - IEFE Forum 2014

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Dr. Michelle P. Kelly,
BCBA®- D

Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for Individuals with Special Needs

IEFE Forum 2014

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Dr. Michelle P. Kelly - Empowering Parents and Teachers with Effective Evidence-Based Behavior Management Strategies for Individuals with Special Needs - IEFE Forum 2014

  1. 1. Dr. Michelle P. Kelly, BCBA®- D
  2. 2.       Undergraduate Special Education Program ASD track and LD track ABA Courses Clinical Practicum Free elective- Behavior Management Contact: mkelly@dah.edu.sa 2
  3. 3. What is behavior? 3
  4. 4. What is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)? 4
  5. 5.        ABA is an applied science ABA consists of principles and procedures ABA addresses the educational needs of a wide range of learners Direct observation Evidence-based Data-driven Constantly evolving
  6. 6. Mental Health: A report of the U.S. Surgeon General (1999; p. 164) “Thirty years of research demonstrated the efficacy of applied behavioral methods in reducing inappropriate behavior and in increasing communication, learning, and appropriate social behavior.”
  7. 7. Reinforce effectively  Visual schedules  Token boards  Behavior contracts  Fluency-based instruction  Reducing problem behavior  7
  8. 8.  Reinforce effectively Visual schedules  Token boards  Behavior contracts  Fluency-based instruction  Reducing problem behavior  8
  9. 9. “I’ve tried reinforcement and it doesn’t work” 9
  10. 10. Positive reinforcement is any stimulus, when presented after the occurrence of a behavior, that increases the future occurrence of that behavior Examples 10
  11. 11. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ignore inappropriate behavior Reinforce immediately Reinforce contingently Individualize the reinforcers Restrict access to reinforcement Reinforce approximations of behavior 11
  12. 12. 1. Ignore inappropriate behavior 12
  13. 13. “Catch them being good” 13
  14. 14. 1. 2. Ignore inappropriate behavior Reinforce immediately 14
  15. 15. 1. 2. 3. Ignore inappropriate behavior Reinforce immediately Reinforce contingently 15
  16. 16. 1. 2. 3. 4. Ignore inappropriate behavior Reinforce immediately Reinforce contingently Individualize the reinforcers 16
  17. 17. 3 types: 1- ask 2- observe 3- test Cooper, Heron & Heward (2007) 17
  18. 18. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ignore inappropriate behavior Reinforce immediately Reinforce contingently Individualize the reinforcers Restrict access to reinforcement 18
  19. 19. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ignore inappropriate behavior Reinforce immediately Reinforce contingently Individualize the reinforcers Restrict access to reinforcement Reinforce approximations of behavior 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24.  See video # 1 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26.  Reinforce effectively  Visual schedules Token boards  Behavior contracts  Fluency-based instruction  Reducing problem behavior  26
  27. 27.      Across Across Across Across Across a a a a a task session day week month
  28. 28.  The Premack Principle, often called "grandma's rule"  A high frequency activity can be used to reinforce low frequency behavior  Access to the preferred activity (eg cars) is contingent on completing the lowfrequency behavior (eg reading)
  29. 29. myausomeson.blogspot.com
  30. 30.    3 students with autism and behavior disorders Given 6-minute access to play materials contingent upon completion of maths worksheets Each student’s completion rate increased and exceeded criterion levels
  31. 31. Reinforce effectively  Visual schedules   Token boards Behavior contracts  Fluency-based instruction  Reducing problem behavior  38
  32. 32. Token Economies “One of the most important technologies of behavior modifiers and applied behavior analysts over the last 40 years” -Matson & Boisjoli, 2009, p. 240
  33. 33.   1. 2. 3. “A behavior change system” (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007, p. 560) 3 components: Target behaviors Tokens A reinforcer
  34. 34.  goldintheclouds-faith.blogspot.com
  35. 35. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select tokens Identify target behaviors and rules Select backup reinforcer How many tokens needed When and how will tokens be given
  36. 36. © Dar Al-Hekma College 2013
  37. 37. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Portable Value does not change Durable Can be unique Can control Immediate delivery Easy to generalize 51
  38. 38. Reinforce effectively  Visual schedules  Token boards   Behavior contracts Fluency-based instruction  Reducing problem behavior  52
  39. 39.    Document Specifies a contingent relationship Completion of a behavior and access to a specified reward (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007)
  40. 40.   1st grade student Hillcrest School, New Jersey, USA
  41. 41. 55
  42. 42. © Dar Al-Hekma College 2013
  43. 43. 57
  44. 44.  1. 2. 3. 3 parts: Description of the task Description of the reward Task record
  45. 45. Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007, page 552
  46. 46. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Contract must be negotiated and agreed upon Follow guidelines for reinforcing effectively It should be fair Honest Should be positive
  47. 47. Reinforce effectively  Visual schedules  Token boards  Behavior contracts   Fluency-based  instruction Reducing problem behavior 61
  48. 48. Fluency in responding involves the following:            Easy to do Mastery Flexible Smooth Remembered Can apply No mistakes Quick Without thinking/automatic Expert not just accurate Confident
  49. 49. http://www.fluency.org/Zemke_Binder_2003_Training.pdf
  50. 50. Fluent= accurate and fast 64
  51. 51. Maintenance Endurance Stability Application Generativity
  52. 52.  See video # 2 66
  53. 53. 67
  54. 54. S -- say A -- all F -- fast M -- minute E -- every D -- day S -- shuffle
  55. 55.  See video 69
  56. 56. 70
  57. 57. 71
  58. 58. Reinforce effectively  Visual schedules  Token boards  Behavior contracts  Fluency-based instruction   Reducing problem behavior 72
  59. 59. 1. Behavior is affected by the environment 2. Behavior is purposeful- serves a function 3. Need to teach replacement behaviors
  60. 60. 1. Behavior is affected by context Use A-B-C model    We need to analyze antecedents and consequences Antecedents: cue behavior Consequences: maintain behavior
  61. 61. 2. Behavior is purposeful- serves a function
  62. 62. S T E A M www.ideachampions.com
  63. 63. Sensory T E A M www.ideachampions.com
  64. 64. Sensory Tangibles E A M www.ideachampions.com
  65. 65. Sensory Tangibles Escape A M www.ideachampions.com
  66. 66. Sensory Tangibles Escape Attention M www.ideachampions.com
  67. 67. Sensory Tangibles Escape Attention Medical www.ideachampions.com
  68. 68. 3. Need to teach replacement behaviors
  69. 69. Reinforce effectively  Visual schedules  Token boards  Behavior contracts  Fluency-based instruction  Reducing problem behavior  83
  70. 70. Questions? mkelly@dah.edu.sa www.dah.edu.sa 84

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