Helping pupils with special needs
achieve their potential
Dee Reid
Series Editor
Consultant
What are special needs?


Pupils with special needs face unusual barriers to
their full and effective participation in so...
What facilitates learning?
Research shows that learning is maximised when:


it takes place in a context of great meaning...
The route to literacy for the special needs child
Listening to the language of books
Following reading
Talking (from words...
Poor word
recognition; good
comprehension

Poor word
recognition; poor
comprehension

Good word
recognition; good
comprehe...
The differing needs of children
Dyslexia:

good comprehension skills
poor word recognition skills

Autism Spectrum: poor c...
Listening to the language of books
Reading aloud to children enables them to engage with
both the content of the text and ...
Why read aloud to special needs children?
Reading aloud to children contributes directly to their
early literacy developme...
Why read aloud to special needs children?


The act of listening to the language and ‘voice’ of the
author provides an im...
What are the benefits of reading aloud?
It develops vocabulary
Book language is not the same as everyday
conversation. The...
What are the benefits of reading aloud?
It helps children develop imagination
Through hearing stories, children’s creative...
What are the benefits of reading aloud
It helps children develop empathy
As children engage with the story they experience...
What are the benefits of reading aloud?
It helps children anticipate what is going to happen
next
The ability to see links...
What are the benefits of reading aloud?
‘The single most important activity for building the
knowledge and skills eventual...
The route to literacy for the special needs child
Listening to the language of books
Following reading
Talking (from words...
Shared reading


Shared reading is an adult reading aloud to a group of
children where children also have sight of the te...
What are the benefits of Shared reading?


When we read aloud to children and they can see the text
it helps children lea...
The benefits of Shared reading
‘Reading to children not only anticipates the reading
instruction but also is part of the p...
The route to literacy for the special needs child
Listening to the language of books
Following reading
Talking (from words...
Developing spoken language
Talking - from words to sentences
Realistically, spoken language will be the only means by
whic...
Playing language games
What colour is it?
Activity: Providing language accompaniment to action
Ask the child to pick up a ...
Playing language games
I Spy
Adult: “I see something yellow.”
Child: “Is it the book?”
(If they just say ‘book’, model the...
Playing language games
How are you feeling?
Use cards with faces each showing a different expression:
(e.g. sad, happy, wo...
The route to literacy for the special needs child
Listening to the language of books
Following reading
Talking (from words...
Developing comprehension
We should help pupils to have an understanding of
what they are going to listen to before a text ...
Developing comprehension:
guessing
I am going to read to you a text about earthquakes.
It describes what happens on 12th J...
Tuning in to reading
On 12th January 2010 an earthquake hit Haiti.
The earthquake lasted around 30 seconds
and the capital...
Developing comprehension:
Scatter maps
Give pairs of pupils words/pictures from the book.
Ask children to connect items on...
Scatter maps
people killed

roofs blown off
damage

speed

Tornadoes

danger

120 mph

twist and turn
spirals of wind
Rapi...
The route to literacy for the special needs child
Listening to the language of books
Following reading
Talking (from words...
Physical skills of writing
In order to be able to write children need:
 Fine and gross motor skills
 Hand-eye coordinati...
Physical skills of writing
Muscle control generally develops from the top of the
body downwards and from the centre outwar...
Measuring progress of the
special needs child
Performance Descriptions (UK)


Performance Descriptions give guidance on how to
improve provision for pupils with specia...
Performance Descriptions (UK)


The Performance Descriptions for P1 to P3 are
common across all subjects.



They outlin...
Accessing Performance Descriptions (UK)


The Performance Descriptions can be downloaded
from:

www.education.gov.uk
Summary
Every child has the potential to improve
 Be ambitious for the progress of special needs
children




Set short...
Dee Ried - Helping Pupils with Special Needs Achieve their Potential - IEFE Forum 2014
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Helping Pupils with Special Needs Achieve their Potential
IEFE Forum 2014

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Dee Ried - Helping Pupils with Special Needs Achieve their Potential - IEFE Forum 2014

  1. 1. Helping pupils with special needs achieve their potential Dee Reid Series Editor Consultant
  2. 2. What are special needs?  Pupils with special needs face unusual barriers to their full and effective participation in society.  Those barriers could be physical or mental.  It is our responsibility to ensure that every pupil with special needs achieves their potential.
  3. 3. What facilitates learning? Research shows that learning is maximised when:  it takes place in a context of great meaning to the pupil  dialogue accompanies all learning
  4. 4. The route to literacy for the special needs child Listening to the language of books Following reading Talking (from words to sentences) Developing comprehension Beginning independent reading Beginning independent writing
  5. 5. Poor word recognition; good comprehension Poor word recognition; poor comprehension Good word recognition; good comprehension Good word recognition; poor comprehension
  6. 6. The differing needs of children Dyslexia: good comprehension skills poor word recognition skills Autism Spectrum: poor comprehension skills satisfactory word recognition skills Downs Syndrome: slow comprehension skills slow word recognition ADHT: slow comprehension skills slow word recognition
  7. 7. Listening to the language of books Reading aloud to children enables them to engage with both the content of the text and tune in to the language.
  8. 8. Why read aloud to special needs children? Reading aloud to children contributes directly to their early literacy development. It helps children develop:  Listening skills  Language skills  Comprehension  As well as giving them great pleasure
  9. 9. Why read aloud to special needs children?  The act of listening to the language and ‘voice’ of the author provides an important background for children’s own language development.  It also helps develop children’s ability to concentrate.
  10. 10. What are the benefits of reading aloud? It develops vocabulary Book language is not the same as everyday conversation. The context of a story provides the meaning of a word and that way children acquire new vocabulary.
  11. 11. What are the benefits of reading aloud? It helps children develop imagination Through hearing stories, children’s creative imagination is enhanced as they visualise scenes, actions and characters.
  12. 12. What are the benefits of reading aloud It helps children develop empathy As children engage with the story they experience feelings of joy, wonder, fear and hate.
  13. 13. What are the benefits of reading aloud? It helps children anticipate what is going to happen next The ability to see links between things and the causal effects of actions helps children make sense of the world.
  14. 14. What are the benefits of reading aloud? ‘The single most important activity for building the knowledge and skills eventually required for reading appears to be reading aloud to children.’ ‘Beginning to Read’ Marilyn Jager Adams (1994)
  15. 15. The route to literacy for the special needs child Listening to the language of books Following reading Talking (from words to sentences) Developing comprehension Beginning independent reading Beginning independent writing
  16. 16. Shared reading  Shared reading is an adult reading aloud to a group of children where children also have sight of the text.  They follow the text as the adult reads and they begin to make associations between words and symbols.
  17. 17. What are the benefits of Shared reading?  When we read aloud to children and they can see the text it helps children learn concepts of print such as directionality – where to begin reading on a page.  Children begin to locate known words and develop an understanding of one-to-one matching of words.
  18. 18. The benefits of Shared reading ‘Reading to children not only anticipates the reading instruction but also is part of the process of learning the characteristics of written language and, therefore, an integral part of the reading instruction.’ Margaret Clark ‘Young Fluent Readers’ (1976)
  19. 19. The route to literacy for the special needs child Listening to the language of books Following reading Talking (from words to sentences) Developing comprehension Beginning independent reading Beginning independent writing
  20. 20. Developing spoken language Talking - from words to sentences Realistically, spoken language will be the only means by which some special needs pupils will communicate. What can we do to encourage clear communication?
  21. 21. Playing language games What colour is it? Activity: Providing language accompaniment to action Ask the child to pick up a square of coloured card. Say to the child: “You have picked up a blue card.” Progression 1: One word answers Ask the child “Is this a blue card?” Child answers, “Yes” or “No” Progression 2: Answering in a full sentence Ask the child to pick up a card and say: “This is a blue card.”
  22. 22. Playing language games I Spy Adult: “I see something yellow.” Child: “Is it the book?” (If they just say ‘book’, model the correct form of the question.) Adult: “No, it is not the book. Look again.” Child: “Is it the ball?” Adult: “Yes, it is the yellow ball.” Progression: Child starts the game.
  23. 23. Playing language games How are you feeling? Use cards with faces each showing a different expression: (e.g. sad, happy, worried, scared, lonely) Point at a card and say: “Are you feeling happy?” Encourage child to answer: “Yes, I am feeling happy.” Progression: Ask the child: “How are you feeling today?”
  24. 24. The route to literacy for the special needs child Listening to the language of books Following reading Talking (from words to sentences) Developing comprehension Beginning independent reading Beginning independent writing
  25. 25. Developing comprehension We should help pupils to have an understanding of what they are going to listen to before a text is read to them.
  26. 26. Developing comprehension: guessing I am going to read to you a text about earthquakes. It describes what happens on 12th January 2010 when an earthquake hit Haiti. Can you guess: 1. How long the earthquake lasted? 2. Whether it was safer to stay inside or get out of a building? 3. Why aid couldn’t get to the people of Haiti?
  27. 27. Tuning in to reading On 12th January 2010 an earthquake hit Haiti. The earthquake lasted around 30 seconds and the capital city of Haiti was destroyed. Houses fell down and thousands of people were trapped. People ran into the streets but were hit by glass and bricks. People from around the world wanted to help but the airport was destroyed. Rapid Plus Stage 4 “Tornadoes”
  28. 28. Developing comprehension: Scatter maps Give pairs of pupils words/pictures from the book. Ask children to connect items on the map. Challenge pupils to say why they made the connections.
  29. 29. Scatter maps people killed roofs blown off damage speed Tornadoes danger 120 mph twist and turn spirals of wind Rapid Plus Stage 4 “Twister”
  30. 30. The route to literacy for the special needs child Listening to the language of books Following reading Talking (from words to sentences) Developing comprehension Beginning independent reading Beginning independent writing
  31. 31. Physical skills of writing In order to be able to write children need:  Fine and gross motor skills  Hand-eye coordination  The ability to be still  The ability to control the muscles of the body
  32. 32. Physical skills of writing Muscle control generally develops from the top of the body downwards and from the centre outwards which means that the fingers are one of the last muscles a child will have good control over.
  33. 33. Measuring progress of the special needs child
  34. 34. Performance Descriptions (UK)  Performance Descriptions give guidance on how to improve provision for pupils with special educational needs and/or disabilities or learning difficulties.  The Performance Descriptions outline early learning and attainment in eight levels (Performance Scale 1 – Performance Scale 8) from simple reflex responses to early skills in reading and writing.  The Performance Descriptions not only measure progress but also inform teaching.
  35. 35. Performance Descriptions (UK)  The Performance Descriptions for P1 to P3 are common across all subjects.  They outline the types and range of general performance that pupils with learning difficulties might characteristically demonstrate.  The Performance Descriptions for P4 – P8 indicate the emergence of skills, knowledge and understanding in English: Speaking and Listening; Reading and Writing (these could easily be adapted to Arabic).
  36. 36. Accessing Performance Descriptions (UK)  The Performance Descriptions can be downloaded from: www.education.gov.uk
  37. 37. Summary Every child has the potential to improve  Be ambitious for the progress of special needs children   Set short-term achievable goals Track progress systematically  Record overall development and achievement every year   Involve the parents in their child’s literacy progress  Surround these children with praise

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