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This presentation was given at IEEP's capacity building for environmental tax reform conference on 5 October 2017 in Brussels, Belgium.

Speaker: Sarah Ettlinger

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Thematic session: Waste, resources & circular economy

  1. 1. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Thematic session: Waste, resources and circular economy Sarah Ettlinger (Eunomia Research & Consulting) 5 October 2017, Committee of the Regions, Rue Belliard 99/101, Brussels Final conference: Capacity building for environmental tax reform
  2. 2. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu • Improving resource efficiency and creating a circular economy – not just about managing waste • And, sustainable use of raw materials Waste, resources & circular economy: issues & challenges 6.7bn tonnes (EU, 2015) 2.5 bn tonnes (EU, 2012) Total material consumption Total waste generation 37% recycled
  3. 3. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Waste, resources & circular economy: instruments used • Waste taxes: ‒ Landfill tax and ban ‒ Incineration tax. • Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) • Product-specific: ‒ Packaging tax ‒ Product fee ‒ Deposit refund scheme ‒ Plastic bag levy • Mineral aggregates taxes • Natural resource taxes and charges
  4. 4. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Waste, resources & circular economy: instruments used Case studies: Instrument type Member State(s) Packaging tax or charge Belgium, Latvia, Romania, Finland Landfill tax Austria (incl. ban), Greece, UK Pay-as-you-throw scheme Benelux Deposit refund scheme Finland Plastic bag levy Ireland Products tax (with PRO) Lithuania Natural resource extraction tax UK, Estonia, Finland (peat)
  5. 5. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Waste, resources & circular economy: revenues, effectiveness & efficiency • Revenue use – environment funds: ‒ Mostly for related and specific environmental problem ‒ May help to soften public opinion, but rarely the reason a tax becomes politically acceptable. ‒ Examples: UK landfill tax, Romanian packaging charge, Irish plastic bags levy, Austrian landfill tax • Rarely explicit tax shift, though this can help argument for decision-makers in finance ministries ‒ Example: UK landfill tax
  6. 6. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Waste, resources & circular economy: revenues, effectiveness & efficiency 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2000=100 LevyRate(£/tonnes) Years Aggregates Levy and Intensity of Use of Primary Aggregates Aggregates Levy Rate Primary aggregates use per unit of Construction Output Primary aggregates use per unit of GDP
  7. 7. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Waste, resources & circular economy: stakeholder & civil society engagement
  8. 8. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Waste, resources & circular economy: the way forward • Key arguments & discussion points for political acceptability: ‒ Link to specific environmental goals (national or local); not likely to be revenue raising ‒ Effective instrument  Fair, with opportunity to develop sustainable alternative behaviour  Policy mix and package of measures to nudge towards behaviour  Revenue use – for public support, leads to desired behaviour • Civil society: ‒ Seek and create opportunities to contribute:  Campaign on environmental issue, set up stakeholder discussion groups, respond to public consultation, evaluate and analyse impacts ‒ Engage as early as possible
  9. 9. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Case study presentations • Case study 1: Finnish deposit refund system – Pasi Nurminen (PALPA) • Case study 2: Belgian pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) schemes – John Wante (OVAM)

This presentation was given at IEEP's capacity building for environmental tax reform conference on 5 October 2017 in Brussels, Belgium. Speaker: Sarah Ettlinger

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