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www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Thematic session:
Biodiversity and Land Use
Dr. Daniela Russi (IEEP)
5 October 2017, Committee of the...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Biodiversity and land use: issues &
challenges
• Loss of biodiversity very worrying -> Assessment of ...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Biodiversity and land use: instruments
used
• Taxes on environmentally harmful products
• Taxes and f...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Instrument type Member State(s)
Taxes on pesticides and fertilisers Denmark, Italy, Sweden
Tax on ani...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Biodiversity and land use: revenues,
effectiveness & efficiency
• The revenues from most instruments ...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Biodiversity and land use: stakeholder &
civil society engagement
• Most analysed instruments are par...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Biodiversity and land use: stakeholder &
civil society engagement
• Opposition by those who face the ...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Policy
Formulation
Decision
making
Policy
Implementation
Monitoring
Evaluation
SE: Public
consultatio...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Biodiversity and land use: the way
forward
• Potential for expanding the use of economic instrument –...
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Case study presentations
• Fishing fees supporting salmon conservation and
management in Ireland
– Dr...
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This presentation was given at IEEP's capacity building for environmental tax reform conference on 5 October 2017 in Brussels, Belgium.

Speaker: Dr. Daniela Russi

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Biodiversity & land use: Policy issues, relevance of MBIs, key findings

  1. 1. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Thematic session: Biodiversity and Land Use Dr. Daniela Russi (IEEP) 5 October 2017, Committee of the Regions, Rue Belliard 99/101, Brussels Final conference: Capacity building for environmental tax reform
  2. 2. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Biodiversity and land use: issues & challenges • Loss of biodiversity very worrying -> Assessment of the Habitats Directive for 2007-2012: 60% of species and 77% of habitats in unfavourable conditions • Mid-term review of the Biodiversity Strategy (2015): biodiversity loss ongoing • Agricultural/forest land management needs to be improved to reduce environmental impacts/improve biodiversity • Economic instruments can complement (not replace) the legislation on required management practices by influencing the behaviour of individuals
  3. 3. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Biodiversity and land use: instruments used • Taxes on environmentally harmful products • Taxes and fees on the use of natural resources • Forest and agricultural subsidies • Payment for Ecosystem Services • Ecological Fiscal Transfers • Biodiversity offsetting • Fishing quota and licences
  4. 4. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Instrument type Member State(s) Taxes on pesticides and fertilisers Denmark, Italy, Sweden Tax on animal feed mineral phosphorus Denmark Fishing and hunting fees Estonia, Ireland Fee for tree removal Austria Fishery management instruments Iceland Tax on the use of peat for energy Finland Result-based agri-environment measure Baden-Württemberg (Germany) Biodiversity offsetting Germany Forest subsidies Girona (Spain), Slovenia, Croatia Ecological fiscal transfers Portugal
  5. 5. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Biodiversity and land use: revenues, effectiveness & efficiency • The revenues from most instruments are earmarked for environmental objectives (e.g. pesticide tax in Italy) • For many instruments some positive impact has been documented (e.g. fishing fee in Ireland) • Others have not been evaluated yet (e.g. hunting and fishing fees in Estonia) • The impact of others have been less than expected (e.g. Finnish peat energy tax) • Impact of subsidies to farmers/forest owners difficult to evaluate – how to assess additionality? Coverage as a proxy
  6. 6. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Biodiversity and land use: stakeholder & civil society engagement • Most analysed instruments are part of a wider package of measures -> window of opportunity (e.g. Danish green tax reform, Slovenian and Yugoslavian Forest Act, Portuguese revision of the Local Finances Law, new EU Rural Development Plans) • Key role of one or more motivated person, e.g. result-based agri- environment measures in Baden-Württemberg (Germany); forest subsidies in Girona (Spain) • Support and help of public institutions, researchers and NGOs allows feasibility in technical terms and credibility in political terms (e.g. the NGOs Xarxa de Custodia del Territori and Acció Natura for Selvans)
  7. 7. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Biodiversity and land use: stakeholder & civil society engagement • Opposition by those who face the costs is the key barrier for taxes/fees (e.g. farmers in Sweden, who managed to abolish the fertiliser tax) • Strategies to reduce opposition:  public consultation/participation processes (e.g. Danish and Swedish taxes on fertilisers/pesticides)  compensatory measures (e.g. Irish voluntary hardship scheme)  negotiation (e.g. Slovenian Forest Act)  good communication on the purpose and use of taxes/fees (bad example: Croatian Forest Public Benefit Fee)  taxes low for the first years (e.g. Estonian hunting fee)  burden sharing (e.g. salmon policy in Ireland)  changes in the design (e.g. levy on Icelandic IQT)
  8. 8. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Policy Formulation Decision making Policy Implementation Monitoring Evaluation SE: Public consultation process for tax on fertilisers EE: Open public consultation to modify fees PT, SI: Evaluation exercise by independent researchers for Portuguese EFTs and Slovenian subsidies to private forests DE: Awareness raising initiatives related to RB-AEMs IE, EE, DE: Contributions from stakeholders re: Salmon Licencing Scheme, Estonian fees and offsetting DE, ES: Proposals from experts for the RB-AEMs in Baden–Württemberg and Selvans programme IE: Annual scientific advice and review for Salmon Licencing Scheme DK: Process of negotiation of Danish taxes DE, IE: Consultation processes to enable stakeholder participation in implementation of offsetting and fishing fees
  9. 9. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Biodiversity and land use: the way forward • Potential for expanding the use of economic instrument – many interesting examples to be replicated • Key elements: ‒ Consultation/negotiation processes is key, especially for taxes/fees ‒ Earmarking, compensatory measures and communication increase acceptability ‒ Smart design is important ‒ Scientific research is key for effectiveness and credibility • Taxes, fees and subsidies can be used as awareness raising instruments on the importance of environmental protection -> behavioural change
  10. 10. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Case study presentations • Fishing fees supporting salmon conservation and management in Ireland – Dr. Ciaran Byrne (Inland Fisheries Ireland) • The Danish pesticide tax – Jens Holger Helbo Hansen (Danish Ministry of Taxation)

This presentation was given at IEEP's capacity building for environmental tax reform conference on 5 October 2017 in Brussels, Belgium. Speaker: Dr. Daniela Russi

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