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Thematic session: Air Pollution

This presentation was given at IEEP's capacity building for environmental tax reform conference on 5 October 2017 in Brussels, Belgium.
Speaker: Andrea Illes

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Thematic session: Air Pollution

  1. 1. @IEEP_eu Thematic session: Air pollution Andrea Illes, IEEP 5 October 2017, Committee of the Regions, Rue Belliard 99/101, Brussels Final conference: Capacity building for environmental tax reform
  2. 2. @IEEP_eu Air pollution: issues & challenges • Significant impacts on: ‒ Environment: e.g. destruction to ecosystems and excessive nutrients ‒ Human health: in EU around 400,000 people die prematurely each year due to poor air quality (EEA, 2015) ‒ Economy: high costs of welfare loss due to health impacts – estimated € 330-940 billion loss in the EU (EC, 2013) • Main pollutants include: PM, NOx, SOx, O3, VOC, NH3 • Transboundary nature of air pollution • Problems with both stationary and mobile emissions • Challenges in cities • Various pieces of EU legislation targeting emissions
  3. 3. @IEEP_eu Air pollution: instruments used • Taxes and charges on the various types of air pollutant substances • Air pollution non-compliance fees • Instruments targeting non-stationary emissions ‒ Vehicle registration and circulation taxes ‒ Transport fuel taxes ‒ Traffic congestion charges
  4. 4. @IEEP_eu Air pollution: case studies Instrument type Member State(s) Air pollution fees: PM, NOx, SOx Czech Republic, Slovakia Air pollution load charge (NOx, SOx, non- toxic dust) Hungary NOx fee and SO2 tax Sweden Tax on fluorinated GHG Spain
  5. 5. @IEEP_eu Air pollution: rates and revenues • Differences in the rates applied ‒ Low level of rates in Slovakia and Hungary ‒ Initially low level of rates in Czech Republic but revision in 2012 ‒ High level of rates in Sweden • Use of revenues ‒ Reimbursement system in Sweden and Czech Republic ‒ State Environmental Fund in Slovakia and Czech Republic ‒ Feeds into general state budget in Hungary
  6. 6. @IEEP_eu Air pollution: effectiveness & efficiency • Effectiveness and impact of the instruments ‒ Dramatic decline in SO2 and NOx emissions in Sweden (but wider policy context) ‒ In addition, NOx fee had impacts on innovation in Sweden ‒ Little incentive and also no data/lack of capacity to analyse impacts in Hungary and Slovakia • Monitoring and evaluation ‒ Evaluation of Czech fee in 2012 ‒ Mandatory continuous monitoring of NOx emissions from the regulated plants in Sweden
  7. 7. @IEEP_eu Air pollution: stakeholder engagement
  8. 8. @IEEP_eu Air pollution: the way forward • Civil society / stakeholders are already active in the policy formulation phase but even more could be done ‒ Greater use of Environmental Tax Committees ‒ More awareness raising ‒ Use of ex ante assessments ‒ Greater emphasis on human health ‒ Better understanding of EHS and its links to environmental taxes • Smaller role in other phases of the policy cycle ‒ Policy implementation: consultation on revenue management ‒ Monitoring: greater involvement of industry ‒ Evaluation: engaging with civil society and academia / name and shame & name and fame
  9. 9. @IEEP_eu Case study presentations Case study : Spain Tax on fluorinated greenhouse gases Ignasi Puig Ventosa, ENT Environment and Management