Note - all names in this presentation are pseudonyms and identifying features have been changed or removed
Inclusion is focused on ensuring that all children and young people have access to good quality education in their community. It is particularly concerned with students who are marginalised (e.g. gay/lesbian/transgender students, disabled students, students from minority cultures or religions etc) . On an international basis, it is concerned also with children who are excluded from education because of poverty, politics, warfare etc. The goal of inclusive ed is an inclusive society - This is also the goal of the Disability Strategy which is government policy.
Involves schools and communities continuously questioning what they are doing. Idea of a process = EC services and schools are always growing and developing towards the goal of inclusion
Values are not just words or phrases - they are intrinsic beliefs and ways of knowing and doing that inform how and why we engage in certain practices and approaches in education (with thanks to Rick Paenga, RTLB, Gisborne) We need to be clear about the relationship between our values and our actions .
These two questions can help us to understand the role played by values in our early childhood services and schools.
The NZ disability strategy is policy - there is clear support in the Strategy and the Convention for inclusion in education in NZ
Resourcing concerns are problematic - fairness and equity won’t be achieved by centres simply having additional resources for children with disabilities. The emphasis on resources focuses almost exclusively on the child with a disability, when the focus for inclusion needs to be on the structure and culture of the EC centre, and on changes that support children’s learning and participation, rather than disabling them. This does not mean that resources and supports are unimportant - they are a vital part of the mix.
Is this place fair = one of the questions used for staff to consider quality of programmes in centre - from the Learning and Teaching Stories Project EI teacher’s approach discourages learning with peers, excludes teachers, models a non-acceptance of diversity (‘special education’ approach defines the way this teacher works, rather than grounding her approaches in Te Whariki.
The focus in Ian’s day is his disability (therapy). He would prefer to have the focus on academic work. The aim of therapies in NZ education is to support students with disabilities to access the curriculum, but in this case, therapy has become an end in itself. The idea of teaching social skills in a wheelchair group class is an example of this. There is a danger that disabled students’ education is viewed as ‘different’ or ’special’. The focus in Ian’s class needs to be on creating contexts that support Ian to learn through social processes that also focus on his friendships and social relationships with peers. This what we do for other children and young people.
Segregated places on school sites such as special classes (primary) and units/learning support centres (secondary) separate students from their peers against the wishes of the students themselves who are working hard to be part of the group of all students
Can also happen in EC services and in community situations
First example - this parent also said that she would sit in the centre with her daughter and 5 other children and teachers would walk past and say “Oh, you’re great - you should come every week!”…. “ But they didn’t think to take Clare off me” Teachers not always taking the time to get to know children with disabilities - results in children being sidelined and isolated from the rest of the group. Children positioned as ‘special’ and ‘different’ - in need of separate care, resources, and different curricular experiences Trust breaks down because it is notclear to families that their childwith a disability is wanted, and cared about (as teachers seem to not want the child there) These advocacy efforts take their toll on families
Teacher aides are often singled out by students. While students often value their support for learning, they also feel that there is too much adult control over their lives and too much close support that prevents peers from becoming involved. Students ask for more privacy, and for adults to be considerate of the way in which their presence influences their relationships with non-disabled peers We have found variations in ta’s themselves, and in the ways schools use teacher aide support. Luke - Acknowledged the positive effects of their support but disliked their proximity in the classroom and their impact on peer relations -. Made him feel embarassed in front of his peers. In contrast - Some TAs felt that too much responsibility was placed on their shoulders and that some teachers did not take enough notice of disabled children in their classroom. Illustrates 2 things: importance of listening to children’s views about teacher aide support – when it is needed, when it is not, and acting so that support does not become another barrier to social participation and learning Importance of teachers and teacher aides having opportunitiy to negotiate roles that ensures teacher responsibility for all students
Illustrates the importance of positive role models at school - same point is made by gay/lesbian/transgender students
Emma has a physical disability. She is afraid to speak (participate) because her voice sounds ‘different’ and she is teased by the boys in class. Teachers need to be aware of these events and create classroom cultures that are respectful and supportive for all students.
Adults can have power over children…important then for adults to check their assumption. In this case, the interactive and social foundations of earning and behaviour are not acknowledged. Clare is at risk as she is not known, not understood by the midwife. The midwife’s assumptions, translated into actions, could mean that Clare is unable ‘to fly’.
Physical presence does not equal inclusion : The importance of teachers not assuming that because a disabled child is physically present in their centre, they will be benefitting from and experiencing an inclusive curriculum. Children experience the curriculum in different ways: Recognizing that different children experience the same curriculum in different ways. That the curriculum will suit and include some children better than others at any given time. Similarly it will exclude some children more than others. Cultural norms include some and exclude Others: Therefore issues around inclusion are on-going process rather than a destination to reach. Often the children and families that the curriculum caters best for are those who fit with dominant cultural norms and expectations. This leads to the necessity for teachers to continually remind ourselves about and revisit the basic tenets of our curriculum when it comes to ensuring the inclusion and learning of labeled/disabled children, and other children from non-dominant groups in our settings. Without critical reflection, we tend to take the way we do things for granted and can maintain exclusionary practices and situations without noticing what we are doing.
Physical presence = inclusion All children experience the curriculum in the same way Inclusion is a destination to be reached
Curriculum for all children This requires us to embed our practices related to all children within a philosophy and approach that is reflective of Te Whaariki . This includes how we approach our work with disabled/labeled children, their families and others who are involved in their education Curriculum as sum total of experiences… A key point here is that it is Te Whaariki should be guiding our planning and decision making around what happens in relation to all children and families in our settings. This is one of those things we take for granted and believe is happening for all children. However, there is quite a lot of research evidence demonstrating that not all children and families experience full access to a Te Whaariki -based curriculum.
The aspirations, Principles and Strands of Te Whaariki need to underpin our philosophy and practices. They can be interpreted as ethical statements about our obligations to children, families and communities.
Critical reflection The need to critically reflect on disabled children’s participation in ways that help us to notice, recognize and respond to barriers to disabled children’s learning and experiences of belonging Attitudes are the most significant barrier/enabler The most influential barriers to labeled children’s learning and participation are practices stemming from negative and deficit-based attitudes about disability (leading to things like uncritical acceptance of deficit views; unquestioned faith in and reliance on special education ‘experts’ who may not share the same beliefs and knowledge about disability and about early childhood education. Thinking about and treating disabled children differently/ and as a separate group within the group of all children). These deficit attitudes dominate in our society and this makes it all the more crucial that we engage in critical reflective practice around these issues Teachers as advocates for inclusion Taking full responsibility for and advocate for fully inclusive approaches to children’s learning and development (assessment, evaluation of teaching practices) within our settings Creating strong partnerships with families Working together to support and influence the child’s experience of belonging, learning and relationships in the centre Collaboration Jude will talk more about tensions between Te Whaariki and special education approaches and teachers roles in developing collaborative relationships with everyone involved.
The head teacher plays a key role in defining these roles and ensuring all families feel they belong
Not being able to speak is not the same as not having anything to say.
What do adult disabled people say about what they want and need?
Group home Special school Sheltered workshop creates = exclusion and isolation Disabled people don’t want to be separated from society, they want to be respected and part of the community, they want an ordinary life. Play we welcome your baby clip – farming family
Family experiences with early childhood education both inclusive and excluding. What do families want and need from an early childhood service?
Pose questions on the slide, ask group to note down responses to those questions as they watch the excerpt. Play dvd. Brainstorm responses to questions on slide.
Welcome – unconditional, honest relationship Relationship with family and child – teachers respect, care about and enjoy my child To belong and contribute: rather then being seen as a drain on resources, needy, passive…Seeing our children as adding something to the centre Teachers who see and treat their child as a learner: A focus on interests, strengths and achievements, not milestones, deficits and what they cannot do Equitable rules, systems & access: For enrolment, attendance, time with teachers and to the curriculum Refer to these issues being themes in many of the readings. Based on NZ body of research interested in parents and teacher’s perceptions of disability and inclusion.
Introduce then play farming family excerpt from NZDSA DVD ‘We welcome your baby’
Ece auckland workshop
Inclusion in Early Childhood Education Northern Auckland Kindergarten Association Ministry of Education - GSE Albany, Auckland 2 September, 2011 Bernadette Macartney , Victoria University Jude MacArthur, Massey University The Inclusive Education Action Group i e a g
The goal of inclusive education is an inclusive society <ul><li>Developing early childhood services and schools that respond to diversity so that all children and young people are valued, belong, learn well and have friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive education is about listening to unfamiliar voices , being open, empowering all members, and about celebrating diversity in dignified ways. (Barton, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Children welcomed, valued and included in their local EC service and school </li></ul>
Inclusion is about children’s… <ul><li>Presence </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>It involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a process of continuous improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EC services, schools and communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>values and putting values into practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overcoming barriers to children’s learning and participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Ainscow, Booth & Dyson, 2006) </li></ul>
Inclusion is about values <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- are fundamental guides and prompts to action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- give us a sense of direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- underpin our actions towards others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- state how we want to live together and educate each other, now and in the future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Values Actions </li></ul><ul><li>(Booth, 2011) </li></ul>
Values <ul><li>Equality, participation, community, compassion, respect for diversity, honesty, rights, joy , non-violence, sustainability, trust, courage , love , hope/optimism, beauty </li></ul><ul><li>“ What would our early childhood/school community look like if we had joyful engagement in teaching, learning and relationships?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What does education become without courage, joy, love and beauty ?” </li></ul><ul><li>(Booth 2011) </li></ul>
Guidance and Policy supporting Inclusion <ul><li>The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>The New Zealand Disability Strategy - Whakanui Oranga </li></ul>Ensure that effective supports are provided in environments that maximize academic and social development, consistent with the goal of full inclusion Promote appropriate and effective inclusive educational settings that will meet individual educational needs
Presence Is this place fair for us? Do you encourage and facilitate my endeavours to be part of the wider group?
Present? Not even in the door… <ul><li>EC teacher: (Our association has a policy that says) if a child comes in, and you haven ’t got a wheelchair ramp and special toilet facilities, or whatever, you have got a right to say “No” because there is a kindergarten down the road that can take a child that has got those facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Parent: You still have to fight for these kids, haven’t you? Ohhh, it gets you down after a while… by the time you work with them at home as well, you haven ’t got the time to fight for them. </li></ul>
Not even in the door (school) <ul><li>Marama (mother of kāpo Māori child): We had a meeting (with the school). They have a bilingual unit… and the teachers said, “ We will fit her in here. That’s fine .” And then we had a meeting with the principal and he said straight out, “I don’t want to put the burden on one of my teachers of having to have this girl in the classroom” ... He made it really hard. He said if she went to the school, he wouldn’t put her in the bilingual unit. He would make her wear a reflective vest in the playground because there are so many big boys around and it would be dangerous for her and others to just be in the playground. </li></ul><ul><li>(Higgins, Phillips, Cowan & Tikao, 2009) </li></ul>
Am I present? Is this place fair for us? <ul><li>The researcher observed ‘specialist’ professionals: </li></ul><ul><li>v e lcroing themselves to children </li></ul><ul><li>removing the children from the program </li></ul><ul><li>working one-to-one with a child </li></ul><ul><li>implementing a separate program from that in the EC setting </li></ul><ul><li>(Purdue et al, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Intervention teacher as ‘the expert’: </li></ul><ul><li>Senior teacher/parent: I think the EI teacher intimidates the teachers… some teachers will say, well, she’s the expert, with maybe a sense of relief, “I’m glad I don’t have to deal with Annie.” </li></ul><ul><li> (MacArthur, 2004) </li></ul>
Am I present? <ul><li>Ian (age 11) at Intermediate school </li></ul><ul><li>9.00 -interval: In class. </li></ul><ul><li>Interval – went to special unit. </li></ul><ul><li>After interval – physiotherapy out of class. </li></ul><ul><li>10.45-11.30 – Rest of class swimming. Ian goes to unit as the pool is not accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>11.30-12.00 : Reading with class. </li></ul><ul><li>Lunchtime : Went to library on his own. </li></ul><ul><li>1.00 : “Wheelchair group” – safety and awareness; problem-solving; social skills. </li></ul><ul><li>2.15 Back to class. Rest of class are in assembly. He reads until they return. </li></ul><ul><li>2.25 Works in a small group with classmates on a project. </li></ul><ul><li>2.40 Leave school early to catch taxi home. </li></ul><ul><li>Ian: It’s better to sit in a wheelchair and know your maths than to walk. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Clark, MacArthur et al., 2007, p. 145). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
I feel isolated in the special unit - I want to be part of the group <ul><li>Rachel (age 16): There is still a little bit of stigma there (in the Special Unit) …. It would be better kind of not being shoved in a room and being outcast.… Some teachers don’t go near our Learning Support Centre at all. </li></ul><ul><li>… You just want to be treated like everybody else, really.” </li></ul><ul><li> ( Rutherford, 2008) </li></ul>
Participation Do you encourage and facilitate my endeavours to be part of the wider group? Do you appreciate and understand my interests and abilities and those of my family? Do my family and I feel a sense of belonging here? Do you know us? Can we trust you? Do you meet our daily needs with care and sensitive consideration?
Am I participating? Is this place fair for us? Do you know us? <ul><li>Parent: The Head Teacher used to have to come to our IEP meetings in her lunch hour…. but the teachers never actually took Clare off the ESW </li></ul><ul><li>(Macartney, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Some teachers in Kerry’s study gave the responsibility of teaching tamariki to ESWs or EI teachers…some ESWs knew more about the child with a disability than their teachers did. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents said they had to remind teachers about their legal obligations to include and teach their child… and to make environments more accepting and inclusive </li></ul><ul><li> (Gordon-Burns et al., 2010) </li></ul>
In the classroom but not participating <ul><li>Luke (age 13 ) : I’m happy and unhappy ( with the teacher aides). They help me do my work, but they can get on my nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>Luke’s maths teacher : I see Luke at lunchtime… he doesn’t really hang out with other kids… they don’t interact with him. But then again, he interacts so much with the teacher aide in class, … I don’t see him even talking to other kids in the class really. </li></ul><ul><li>(Identity project ) </li></ul>
Not participating - feeling left out <ul><li>Harry (age 16): They should have, like, people with disabilities in, like, prefect roles, like that, head girl or boy or something like that. You kind of feel left out, like all the popular students in that year get a role and we don’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Harry’s mother : We’d love to see him leave on … Friday afternoon and come back, you know, Sunday night, 3 o’clock in the morning, something like that… that would be great wouldn’t it? </li></ul><ul><li> (Clark, MacArthur et al., 2007). </li></ul>
Achievement Do you invite me to communicate and respond to my own particular efforts? Do you hear us? Do you let us fly? Do you engage my mind, offer challenges and extend my world?
Do you hear us? Do you let us fly? <ul><li>Midwife’s assessment in a written report: Clare is not able to talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Clare’s mother, Fran: If you don’t know her (Clare), she can’t talk. </li></ul><ul><li>How might these perceptions of Clare impact on her learning and participation? </li></ul>
Do you hear us? <ul><li>High quality interactions take place when children feel that their teachers value them… </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers in Kerry’s and Bernadette’s studies tended to view children as ‘too disabled’ and ‘too difficult’ to teach and they were therefore unlikely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hear children’s voices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create challenging learning environments or provide the assistance children needed to learn </li></ul></ul></ul>
My teachers make me feel different - and they don’t hear me <ul><li>Joanne (age 13): I feel like I am an equal, and (being put in a low group) sets me down a bit like thinking, ‘Oh well, I have to go in this group because I am different’ </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer: Would you rather just be in the other class? </li></ul><ul><li>Joanne: Yeah, just in the normal homeroom and like in the other reading group. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer: Do you get any chances to say that to your teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>Joanne: No, not really. </li></ul><ul><li>(MacArthur, Sharp, Kelly and Gaffney, 2007) </li></ul>
Te Whaariki as a framework for inclusion Bernadette Macartney
Key points <ul><ul><li>Physical presence does not equal inclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children experience the curriculum in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural norms include some and exclude Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion is an on-going process not a destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-going, deep critical reflection is essential </li></ul></ul>
Assumptions about inclusion in ECE <ul><li>Physical presence = inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>All children experience the curriculum in the same way </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion is a destination to be reached </li></ul>
<ul><li>The curriculum is for all children and families </li></ul><ul><li>Defines “curriculum” as “the sum total of the experiences, activities and events, whether direct or indirect, which occur within an environment designed to foster children’s learning and development” (p.10). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Te Whaariki as an ethical, philosophical and practical guide to teachers </li></ul>
<ul><li>Some underpinnings of </li></ul><ul><li>Te Whaariki – based </li></ul><ul><li>approaches to inclusion… </li></ul>
<ul><li>Close, respectful and responsive relationships with each child </li></ul><ul><li>Families-whanau having an integral part to play in their child’s education </li></ul><ul><li>A commitment to every child and families’ right to belong, actively participate and contribute to what happens in the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>A view of each and every child as unique ; as having the same rights as others; as a competent and capable learner </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing differences and diversity as expected, normal and desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to teaching that place an emphasis on each child’s strengths and interests </li></ul><ul><li>An expectation that teachers will work collaboratively with the wider community in the interests of children’s learning and full participation </li></ul><ul><li>(including other professionals such as EI teachers, teachers with specialisations related to particular impairments, therapists etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting learning through responsiveness relationships, and interactions </li></ul>
Focusing on the key aspect of a Te Whaariki-based curriculum on your sheet, discuss and record your thoughts about this question: <ul><li>What things could prevent disabled children and their families from experiencing Te Whariki in ways that reflect and support this aspect of teaching philosophy and practice? </li></ul><ul><li>We would like you to consider the “barriers”. </li></ul><ul><li>10 mins </li></ul>
<ul><li>What could teachers do to remove these barriers? (Discuss this question in relation to the aspect of Te Whaariki you have been looking at.) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider teacher philosophy, beliefs, attitudes and practices. </li></ul><ul><li>10 mins </li></ul>
Implications for practice <ul><li>Critical reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are the biggest barrier/enabler </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers taking responsibility for inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Creating strong partnerships with families </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS – NGA HONONGA </li></ul>
Working in Collaborative Teams to Support Inclusion Jude MacArthur
The team <ul><li>Parents, whanau, teachers, ESWs, ‘specialists’, therapists, EI teachers, GP, EC services, child development services, pediatrician etc etc etc </li></ul><ul><li>To support children’s learning and their social experiences, it is important for all involved to: </li></ul><ul><li>share a vision of the learning and social relationships for each child </li></ul><ul><li>work together as a team to realise that vision </li></ul>
Interprofessional collaboration <ul><li>Learning with, from and about each other to develop a shared understanding of each other’s areas of knowledge and practice, roles, responsibilities… </li></ul><ul><li>Singing from the same song-sheet…. </li></ul>
What makes an effective team? <ul><li>A caring focus on the child and family who are central, family participation and leadership, valuing of whanau relationships, shared values, a shared desire to make a positive difference for children and to build teacher capability , trust, open and clear communication, respect, ethical behaviour, shared goals and understandings (e.g. about diversity, inclusion), participation,flexibility (there are a number of ways to do things), Aroha, open to new learning, cultural sensitivity and support, sharing knowledge, approachable, curriculum knowledge, inclusive values and practices, knowledge of team protocol, confidentiality,positive relationships, knowledge of the community, taking time to develop a shared purpose and clear roles, a shared philosophy of collaboration - together we are better. </li></ul>
What makes an effective team? <ul><li>We are not ‘the expert’ , but we all have expertise </li></ul><ul><li>We share responsibility for children - Families and whanau, EC services, schools and their communities all contribute to children’s learning </li></ul>
EC teachers <ul><li>When teachers take responsibility for tamariki with disabilities, they: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the roles and responsibilities of ESWs and EI teachers in ways that encourage the children’s independence and interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Value their own knowledge and role - support all children’s learning through interactions with others </li></ul><ul><li>(Gordon-Burns et al, 2010) </li></ul>
Understanding Diversity What families and disabled people can tell us about inclusion Bernadette McCartney
“Nothing about us without us!” <ul><li>What do disabled people tell us about their lives, rights and aspirations? </li></ul>
Wretches and jabberers <ul><li>http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=2FlIyJJRc0E </li></ul>
families & whanau <ul><li>What do families of disabled children say about and want/need from an </li></ul><ul><li>early childhood centre? </li></ul>
Inclusion in practice. <ul><ul><li>Examples from a kindergarten and a childcare centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was important to each family? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was important to each teachers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was ‘missing’/not emphasised from a Te Whaariki-based perspective? </li></ul></ul>
Families want <ul><li>A warm and equal welcome </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and peers who have a good relationship with their family and child </li></ul><ul><li>To belong and contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who see and treat their child as a learner </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable rules, systems & access </li></ul>
A family story <ul><li>How do the parents view their disabled child? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the want for him? </li></ul><ul><li>What do they want from others? </li></ul>
Thank you for coming to our workshop <ul><li>i e a g </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Education Action Group </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Inclusive Schools & Communities </li></ul><ul><li>www.ieag.org.nz </li></ul>
<ul><li>UNESCO DVD : A world for inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. unesco .org/archives/multimedia/? s=films_details & id_page=33 & id_film=213 </li></ul><ul><li>This short film introduces inclusive educatin and explores its meaning from an international perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Booth, T. and Ainscow, M. (2011). The Index for Inclusion. www. csie .org. uk </li></ul><ul><li>The Index is a professional development tool for schools that is widely used internationally. CSIE also have a version of the Index that is dedicated to early childhood education. </li></ul>