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IEA Bioenergy TCP: preparing the role of bioenergy in the future energy system

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IEA Bioenergy TCP: preparing the role of bioenergy in the
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IEA Bioenergy TCP: preparing the role of bioenergy in the future energy system

  1. 1. IEA Bioenergy, also known as the Technology Collaboration Platform for Research, Development and Demonstration on Bioenergy, functions within a Framework created by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Views, findings and publications of IEA Bioenergy do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the IEA Secretariat or of its individual Member countries. IEA Bioenergy TCP: preparing the role of bioenergy in the future energy system ETSAP workshop Zürich, 11 December 2017 Luc Pelkmans Technical Coordinator of the IEA Bioenergy TCP
  2. 2. www.ieabioenergy.com Contents  Introduction to IEA Bioenergy  Bioenergy Technology Roadmap  Bioenergy in balancing grids and providing storage options - results of IEA bioenergy TCP special project 2
  3. 3. www.ieabioenergy.com IEA Bioenergy TCP Goal: Facilitate the commercialization and market deployment of environmentally sound, socially acceptable and cost-competitive bioenergy systems Key Role: Independent collaborative body focused on delivering clear and verified information on bioenergy 3
  4. 4. www.ieabioenergy.com Bioenergy  involves a number of technologies which range from fully commercially mature through to those at R&D stage 4 R&D Demonstration Deployed Pyrolysis/ HTL Combustion Thermal Gasification MSW Anaerobic Digestion Conventional Biofuels Advanced Biofuels Algae as feedstock Solar biofuels CCU
  5. 5. www.ieabioenergy.com IEA Bioenergy TCP Membership - 24 Contracting Parties 5 EUROPE:  Austria  Belgium  Croatia  Denmark  European Commission  Estonia  Finland  France  Germany  Ireland  Italy  Netherlands  Norway  Sweden  Switzerland  United Kingdom ASIA/OCEANIA/AFRICA  Japan  Korea  Australia  New Zealand  South Africa IEA Bioenergy TCP Budget in 2017: 1,76 Million US$ Tasks: 11 Task participation: 98 Direct participation: > 200 persons AMERICA’S  Brazil  Canada  United States
  6. 6. www.ieabioenergy.com Tasks Task 32 - Biomass Combustion and Co-firing Task 33 - Gasification of Biomass and Waste Task 34 - Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction Task 36 - Integrating Energy Recovery into Solid Waste Management Systems Task 37 - Energy from Biogas Task 38 - Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems Task 39 - Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels Task 40 - Sustainable biomass markets and international bioenergy trade to support the biobased economy Task 42 - Biorefining in a future BioEconomy Task 43 - Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets 6
  7. 7. www.ieabioenergy.com Special projects (Task 41)  Bio-CCS and Bio-CCUS in climate change mitigation and extended use of biomass raw material  Bioenergy in balancing the grid & providing storage options  Bioenergy RES Hybrids  Contribution to IEA Technology Roadmap on Bioenergy  The potential for cost reduction for novel and advanced renewable and low carbon fuels 7
  8. 8. www.ieabioenergy.com Inter-Task projects  Mobilizing sustainable bioenergy supply chains (finalized)  State of Technology Review – Algae Bioenergy (finalized)  Fuel pretreatment of biomass residues in the supply chain for thermal conversion  Bioenergy success stories  Measuring, governing and gaining support for sustainable bioenergy supply chains 8
  9. 9. www.ieabioenergy.com Communications  Central website http://www.ieabioenergy.com/  Bi-monthly webinars  Summaries of Technical Reports  Searchable library  Position papers, e.g.  ‘Bioenergy for Sustainable Development’  Chatham House Report Response  Twitter (@IEABioenergy)  Cooperation with other international organizations:  IRENA, FAO, GBEP, BioFutures Platform, Mission Innovation, SEforAll/Below50 9
  10. 10. www.ieabioenergy.com Bioenergy for Sustainable Development  Bioenergy Contribution to:  UN Sustainable Development Goals  Paris Agreement on Climate Change  Options for sustainable bioenergy expansion  Multiple-functional land use  Sustainable intensification, landscape planning, forest management  with better information and digitalisation  Restoring degraded or marginal lands  Using waste and organic residues  Reducing losses in the food chain  Bioenergy is part of a larger bioeconomy.  Biorefineries: integrated production systems http://www.ieabioenergy.com/publications/bioenergy-for-sustainable-development/ 10
  11. 11. www.ieabioenergy.com Bioenergy Technology Roadmap: Delivering Sustainable Bioenergy cooperation between IEA & IEA Bioenergy 11 Published November 2017 Links: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/ Technology_Roadmap_Delivering_Sustainable_Bioenergy.pdf http://www.ieabioenergy.com/publications/technology- roadmap-delivering-sustainable-bioenergy/ The Technology Roadmap provides technology milestones and policy actions needed to unlock the potential of bioenergy in a sustainable energy mix
  12. 12. www.ieabioenergy.com Main conclusions of the roadmap  Sustainable bioenergy is an essential element in the portfolio of measures needed for a low carbon scenario.  Biofuels can play a particularly important role in the transport sector, complementing energy efficiency measures and electrification, and with a special role in aviation, shipping and other long haul transport, but also grows in industry, electricity and buildings.  Progress in bioenergy is much slower than necessary so we need to  Expand deployment of existing technologies  Commercialise the new technologies  Develop sustainable supply chains and appropriate sustainability governance systems  Build technical and regulatory capacity in a much wider range of countries and regions  Putting in place suitable policy frameworks is a vital step in accelerating deployment 12
  13. 13. www.ieabioenergy.com Bioenergy is essential component of IEA Low Carbon Scenarios Bioenergy to provide some 17% of cumulative carbon savings to 2060 in the 2DS and around 22% of additional cumulative reductions in the B2DS, including an important contribution from BECCS 13 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055 2060 Global Emissions GT CO2 2DS - Other technologies 2DS - Bioenergy B2DS - Other technologies B2DS - Bioenergy
  14. 14. www.ieabioenergy.com Bioenergy serves many energy uses in IEA 2DS scenario Modern bioenergy in final energy consumption 14 18% 46% 8% 25% 3% Transport Industry Electricity Buildings Other 18 EJ 2015
  15. 15. www.ieabioenergy.com 41% 33% 15% 9% 2% Transport Industry Electricity Modern biomass heating Other Bioenergy serves many energy uses in IEA 2DS scenario Modern bioenergy in final energy consumption 15 18 EJ 2015 73 EJ 2060 x 10 Total final energy consumption of sustainable bioenergy increases four times by 2060 in the 2DS. Use of sustainable biofuels for transport increases tenfold, with a large majority of advanced biofuels. x 4
  16. 16. www.ieabioenergy.com Biofuels: an important option in a portfolio of transport solutions 16 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055 2060 EJ Hydrogen Electricity Biofuels Other fossil Fossil Jet Fuel Fossil Diesel Fossil Gasoline Transport Fuels – 2DS While demand of transport services more than doubles, biofuels complement end-use efficiency and strong growth in electricity, providing almost 30% of transport final energy demand in 2060.
  17. 17. www.ieabioenergy.com Increasing role of advanced biofuels, focus on long-haul transport 17 Biofuels final transport energy demand by fuel type in the 2DS, up to 2060 Biofuels can complement EVs and play important roles in heavy freight, shipping and air transport – but a step change is needed in support policies for advanced biofuels.
  18. 18. www.ieabioenergy.com Roadmap: four key actions 1. Promote short term deployment of mature options 2. Stimulate the development and deployment of new technologies 3. Deliver the necessary feedstock sustainably, backed by a supportive sustainability governance system 4. Develop capacity and catalyze investment via a coordinated international collaboration effort 18
  19. 19. www.ieabioenergy.com 1. Acceleration of Deployment – Many Immediate Opportunities 19 Examples of immediate deployment opportunities Conversion of fossil fuel infrastructure HVO and HEFA from wastes and residues Bioenergy for district heating Energy from MSW Biomethane from waste and residues Efficient use of coproducts and residues Wood chip/ pellet heating Higher ethanol blends in road transport Many examples of solutions ready for deployment in different regions • Mature technology • Affordable • Uncontroversial Requires favourable general policy environment • Stable predictable policy environment • Clear targets • Appropriate long term remuneration • Minimise non financial regulatory barriers
  20. 20. www.ieabioenergy.com 2. Stimulate development and deployment of new technologies  New technologies needed with good carbon performance and adapted to market roles in 2DS  Continued RD&D to reduce costs and improve GHG performance of existing biofuels technologies  Demonstrate reliable performance from existing “novel biofuels” plants  Develop and demonstrate routes to diesel and biojet with improved costs, better C balances and GHG performance (link to RE H2 production)  Identify potential and development paths for cost reduction 20 Some routes to new biofuels
  21. 21. www.ieabioenergy.com 3. Deliver the necessary feedstock sustainably Deployment will need wastes, residues, forestry and energy crops  Produced in line with sustainable resource management, forestry and agricultural practice  Produced with minimized impacts on land use change emissions by co- production with food, use of under-productive land, improved production  Supported by general effort to improve agricultural productivity and efficiency 21 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 EJ Residues Agriculture Total- Minimum Total- MaximumMSW Forestry operations
  22. 22. www.ieabioenergy.com 4. Develop capacity via a coordinated international collaboration effort 22
  23. 23. www.ieabioenergy.com Bioenergy in balancing grids and providing storage options - results of an IEA bioenergy special project 23
  24. 24. www.ieabioenergy.com Background  Bioenergy is dispatchable & low carbon  Reduction of costs for VRE (variable renewables) like PV and wind + different balance between CAPEX and OPEX => higher in merit order because of lower OPEX (no fuel) => other business models -> Value of balancing !!  Balancing need depends on  share of VRE (variable renewables) like PV and wind  Grid constraints / interconnection capacities  Short vs medium term balancing 24
  25. 25. www.ieabioenergy.com Changing roles, market drivers and business models Solar and wind energy resources and associated levelised cost of electricity [Langer, Energy market transformation from energy optimized to capacity optimized system, 16.8.2016, Helsinki] Electrification and price formation change the role of consumables and grids and earning logics will drive change and create new business models In Europe, 2030 targets and renewable, solar and wind electricity penetration drives market change
  26. 26. www.ieabioenergy.com Value of balancing 26 ImpactNeed Mid term balancing Short term balancing Investments Hydro planning Day-ahead market Intra-day markets Balancing market Manual reserves Automatic reserves YearsMonthsDaysHoursMinutesSecondsNow Inertia Balancing unpredictable fast changes (small fluctuations and big faults) Balancing forecast errors in load and generation (especially wind and PV) Balancing variability in net load (load minus variable generation) Balancing seasonal / interannual energy availability € € € €
  27. 27. www.ieabioenergy.com Region dependent 27 Potential, role and technologies for balancing the power grid varies significantly between regions => differences in the current use and availability of biomass, existing infrastructure (such as gas grid) and the degree of grid interconnectivity
  28. 28. www.ieabioenergy.com Opportunities for bioenergy in balancing the grid  Biogas  Gas engines and gas turbines which have a quick response time, even from a cold start, as well as high ramping capabilities  Gas grid as buffer  Bioliquids  Engines and gas turbines as well as in boilers for heating applications  Solid biomass  Dedicated power plants, as a co-firing fuel in fossil (coal) plants  Slower response times → seasonal balancing  Biomass in district heating and industrial CHP systems  Slower response times → seasonal balancing  Connection to heat grid brings significant additional balancing component
  29. 29. www.ieabioenergy.com Examples of future assets for grid balancing  Wide availability of biofuels also for peak electricity production  H2 boosting as a means to store the “excess electricity”  Hydrotreating of veg. oil, pyr. oil and HTL liquids (primarily for transport sector)  Upgrading of biogas  Gasification-based biofuels  BIO-CCS and BIO-CCU providing rolling capacity as they enable negative GHG emissions creating a revenue stream decoupled from electricity market prices 29
  30. 30. www.ieabioenergy.com Bioenergy enables smooth transition 30 Future: Energy system that is significantly more distributed, interconnected and flexible than today’s ! Ref. to IEA Bioenergy workshop in Baden (CH), 19 October 2017 on “Bioenergy grid integration”
  31. 31. www.ieabioenergy.com Conclusions  In general biomass can play a role in balancing the grid related to the dispatchable nature of bioenergy  A wide range of possible technical options exist to implement balancing actions  Most current biomass power plants have not been designed with grid balancing in mind, yet they can be optimized to incorporate more balancing aspects.  Biomass is largely used in residential and industrial heat production and CHP (combined heat and power). Whereas the conversion itself is not highly flexible, connecting it to a heat system brings significant additional flexibility opportunities.  Potential, role and technologies for balancing the power grid varies significantly between regions mainly due to differences in the current use and availability of biomass, existing infrastructure (such as gas grid) and the degree of grid interconnectivity and thus need for balancing capacity.  Currently, the role of bioenergy in balancing is more important for longer term balancing, being most significant in seasonal balancing especially in connection with heat grids. In the future (short term) balancing needs increase due to the increasing share of variable power generation.
  32. 32. www.ieabioenergy.com Strengthening future role of bioenergy  Future energy system must be significantly more distributed, interconnected and flexible than today’s in order to enable high shares of low carbon inputs and at the same time secure current level of security of supply and resilience.  New role for biomass energy carriers and systems integration of electricity, heat, transport and industry in future energy system.  Defining the role must be based on understanding of market need, market change and formation of new business models. 32 New IEA Bioenergy Task proposed for the next triennium 2019-2021 on integrating bioenergy with other renewable energy
  33. 33. Contact Details IEA Bioenergy Website www.ieabioenergy.com Contact us: www.ieabioenergy.com/contact-us/ Luc Pelkmans Technical Coordinator - IEA Bioenergy Tel. +32 492 97.79.30 Email: luc.pelkmans@caprea.be Thanks for your attention

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