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Analysis of distribution grid tariffs in the Norwegian energy system

IEA-ETSAP
IEA-ETSAP

Analysis of distribution grid tariffs in the Norwegian energy system Lisa Kvalbein, Institute for Energy Technology (IFE)

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Analysis of distribution grid
tariffs in the Norwegian energy
system
Lisa Kvalbein & Pernille Seljom
Renewables energy systems, IFE
IEA-ETSAP
Winter 2020
Workshop 17.12.2020 Zoom
• Increased electrification can lead to the
need for costly upgrades in the
distribution grid
• The structure of grid tariffs can be used
as an incentive to end-user to increase
their flexibility and lower the peak
demand
• Grid tariffs can be used to represent the
distribution grid costs in TIMES-models
Motivation
2
• The distribution grid is the low voltage grid delivering electricity to end
users in each region.
• The cost at this level is then the electricity bill the end user needs to pay
• The bill consists of three parts in Norway:
1. The electricity price / marginal cost of electricity form high voltage grid
2. Taxes
3. Grid tariff
The cost of electricity in distribution grid
3
• Grid tariff (directly translated from Norwegian: Grid rental) is the cost of
investments and maintenance in the distribution grid, in addition to grid losses.
• Different structure for end-use in residential building and in commercial
buildings.
• The line is often set at yearly demand (lower/higher than 100 000 kWh) or at the size of the
main fuse (lower/higher than 125 A)
Payment structure of grid tariff
4
IFE-TIMES-Norway
• Continuously developed with The Norwegian Water
Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE)
• Modell strength
• Covers the Norwegian energy system
• Detailed description of end users (residential and
commercial buildings, industry and transport)
• Modell specifications
• 5 regions: Nord Pool spot price area NO1-5
• Modell horizon : 2018 – 2050
• 96 time-slices: 4 seasons x representative day of
24 hour
• Deterministic and stochastic version
The model is documented here: IFE-E-2020/004 (3.599Mb) (unit.no)
5
• 3 structures will be investigated
• Base
• Flat charge per energy unit consumed for all electricity
services
• Tariff structure of today
• Flat energy charge per unit consumed for residential
• Energy charge with seasonal variations and demand charge
for commercial
• Tarif structure of tomorrow
• Energy charge depending on time of use for residential
• Energy charge with seasonal variations and demand charge
for commercial
• All charges is calculated so that if there is no change in demand, i.e. no response
to the incentives, the grid tariff income will be the same.
• Assumed the cost level of grid tariffs remains the same throughout the model
period
Structure of grid tariff
6
0,0
5,0
10,0
15,0
20,0
25,0
FA_01
FA_06
FA_11
FA_16
FA_21
WI_02
WI_07
WI_12
WI_17
WI_22
SP_03
SP_08
SP_13
SP_18
SP_23
SU_04
SU_09
SU_14
SU_19
SU_24
Energycharge,NOK/MWh
TimeSlice
Flat charge
NO1
NO2
NO3
NO4
NO5
0,0
5,0
10,0
15,0
20,0
25,0
FA_01
FA_06
FA_11
FA_16
FA_21
WI_02
WI_07
WI_12
WI_17
WI_22
SP_03
SP_08
SP_13
SP_18
SP_23
SU_04
SU_09
SU_14
SU_19
SU_24
Energycharge,NOK/MWh
TimeSlice
Time of Use
NO1
NO2
NO3
NO4
NO5

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Analysis of distribution grid tariffs in the Norwegian energy system

  • 1. Analysis of distribution grid tariffs in the Norwegian energy system Lisa Kvalbein & Pernille Seljom Renewables energy systems, IFE IEA-ETSAP Winter 2020 Workshop 17.12.2020 Zoom
  • 2. • Increased electrification can lead to the need for costly upgrades in the distribution grid • The structure of grid tariffs can be used as an incentive to end-user to increase their flexibility and lower the peak demand • Grid tariffs can be used to represent the distribution grid costs in TIMES-models Motivation 2
  • 3. • The distribution grid is the low voltage grid delivering electricity to end users in each region. • The cost at this level is then the electricity bill the end user needs to pay • The bill consists of three parts in Norway: 1. The electricity price / marginal cost of electricity form high voltage grid 2. Taxes 3. Grid tariff The cost of electricity in distribution grid 3
  • 4. • Grid tariff (directly translated from Norwegian: Grid rental) is the cost of investments and maintenance in the distribution grid, in addition to grid losses. • Different structure for end-use in residential building and in commercial buildings. • The line is often set at yearly demand (lower/higher than 100 000 kWh) or at the size of the main fuse (lower/higher than 125 A) Payment structure of grid tariff 4
  • 5. IFE-TIMES-Norway • Continuously developed with The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) • Modell strength • Covers the Norwegian energy system • Detailed description of end users (residential and commercial buildings, industry and transport) • Modell specifications • 5 regions: Nord Pool spot price area NO1-5 • Modell horizon : 2018 – 2050 • 96 time-slices: 4 seasons x representative day of 24 hour • Deterministic and stochastic version The model is documented here: IFE-E-2020/004 (3.599Mb) (unit.no) 5
  • 6. • 3 structures will be investigated • Base • Flat charge per energy unit consumed for all electricity services • Tariff structure of today • Flat energy charge per unit consumed for residential • Energy charge with seasonal variations and demand charge for commercial • Tarif structure of tomorrow • Energy charge depending on time of use for residential • Energy charge with seasonal variations and demand charge for commercial • All charges is calculated so that if there is no change in demand, i.e. no response to the incentives, the grid tariff income will be the same. • Assumed the cost level of grid tariffs remains the same throughout the model period Structure of grid tariff 6 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 FA_01 FA_06 FA_11 FA_16 FA_21 WI_02 WI_07 WI_12 WI_17 WI_22 SP_03 SP_08 SP_13 SP_18 SP_23 SU_04 SU_09 SU_14 SU_19 SU_24 Energycharge,NOK/MWh TimeSlice Flat charge NO1 NO2 NO3 NO4 NO5 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 FA_01 FA_06 FA_11 FA_16 FA_21 WI_02 WI_07 WI_12 WI_17 WI_22 SP_03 SP_08 SP_13 SP_18 SP_23 SU_04 SU_09 SU_14 SU_19 SU_24 Energycharge,NOK/MWh TimeSlice Time of Use NO1 NO2 NO3 NO4 NO5
  • 7. • New transformation processes is defined to represent the energy meter • One for residential sector • One for each season for the commercial sector Modeling the grid tariff 7
  • 8. • Only efficiency is set on the energy meter for residential • Efficiency, lifetime and availability factor is set for the energy meters for commercial Modeling the grid tariff 8
  • 9. • The cost structure is set in scenario-files to be able to do scenario analysis • For the energy charge, FLO_COST is used • For demand charge, it is set as an investment cost with 1 year lifetime Modeling the grid tariff 9
  • 10. Electricity Use in Commercial buildings in NO310 Base Today Tomorrow 2020 2050
  • 11. Electricity Use in Residential buildings in NO111 Base Today Tomorrow 2020 2050
  • 12. Power generation from PV in GWh 12 2020 2030 2040 2050 Commercial Residential Commercial Residential Commercial Residential Commercial Residential Base 60 46 50 37 1859 1789 5768 4269 Today 60 46 50 37 2116 1789 5714 3854 Tomorrow 60 46 50 37 2116 1801 4902 4700 • For PV in commercial buildings, no clear grid tariff structure is of favor • For PV in residential buildings, a grid tariff structure of time of use is favorable
  • 13. Electric battery 13 • Battery is only favorable in commercial buildings in NO3 for scenarios including power demand charges in model periods 2035-2045 • 3.55 MWh - corresponds to 0.5 % of yearly peak demand in the region • NO3 is a region with small difference in demand charges between the seasons.
  • 14. Marginal electricity cost in transmission grid (ELC-HV) 14 2020 2050
  • 15. Marginal electricity cost in distribution grid (ELC-LV-*) 15 2020 2050 Residential Commercial
  • 16. • The modelling of three different grid tariff structures is demonstrated in IFE-TIMES- Norway • The grid tariff structures • influences the investments in electric batteries and PV • influence peak demand marginally with current model assumptions • Hypothesis: Grid tariff structure will have a greater impact with more end-use flexibility options ( e.g. flexible EV charging), a stochastic modelling of short-term uncertainty and with an increase in grid tariff cost level • What can we learn from your model team on modelling of the distribution grid and grid tariffs? Conclusion 16
  • 17. Thank you! lisa.kvalbein@ife.no Master of Science Researcher position at IFE in department for Renewable Energy Systems Analysis, read more at ETSAP job announcments and apply here: Advert – Webcruiter, deadline 3. january 2021