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A novel energy system model to find the optimal balance of storage and transmission using social and weather drivers

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A novel energy system model to find the optimal balance of storage and transmission using social and weather drivers

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A novel energy system model to find the optimal balance of storage and transmission using social and weather drivers

  1. 1. A novel energy system model to find the optimal balance of storage and transmission using social and weather drivers Tiziano Gallo Cassarino, Mark Barrett, Ed Sharp EnergySpaceTime group t.cassarino@ucl.ac.uk 18.06.2018 – ETSAP, Gothenburg
  2. 2. Outline • Analysis of the historic demand in Europe • Storage needs • ESTIMO description
  3. 3. Social activity influences demand at different time resolutions Off-peak heating School closure Electric heating Winter peak Christmas / New year Activity profiles of electricity hourly demand in France (2=Wed, 6=Sun) National electricity annual demand in the countries with the highest average final energy consumption
  4. 4. Temperature sensitivity of electricity demand is country-specific SolarW /m2 Italy – Sensitivity of daily electricity demand to population-weighted temperature (2010-2015) SolarW /m2 UK – Sensitivity of hourly electricity demand to population-weighted temperature (2010-2015)
  5. 5. UK needs on average ~10% of electricity equivalent storage Residual electricity demand peaks move along years: ~76 TWh (26% of the annual demand in 2010) Monthly electricity cumulative residual demand (= demand – generation), assuming only wind and solar generation
  6. 6. Countries can balance seasonal residual demand Monthly electricity cumulative residual demand in Europe, assuming only wind and solar generation (2015) GBR DEU ESP FRA ITA POL Unmet demand Generation surplus Balance
  7. 7. Fourier analysis of the residual demand shows hour to annual periodicity patterns 2880h (4 months) ~ 3 GW 24h ~ 10 GW 12h ~ 9 GW 8000h (1y) ~ 5.5 GW weeks < 3 GW Periods of electricity residual demand in UK, de-trended (2010-2015)
  8. 8. ESTIMO - Energy Space Time Integrated Model Optimiser Simulate and optimise (at hourly resolution) multi-vector energy systems with nodes (countries or their aggregates) What is the optimal mix of storage and interconnections assuming a highly electrified, renewable system? Initial tests with a star network topology to balance computability and accuracy
  9. 9. Simulation algorithm 1. Meet demands for heat and electricity internally in each node 2. Offset unmet demand with international trade (where possible) 3. Use a node’s internal dispatchable supply to meet remaining deficits The following output is to illustrate model function using provisional data for nodes and meteorology:
  10. 10. Energy demand module • Engineering approach for energy service demands based on weather, human activity, and building heat loss • Focus on weather-dependent demands: space heating, air conditioning, lighting • Weather-independent demands: appliances, cooking, hot water, transport, synthetic fuels • Preliminary tests for the UK in 2010-2014 (from IEA and Odyssee): Demand % of simulated demand / reported consumption Delivered electricity 96% Air conditioning 126% Space heating 90% Lighting 87%
  11. 11. Next steps 1. Complete first version of demand/renewable simulation modules including gas 2. Add costs 3. Collate/construct scenarios for the UK and each European country 4. Simulate system for future scenario years with different meteorology over annual and peak cold/hot stress periods 5. Apply optimisation 6. Assess storage and transmission in different conditions with simulation and optimisation 7. Other applications – system control markets, effect of heat waves on health and demand, extend to Asia and other continents
  12. 12. Thank you! Mark Barrett

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