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Issue Date:
Revision:
ASN distribution and
interconnection in
Indonesia
12 June 2015
1.0
Overview
Introduction to ASN: What is it, how to
get it, and why is it important?
2-byte and 4-byte ASN
ASNs in Indonesia:...
Introduction to
ASN
Routing the Internet
• Every Internet router needs to know the relative location of
every destination address on the Inter...
Routing and ASN
• RFC 1930:
– An AS (Autonomous System) is a connected group of one or more IP
prefixes run by one or more...
ASN distribution
2-byte and 4-byte ASN
• 2-byte (16 bit ASN)
– Range: 0 – 65535
– Reserved: 0, 65535
– Documentation & Sample Code Use: 644...
2-byte ASN status
199 remain at IANA (as of 8 June 2015)
http://www.potaroo.net/tools/asn16/
4-byte ASN deployment
• A few issues due to
old equipment &
network operating
systems
– Better acceptance now
in all regio...
AS
interconnection
The Internet
11
• Networks worldwide
interconnect to form the
Internet. They include ISPs,
Internet Exchange Points,
Unive...
Network Interconnection
202.178.112.0/24
2400:3E00:DD::/48 202.178.112.0/24
2400:3E00:DD::/48
Multi-homed network
MAY have...
Why multihome with BGP and use a
public ASN?
Good interconnection strategy can lower cost of
operation by directing traffi...
Global AS Core
Economy level ASN transit map
Data source
• Routeviews.org
– RIBs from routers located in various locations (mostly Internet
Exchanges) around the world...
Explanation
Top view Side view
Explanation
Top view Side view
ASNs with more
downstreams
are displayed
closer to the
centre
Explanation
Top view Side view
Lowest ASN shown
at the top, followed
by higher ASNs in a
clockwise direction
Explanation
Top view Side view
Darker nodes/path
means there are more IP
addresses involved in
that route
Explanation
Top view Side view
Maximum observed path length
Singapore
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
Indonesia
530 advertised ASNs
4-byte ASN in Indonesia
4-byte range
4-byte ASN in Indonesia
4-byte ASN in Indonesia
Measurements by the Atlas project
RIPE Atlas employs a global
network of probes that
measure Internet
connectivity and
rea...
Domestic/International path
Domestic/International path
AS4796
AS59785
Domestic/International path
AS4796
AS38158
Transit & peering view
• Visibility of private peerings, which can not be seen on the
global routing table
Need your help
• More Atlas probes on different ASNs, cities, transit paths,
exchanges, etc.
Looking ahead
• As more organisations interconnect with upstreams,
downstreams and peers, the number of advertised ASNs
wi...
Things to consider if you operate an
ASN
Routing Security
Registration
Aggregation
Routing security
• As more networks interconnect, security and stability risks
such as route hijacking, accidental route l...
ROA
• Create your ROA now in MyAPNIC (or ask IDNIC)
• Benefits
– Verify whether an AS is authorized to announce a specific...
Registration
• With IPv4 address space nearing exhaustion and transfers
taking place, it’s really important that everyone ...
Aggregation
• As more routing information entries get added to the global
routing table, it’s important that prefix announ...
43
01 (IDNOG02) ASN distribution and interconnection in Indonesia by Sanjaya
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01 (IDNOG02) ASN distribution and interconnection in Indonesia by Sanjaya

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A review of Autonomous System Numbers: what is it, how to get it, and why it’s important. It highlights the challenges of the 2-byte ASN run-out and adoption of 4-byte ASN, and how Indonesia fare compared to other economies. It then looks at the distribution of ASNs in Indonesia, and more importantly how the ASNs are interconnected locally and internationally. The presentation ends with how ASN usage may change in the future, and what role network operators can play in building a robust Internet by adopting best current practice in deploying and managing ASNs.

Published in: Internet
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01 (IDNOG02) ASN distribution and interconnection in Indonesia by Sanjaya

  1. 1. Issue Date: Revision: ASN distribution and interconnection in Indonesia 12 June 2015 1.0
  2. 2. Overview Introduction to ASN: What is it, how to get it, and why is it important? 2-byte and 4-byte ASN ASNs in Indonesia: Distribution and Interconnection AS interconnection: It’s about cost, resiliency and performance Looking ahead
  3. 3. Introduction to ASN
  4. 4. Routing the Internet • Every Internet router needs to know the relative location of every destination address on the Internet • Location information is distributed across the Internet using routing architecture • The Internet is divided into “clouds” of interconnection called “networks” – Interior routing protocols (OSPF, IS-IS, etc) maintain the internal connectedness with a network – Exterior routing protocols (BGP) maintain a map of how each of these networks connect to each other – BGP uses the concept of an Autonomous System Number to uniquely identify each component network
  5. 5. Routing and ASN • RFC 1930: – An AS (Autonomous System) is a connected group of one or more IP prefixes run by one or more network operators that has a SINGLE and CLEARLY DEFINED routing policy. – An AS has a globally unique number (sometimes referred to as an ASN, or Autonomous System Number) associated with it. This number is used in both the exchange of exterior routing information (between neighbouring AS’s), and as an identifier of the AS itself.
  6. 6. ASN distribution
  7. 7. 2-byte and 4-byte ASN • 2-byte (16 bit ASN) – Range: 0 – 65535 – Reserved: 0, 65535 – Documentation & Sample Code Use: 64496-64511 – Private Use: 64512 – 65534 – Public Use: 1 – 64495 (‘23456’ is used for 4-byte transition purposes) • 4-byte (32 bit ASN) – Range: 0 – 4294967295 – Additional Reserved: 65552 – 131071, 4294967295 – Additional Doc. & Sample Code Use: 65536 – 65551 – Additional Private Use: 4200000000 – 4294967294 – Additional Public Use: 131072 – 4199999999
  8. 8. 2-byte ASN status 199 remain at IANA (as of 8 June 2015) http://www.potaroo.net/tools/asn16/
  9. 9. 4-byte ASN deployment • A few issues due to old equipment & network operating systems – Better acceptance now in all regions • Can not be used in BGP community attribute – BGP community attribute is a 32-bit value, the lower 16-bit specifies the ASN • Otherwise it WORKS JUST FINE
  10. 10. AS interconnection
  11. 11. The Internet 11 • Networks worldwide interconnect to form the Internet. They include ISPs, Internet Exchange Points, Universities, Corporate networks, etc. • Each dot represents an AS • There are 47,000+ ASNs currently active in the Internet • Networks worldwide interconnect to form the Internet. They include ISPs, Internet Exchange Points, Universities, Corporate networks, etc. • Each dot represents an AS • There are 47,000+ ASNs currently active in the Internet peer1.com
  12. 12. Network Interconnection 202.178.112.0/24 2400:3E00:DD::/48 202.178.112.0/24 2400:3E00:DD::/48 Multi-homed network MAY have a need for BGP and public ASN Single-homed network No need for public ASN
  13. 13. Why multihome with BGP and use a public ASN? Good interconnection strategy can lower cost of operation by directing traffic through the most cost effective connections wherever possible Good interconnection strategy can lower cost of operation by directing traffic through the most cost effective connections wherever possible Understanding where your network traffic goes and when possible shortening the path to your main customers/suppliers/partners could result in better overall network experience Understanding where your network traffic goes and when possible shortening the path to your main customers/suppliers/partners could result in better overall network experience Looking further than next hop path diversification allows you to better evaluate interconnection options, which in turn could result in better network resiliency Looking further than next hop path diversification allows you to better evaluate interconnection options, which in turn could result in better network resiliency CostCost PerformancePerformance ResilienceResilience
  14. 14. Global AS Core
  15. 15. Economy level ASN transit map
  16. 16. Data source • Routeviews.org – RIBs from routers located in various locations (mostly Internet Exchanges) around the world (US, Japan, Korea, UK, Australia, Brazil, Singapore, Serbia) • First week of April 2015 data • RIBs collected every two hours – This is a snapshot, not live data • This visualisation tool is a work in progress – APNIC values your feedback
  17. 17. Explanation Top view Side view
  18. 18. Explanation Top view Side view ASNs with more downstreams are displayed closer to the centre
  19. 19. Explanation Top view Side view Lowest ASN shown at the top, followed by higher ASNs in a clockwise direction
  20. 20. Explanation Top view Side view Darker nodes/path means there are more IP addresses involved in that route
  21. 21. Explanation Top view Side view Maximum observed path length
  22. 22. Singapore
  23. 23. Malaysia
  24. 24. Philippines
  25. 25. Thailand
  26. 26. Indonesia 530 advertised ASNs
  27. 27. 4-byte ASN in Indonesia 4-byte range
  28. 28. 4-byte ASN in Indonesia
  29. 29. 4-byte ASN in Indonesia
  30. 30. Measurements by the Atlas project RIPE Atlas employs a global network of probes that measure Internet connectivity and reachability, providing an unprecedented understanding of the state of the Internet in real time https://atlas.ripe.net/ Need more probes in Indonesia
  31. 31. Domestic/International path
  32. 32. Domestic/International path AS4796 AS59785
  33. 33. Domestic/International path AS4796 AS38158
  34. 34. Transit & peering view • Visibility of private peerings, which can not be seen on the global routing table
  35. 35. Need your help • More Atlas probes on different ASNs, cities, transit paths, exchanges, etc.
  36. 36. Looking ahead • As more organisations interconnect with upstreams, downstreams and peers, the number of advertised ASNs will continue to grow • Opportunities to reduce cost, improve resiliency and performance will be available to those with awareness of this rich network ecosystem • New technologies such as SDN and network virtualisation will drive innovations and change the way networks are interconnected, so expect to see a more dynamic ecosystem in the future
  37. 37. Things to consider if you operate an ASN Routing Security Registration Aggregation
  38. 38. Routing security • As more networks interconnect, security and stability risks such as route hijacking, accidental route leakage and other issues can escalate • Register and maintain your ‘route’ and ‘route6’ objects in the APNIC Whois database – Ensure the import and export attributes accurately reflect your actual routing policy • Create your ROA – A ROA or Route Origin Authorization is an attestation of a BGP route announcement. It attests that the origin AS number is authorized to announce the prefix(es). The attestation can be verified cryptographically using RPKI
  39. 39. ROA • Create your ROA now in MyAPNIC (or ask IDNIC) • Benefits – Verify whether an AS is authorized to announce a specific IP prefix – Minimize common routing errors – Prevent most accidental hijacks • What's contained in a ROA – The AS number you authorize – The prefix that is being originated from it – The most specific prefix (maximum length) that the AS may announce • Example of what a ROA says in plain language: – "ISP 4 permits AS 65000 to originate a route for the prefix 192.2.200.0/24" http://www.apnic.net/roa
  40. 40. Registration • With IPv4 address space nearing exhaustion and transfers taking place, it’s really important that everyone keeps the resource registry updated • Protect your Internet resource registration information – Keep your APNIC Whois data up to date • IPv4 range (inetnum) • IPv6 range (inet6num) • ASN (autnum) • Admin contact (admin-c) • Technical contact (tech-c) • Incident Response Team contact (irt) • Help everyone resolve operational issues quickly – Report invalid contacts
  41. 41. Aggregation • As more routing information entries get added to the global routing table, it’s important that prefix announcements are aggregated whenever possible • The algorithm used in the report (see next slide) proposes aggregation only when there is a precise match using AS path so as to preserve traffic transit policies. Aggregation is also proposed across non-advertised address space ('holes'). http://www.cidr-report.org
  42. 42. 43

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