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Grace Villamor - Bundling And Negotiating Ecosystem Services For Small Scale Farmers - Aug 2009

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Building, Bundling and negotiating ecosystem services for small-scale farmers in rural landscapes

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Grace Villamor - Bundling And Negotiating Ecosystem Services For Small Scale Farmers - Aug 2009

  1. 1. BUILDING, BUNDLING AND NEGOTIATING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN RURAL LANDSCAPES Grace B. Villamor (ZEF, University of Bonn & ICRAF) and David Huberman (IUCN)
  2. 2. Payments/Rewards for Ecosystem Services <ul><li>Wunder’s definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Well-defined ES </li></ul><ul><li>Bought by ES buyer </li></ul><ul><li>Conditionality </li></ul><ul><li>Conditionality – the business-like principle only to pay if the service is actually delivered (Wunder, 2005) </li></ul>Photos: B. Belcher, C. Cossalter, & S. Wunder
  3. 3. Quality control for P/RES (Source: van Noordwijk, et al 2007) Criteria Sub-criteria A. Effective, efficient and sustainability: - Realistic <ul><li>Shared common perspective of the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Value to beneficiaries is substantial </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity costs can be covered and access to resources improved </li></ul><ul><li>Threats can be monitored and evaluated </li></ul>- Voluntary <ul><li>Legitimacy at individual level </li></ul><ul><li>Free and prior consent applied </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptiveness of mechanism </li></ul>- Conditional <ul><li>Trust is enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions exist </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental changed is taken into account </li></ul>B. Equity - Pro-poor <ul><li>Aligned with MDGs and SD objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards reduce vulnerabilities of the poor </li></ul>
  4. 4. P/RES Scheme <ul><li>Popular PES scheme: Clean Development Mechanism (receiving most attention and investments) </li></ul><ul><li>Weak in achieving the high hopes of the farmers </li></ul><ul><li>ITTO and RUPES projects experience: </li></ul>(Published: ITTO's Tropical Forests Update Online Newsletter, Issue 18 No. 3 2008) www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sea/Networks/RUPES/ Don’t lose sight of the broader picture…. “bundle”…
  5. 5. Integrating PES through ‘bundling’ <ul><li>Forest Carbon Markets and REDD </li></ul><ul><li>RISEMP </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape Labeling </li></ul><ul><li>IPES </li></ul>
  6. 6. Integrating PES through ‘bundling’ <ul><li>REDD and forest carbon standards </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) tool: </li></ul><ul><li>- Afforestation, Reforestation, and Revegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Land Management </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Forest Management </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Integrating PES through ‘bundling’ <ul><li>Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Management Projects (RISEMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Pagiola, et al 2004 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Integrating PES through ‘bundling’ <ul><li>Landscape Labels (Ghazoul et al., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>- New approach that seeks to overcome problems on PES </li></ul><ul><li>- Combining PES and product certification principles applied at a landscape scale benefits realized at the community level </li></ul><ul><li>- Award managed rural landscape delivering valuable ecosystem services – “landscape label” </li></ul><ul><li>Towards integrated PES systems </li></ul><ul><li>Watersheds as fundamental building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Brauman et al., 2007 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Integrating PES through ‘bundling’ <ul><li>IPES </li></ul>
  10. 10. Case Studies/Projects and Interventions Case Studies Bundling Schemes Tools for negotiation Diversifying ES markets in Kalahan landscape, Philippines (RUPES) <ul><li>Agro-biodiversity markets (e.g. food processing) ( established ) </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary carbon market using improved forest management; </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed mini-hydro; </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed bird migration scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Agro-Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal (RABA); </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Carbon Stock Assessment (RaCSA); </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Hydrological Assessment (RHA); </li></ul><ul><li>RABA </li></ul>
  11. 11. Case Studies/Projects and Interventions Cocoa- agroforest Cattle ranching Case Studies Bundling Schemes Tools for negotiation Reforestation and Protection of Lachua, Eco-Region, Guatemala (IUCN) <ul><li>Reforestation of degraded lands for carbon and wildlife corridors </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Eco-region (3 Natural reserves & 4 areas of communal forest reservoirs) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Idea Note (PIN) development </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape labelling approach </li></ul>
  12. 12. Case Studies/Projects and Interventions Case Studies Bundling Schemes Tools for negotiation Niger Basin: Wetland Carbon, Guinea (IUCN) <ul><li>Based on watershed management PES model as basis </li></ul><ul><li>Basic upstream-downstream PES model as a platform </li></ul><ul><li>Project Idea Note (PIN) development </li></ul><ul><li>Soil retention function of forests for ensuring the productivity of Hydroelectric power (Dabola) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some important considerations: <ul><li>P/RES is not desirable everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep payment options broad (not just cash!) </li></ul><ul><li>There are likely to be tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to context specific realities (tools are available) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon finance should be considered as a means to an end – not an end in itself </li></ul><ul><li>Outreach and awareness raising are integral to the establishment of P/RES systems </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><li>RUPES website: </li></ul><ul><li>www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sea/Networks/RUPES/ </li></ul><ul><li>IUCN Economics website: </li></ul><ul><li>www.iucn.org/economics </li></ul>Thank you [email_address]

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