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Trafficking in persons in Syria and the neighbouring countries

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This presentation was held during a June 2016 webinar on "How are the Syrian conflict and the refugee situation affecting trafficking in persons in Syria and the neighbouring countries?" by the ICMPD Anti-Trafficking Programme.

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Trafficking in persons in Syria and the neighbouring countries

  1. 1. How are the Syrian conflict and the refugee situation affecting trafficking in persons in Syria and the neighbouring countries? Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, ICMPD Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016
  2. 2. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Syrian prison guards were observed sexually exploiting migrant women who were former domestic workers: “…three rooms full of foreign domestic workers. […] mostly from Ethiopia, Sudan, Malaysia and Thailand. […] They thought they were going to the Gulf countries, but were trafficked to Syria and they didn’t have their passports. […]. In prison, they became prostitutes to be able to buy food […] The high-ranking police officers were the pimps bringing the customers…” (SY03).
  3. 3. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Men from GCC states travel to the Akkar region in Lebanon, and marry a Syrian girl through an irregular marriage. Divorce takes place some weeks or months after the marriage, and obtaining the divorce is easy, as the marriage is not legalised (LB36).
  4. 4. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Some Syrian refugee children were involved in smuggling of goods and people in Zaatari Camp in Jordan, and were selling items at the side of the main road. The Jordanian authorities, UNICEF, UNHCR and other organisations have since addressed these problems (JO06). Aerial view of Zaatari Camp
  5. 5. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 A 14-year-old Iraqi Yazidi girl was sold several times among members of Da’ish (ISIS) for the purposes of sexual exploitation and abuse, after being taken from her family in the Sinjar region. After 3 months of severe abuse and exploitation, she escaped during the coalition bombing of Da’ish in Raqqa and contacted surviving members of her family in the KR-I (IQ14).
  6. 6. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 PROJECT: ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE SYRIAN WAR AND REFUGEE CRISIS ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS (AIS-TIP SYRIA)  Project Start: Oct. 2014  Countries Under Study: Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan & Iraq  Donor: US Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP)  Implementing Agency: ICMPD
  7. 7. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Methodological approach and research instruments Triangulation of sources Theoretical saturation Research InformantsResearch Informants Refugees & other vulnerable groups not directly interviewed (size of affected populations & ethical issues)
  8. 8. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Chronological scope: Comparison in order to assess the effects of the conflict and displacement Baseline End of 2010/beginning of 2011 Impact 2011-2015 Sources on Migration Forced migration Internal displacement Trafficking Other relevant data and information AIS-TIP Research Team, Beirut
  9. 9. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Trafficking during the Baseline Period (2001-2010) Origin Countries •South & Southeast Asia •East Africa •Eastern Europe (CIS) •North Africa •Iraq •Syria Also: citizens and residents of Lebanon & Iraq internally trafficked, particularly for sexual exploitation
  10. 10. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Forms of Trafficking, 2001-2010 (Baseline Period)
  11. 11. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Internal Displacement in Syria, 12.2015 Source: IDMC 2016 Global Report on I
  12. 12. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Internal Movement , Facilitation of Internal Movement and Migrant Smuggling A research informant in Turkey spoke of a group of Syrians from the Aleppo governorate: “They said, ‘we moved from Aleppo to Idlib, then to Homs, then to Qamishli. We fled from the PYD, Da’ish, the Free Syrian Army, the Assad regime. We had no strength to run any longer, no bread, nothing’”(TR16).
  13. 13. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Cross-Border Displacement, 2011-2015 Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq host 86.7% of Syria’s refugees abroad. Non-Syrians in Syria: Iraqis Stateless Kurds Asylum applicants & migrants Palestine refugees Countries of Destination of Syrian refugees
  14. 14. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Syrians Displaced in the Countries under Study (10.2015)
  15. 15. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 General Vulnerabilities, Vulnerabilities to Trafficking and Trafficking Cases
  16. 16. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Legal status and legal authorisation to work
  17. 17. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Increase in Incidence of Certain Forms of Trafficking  Forced marriage  Sexual exploitation  Sexual exploitation by means of forced marriage  Child trafficking for labour exploitation  Child trafficking for exploitation through begging Replacement effect: Syrians exploited in prostitution, where before other nationalities
  18. 18. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Forms of trafficking related to the war – in Syria  Sexual slavery, forced marriage, exploitation in armed conflict – by Da’ish  Forced marriage and armed conflict - by other parties in the Syrian war  Exploitation in terrorist activities  Kidnapping for ransom  Military forced labour
  19. 19. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Low-Level Exploitation ≠ Classic organised crime paradigm  forced marriage  sexual exploitation by means of forced marriage  child labour exploitation in agriculture  child exploitation in begging No viable alternatives for survival
  20. 20. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Internal Trafficking  Trafficking not necessarily cross-border phenomenon related to migratory movement  Trafficking targets vulnerabilities caused by displacement post facto
  21. 21. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Syrians not being identified as victims of trafficking Syrians not being identified as victims of trafficking Low identification of particular forms of trafficking Lack of TIP knowledge & capacity Victims afraid to report Syrians afraid to report a crime to authorities
  22. 22. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Child Protection Issues  Children out of school & without birth registration  Lack of legal status for adults has impact on children’s access to education  Lack of durable solutions in best interests of separated/unaccompanied children
  23. 23. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Host Communities are also affected Vulnerabilities of host communities Tensions among communities
  24. 24. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Recommendations – Combat Trafficking
  25. 25. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Recommendations – Reduce General Vulnerability
  26. 26. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Recommendations – Reduce Vulnerability of Specific Groups
  27. 27. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Targeting Vulnerabilities
  28. 28. Dr. Claire Healy, Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme 6 June 2016 Next Steps Lebanon Country Workshop, Beirut, 5 April 2016
  29. 29. Claire Healy Research Officer Anti-Trafficking Programme Phone: +43-5044677-2318 E-mail: claire.healy@icmpd.org Twitter: @ICMPD_THB Website: www.icmpd.org/our-work/capacity-building/trafficking-in-human-beings Gonzagagasse 1 1010 Vienna Austria www.icmpd.org

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