Environmental Performance of Cities - Elements for a Framework-Mainguy
Environmental performance of Cities Elements for a framework Gaëll MainguyRio de Janeiro, August 1, 2012 Gaell.firstname.lastname@example.org
Demographics Climate Ecosystems Water Ressources Other RessourcesConsumption
LowCarbon City Green City EcoCity SmartCity Climate Ecosystems Water Ressources Other RessourcesSustainable City Efficient City
• What should be monitored?• What is monitored?
The Global Challenges: sectors and priorities (Rockstrom et al, 2009)
The Global Challenges: sectors and priorities Non renewable mineral ressources Environmental threats to cities
The Planet boundaries: biodiversity"Over the past 50 years human activities have changedecosystems more rapidly and extensively than at anycomparable period in our history with more than 60% of theworld’s ecosystems already degraded"(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005).
Distant impacts: OutputsCaribbean coral reefs are threatened by poorwastewater treatment of coastal cities.White pox disease on a frond of the endangered elkhorn coral onCarysfort Reef in the Florida Keys. The bacteria Serratiamarcescens originates from human sewage. (Sutherland et al., 2011, Plos One)
Impacts : Local, distant, globalSectors Local Distant GlobalBiodiversity loss Habitat destruction Consumption of Disturbances of Local pollution food and goods C/N/P/Hg cycles Brownfield Distant pollution. remediationCarbon Cycle Local deforestation Deforestation due to Induced CO 2 Local reforestation consumption emissions Reforestation (scopes 1,2,3)N, P cycles Local waterways Waterways, coastal NO 2 accumulation: pollution, and land pollution Climate change Eutrophication EutrophicationPollutants Local air, land and CFCs and ODS water pollutions emissions, Hg globalWater resources Pollution/ exhaustion Consumption: of local streams / Pollution/ ground water exhaustion of upstream resources / ground waterLand use change Urban extension Conversion of lands Brownfield for food and good rehabilitation productionsSolid Waste Local pollution Downstream pollution Coastal degradation
A green city has a green hinterlandThe urban hinterland, once primarily aconfined geographic zone, is becoming aglobal hinterland.“Green city”: The external impacts of urbanactivities, both distant and global, need to bemonitored.
What is monitored?Review of 75 city indices and benchmarks
The local environmentThe most pressing environmental challengesare the ones that alter the quality of life of theurban residents:•Water supply•Sanitation•Waste•Ground pollutions•Air pollutions•Water pollutions•Green spaces
Urban Environmental Accords Energy Renewable Energy | Energy Efficiency | Climate Change Waste Reduction Zero Waste | Manufacturer Responsibility | Consumer Responsibility Urban Design Green Building | Urban Planning | Slums Urban Nature Parks | Habitat Restoration | Wildlife Transportation Public Transportation | Clean Vehicles | Reducing Congestion Environmental Health Toxics Reduction | Healthy Food Systems | Clean Air Water Water Access and Efficiency | Source Water Protection | Waste Water Reduction
What is monitored?• Most sustainable indicators for cities are designed to assess the impact on the local city environment, such as long-term models of urban transport, building efficiency, renewable energy, waste and water.• Indicators for local city environment needs standardization• The GEO cities Reports is the most comprehensive today• The Water Impact Index enables a comprehensive assessment of the impact of human activity on water resources: volume, quality and stress. It integrates some distant effects and is simple enough to guide decision- making.
What is monitored?Global issues • Climate change is the only global issue currently monitored (carbon-reduction and/or energy efficiency indicators). • GHG accounting is the most advanced methodology to account for out-of-boundaries impacts. • Methods to capture and/or mitigate distant effects for other sectors need to be developed.
Actions: Top priorities « Promote the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management » …and greenspaces Agenda 21 (1992) Target: adequate environmental infrastructures in all settlements by 2025
Hinterland: What can be done?Restore and manage natural ecosystems, develop greeninfrastructures: Green cities: create and manage protected areas locally: Rio de Janeiro, Gwangju Blue cities: Functioning natural ecosystems help to maintain water quality through filtration, groundwater renewal and maintenance of natural flows. Low carbon cities: Terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems play serve as major carbon stores and sinks. (Marine: 2% for 50%) Resilient cities: Protected areas prevent or mitigate natural disasters: Flooding, landslide and avalanche, tidal waves and storm surges, drought and desertification, fire, hurricanes and storm.Action: Set targets of protected areas restored and/or managed by cities(locally) or jointly implemented (distant). IUCN, WCPA. S.A.P.I.EN.S, in press
Hinterland: What can be done?Change in life style, looking for nexus: Food consumption: up to 70% of the food is wasted along the food chain. Food = life Waste of food = Increase * (hunger, malnutrition, diseases, CO2 and CH4 emissions) + Waste * (water, energy, nutrients, habitat destruction)Action: Adopt a citywide program that reduces the waste of food byat least thirty per cent in seven years. (based on Action 5)
Thank you for your attention.To download the report, please visit:http://www.institut.veolia.orghttp://www.unep.org Gaëll Mainguy Institut Veolia Environnement Gaell.email@example.com