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Concentrating Collectors for Process Heat Applications Dipl.-Phys. Christian Zahler PSE GmbH  consulting engineers for ren...
Survey <ul><li>Concentrating collector technology </li></ul><ul><li>Process heat applications and market </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Two Axis tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operating temperature < 1200 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Tower: pl...
Developments: Concentrating Process Heat Collectors <ul><li>Solitem GmbH, DLR, SIJ: PTC1800, PTC 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Bu...
Installed Capacity and Produced Energy - Worldwide (2005) Difficult: electric / thermal capacity, rated / max. power Sourc...
Final Energy Consumption example: Germany Source :  ARGE Energiebilanzen, VDE - Projektgruppe Nutzenergiebilanzen,  Data f...
Temperature distribution of Process Heat Demand example: Austria Source: Neubarth, Kaltschmitt, 2000
Solar Cooling! Office building in southern Europe  (e.g. Madrid) Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE
Solar Cooling <ul><li>Obvious: High cooling demand corresponds with high solar irradiation no seasonal storage necessary <...
Solar thermally driven air conditioning Thermally driven cooling process heat chilled  water conditioned  air Source: Henn...
Coefficient of Performance - COP Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE Overview
Heat driven cooling cycle  Absorption Technology Driving Heat Heat rejection Useful cold Heat rejection
When can solar AC be applied? Overview <ul><li>Variety of technical solutions for centralised systems available </li></ul>...
Absorption chillers - today‘s systems single-effect absorption double-effect absorption many products > 100 kW;  few produ...
Typical figures Absorption Technology high COP dry cooling low temperature & advantages 0,6-0,7 1,1-1,4 0,7-0,8 Max. COP 1...
Chiller Producers <ul><li>H2O/LiBr Trane, Carrier, Yazaki, York, Broad, EAW, Phoenix, Ebara, LG Machinery, Sanyo Mc Quay, ...
Produktionshallen in Griechenland Solar cooling plants Hotel   air-conditioning <ul><li>parabolic trough collector produce...
Solar cooling Office building (demonstration plant) in Italy <ul><li>Fresnel collector: 132 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 NH3/H2...
Realised Projects in Europe Solar Cooling with process heat collectors <ul><li>approx. 100 plants in Europe </li></ul><ul>...
Cooling Demand Solar Cooling with process heat collectors <ul><li>Cooling demand for  air-conditioning  in Germany up to 3...
Market Opportunities <ul><li>Drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental problems of conventional refrigerants </li></ul><...
Conclusions <ul><li>Differents types of chillers are available </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of collectors for differe...
Linear concentrating Fresnel-Collector Solar Radiation Secondary Reflector Fresnel Reflector Absorber Tube
First Prototype by Giovanni Francia
Present activities on linear Fresnel collectors <ul><li>SHP Solar Heat and Power Pty Ltd, Australien   Ausra Inc., Palo A...
<ul><li>Idea: downscaling of the collector by a factor 2 compared to power plant collectors </li></ul><ul><li>»Fresnel adv...
Fresnel Collector for Solar Cooling <ul><li>Project co-funded by  »Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt« </li></ul><ul><li>Const...
1 st  Prototype Freiburg Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
1 st  Prototype Freiburg Measurements Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
2 nd  Prototype Bergamo Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
2 nd  Prototype Italy Measurements 19.09.2006 Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
1 st  Prototype Freiburg efficiency Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
Gross Heat Production Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
How much is it? <ul><li>Price of the collector incl. Installation and Hydraulics ca. 500 – 700 € / m² </li></ul>
Summary + Next steps <ul><li>Two prototypes of the PSE linear Fresnel process heat collector (88m² Freiburg, 132m² Bergamo...
Conclusions <ul><li>A wide variety of concentrating solar technologies are market available  </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrati...
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D4_Zahler

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D4_Zahler

  1. 1. Concentrating Collectors for Process Heat Applications Dipl.-Phys. Christian Zahler PSE GmbH consulting engineers for renewable energies www.pse.de 15 June Local Renewables 2007
  2. 2. Survey <ul><li>Concentrating collector technology </li></ul><ul><li>Process heat applications and market </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Fresnel Process Heat Collector </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Two Axis tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operating temperature < 1200 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Tower: plant capacity ~ 10 MW el , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dish Stirling: unit capacity ~ 10-25 kW el , </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One axis tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operating temperature < 550°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parabolic trough, linear Fresnel: plant capacity ~ 0.1-100 MW th/el , </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stationary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operating temperature < 150°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum tube CPC: unit capacity ~ 1 kW th , </li></ul></ul>Collector: Key Component for Conversion of Solar Radiation to Heat Market available technology concentration ratio
  4. 4. Developments: Concentrating Process Heat Collectors <ul><li>Solitem GmbH, DLR, SIJ: PTC1800, PTC 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Button Energy, AEE Intec: Parasol </li></ul><ul><li>Ciemat-PSA: Fasol </li></ul><ul><li>Lotus Solar, NREA </li></ul><ul><li>PSE GmbH: linear Fresnel </li></ul><ul><li>Aosol Energias Renováveis Lda. </li></ul><ul><li>Solarfocus </li></ul><ul><li>Finsun Energy, Vattenvall Utveckling AB: MARECO </li></ul>Source: IEA-SHIP
  5. 5. Installed Capacity and Produced Energy - Worldwide (2005) Difficult: electric / thermal capacity, rated / max. power Source: IEA-SHC
  6. 6. Final Energy Consumption example: Germany Source : ARGE Energiebilanzen, VDE - Projektgruppe Nutzenergiebilanzen, Data from 2003
  7. 7. Temperature distribution of Process Heat Demand example: Austria Source: Neubarth, Kaltschmitt, 2000
  8. 8. Solar Cooling! Office building in southern Europe (e.g. Madrid) Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE
  9. 9. Solar Cooling <ul><li>Obvious: High cooling demand corresponds with high solar irradiation no seasonal storage necessary </li></ul><ul><li>not so obvious: need for off peak (night time) operation  shift (storage) for several hours may be needed </li></ul>
  10. 10. Solar thermally driven air conditioning Thermally driven cooling process heat chilled water conditioned air Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE
  11. 11. Coefficient of Performance - COP Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE Overview
  12. 12. Heat driven cooling cycle Absorption Technology Driving Heat Heat rejection Useful cold Heat rejection
  13. 13. When can solar AC be applied? Overview <ul><li>Variety of technical solutions for centralised systems available </li></ul><ul><li>No technical solution available for decentralised room air-conditioning (split systems) </li></ul>Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE
  14. 14. Absorption chillers - today‘s systems single-effect absorption double-effect absorption many products > 100 kW; few products <100 kW; water/LiBr, T drive  75°C...110°C ammonia/water, T drive > 160°C COP  0.7; several manufacturers; often direct fired; no products <100 kW; in most cases water/LiBr; COP  1.1; T drive  140°C...180°C Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE Absorption Technology
  15. 15. Typical figures Absorption Technology high COP dry cooling low temperature & advantages 0,6-0,7 1,1-1,4 0,7-0,8 Max. COP 160-180°C 140-180°C 70-90°C Driving temperature -20°-20°C 5-20°C 5-20°C Temperature of Cold 55 K 25 K 25 K Temperature lift (max) Single effect NH 3 /H 2 O Double effect H 2 O/LiBr Single effect H 2 O/LiBr
  16. 16. Chiller Producers <ul><li>H2O/LiBr Trane, Carrier, Yazaki, York, Broad, EAW, Phoenix, Ebara, LG Machinery, Sanyo Mc Quay, Sulzer-Escher Wyss, Entropie, Century </li></ul><ul><li>NH3/H2O Robur, Colibri, AWT, Mattes, ABB, Solarfrost </li></ul>Absorption Technology
  17. 17. Produktionshallen in Griechenland Solar cooling plants Hotel air-conditioning <ul><li>parabolic trough collector produces heat at 180°C: 180 m 2 aperture area </li></ul><ul><li>double effect absorption chiller (cooling capacity 116 kW, 4 bar saturated steam; COP > 1.2) </li></ul><ul><li>air-conditioning of a hotel and steam supply for the hotel laundry </li></ul><ul><li>LPG-fired back-up steam boiler </li></ul><ul><li>site: Dalaman (mediterranean coast Turkey) </li></ul><ul><li>first system with double effect chiller </li></ul>Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE
  18. 18. Solar cooling Office building (demonstration plant) in Italy <ul><li>Fresnel collector: 132 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 NH3/H2O Absorption Chillers (each 15 kW) </li></ul><ul><li>First system with a fresnel type collector </li></ul>
  19. 19. Realised Projects in Europe Solar Cooling with process heat collectors <ul><li>approx. 100 plants in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>(as at 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>average collector area per cooling capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 m 2 /kW for water chillers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 m 2 per 1000 m 3 /h for desiccant systems </li></ul></ul>Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE
  20. 20. Cooling Demand Solar Cooling with process heat collectors <ul><li>Cooling demand for air-conditioning in Germany up to 32.000 GWh/a </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling demand for production, distribution and storage of food in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>up to 19.000 GWh/a </li></ul>Source: Winter, Fraunhofer IUSE, Februar 2006
  21. 21. Market Opportunities <ul><li>Drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental problems of conventional refrigerants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of conventional energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortages in electricity supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental concerns; marketing of green image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential promising market niches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Solar combi-plus systems” (DHW and heating plus cooling): residential, small-commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications with other added values beside energy saving: green thinking, environmentally sound behaviour: e.g. hotels in sunny, tourist areas </li></ul></ul>Source: Henning, Fraunhofer ISE
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Differents types of chillers are available </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of collectors for different chillers are available </li></ul><ul><li>Development of heat driven systems to replace decentralized room air conditioners (e.g. split systems) remains a high challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Solar cooling is interesting for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for Suppliers: it’s a small but growing market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for Utilities: summer peak load can be reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for Consumers: less pollution, less noise, green label </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Linear concentrating Fresnel-Collector Solar Radiation Secondary Reflector Fresnel Reflector Absorber Tube
  24. 24. First Prototype by Giovanni Francia
  25. 25. Present activities on linear Fresnel collectors <ul><li>SHP Solar Heat and Power Pty Ltd, Australien  Ausra Inc., Palo Alto, CA </li></ul><ul><li>SPG Solar Power Group GmbH in cooperation with MAN Ferrostaal Power Industry GmbH </li></ul><ul><li>NOVATEC Biosol AG </li></ul><ul><li>PSE GmbH </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Idea: downscaling of the collector by a factor 2 compared to power plant collectors </li></ul><ul><li>»Fresnel advantages« are still valid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary Receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Wind load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat glass mirrors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High ground coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New: Rooftop Installation </li></ul>PSE: Why not process heat? Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
  27. 27. Fresnel Collector for Solar Cooling <ul><li>Project co-funded by »Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt« </li></ul><ul><li>Construction and Evaluation of a prototype in Freiburg </li></ul><ul><li>Installation and Monitoring of a demonstration system in Bergamo / Italy </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1 st Prototype Freiburg Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
  29. 29. 1 st Prototype Freiburg Measurements Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
  30. 30. 2 nd Prototype Bergamo Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
  31. 31. 2 nd Prototype Italy Measurements 19.09.2006 Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
  32. 32. 1 st Prototype Freiburg efficiency Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
  33. 33. Gross Heat Production Linear Fresnel Process Heat Collector
  34. 34. How much is it? <ul><li>Price of the collector incl. Installation and Hydraulics ca. 500 – 700 € / m² </li></ul>
  35. 35. Summary + Next steps <ul><li>Two prototypes of the PSE linear Fresnel process heat collector (88m² Freiburg, 132m² Bergamo) are being operated and monitored </li></ul><ul><li>Next project: 350m² Fresnel Collector in Sevilla - Solar Cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization is planned for 2008 </li></ul>
  36. 36. Conclusions <ul><li>A wide variety of concentrating solar technologies are market available </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrating solar collectors are able to provide process heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at high temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliably </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at large scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research demand for concentrating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system integration </li></ul></ul>

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