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Qualitat de les aigües

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Presentació realitzada per Jordi Camp (Institut de Ciències del Mar - CSIC) a la Jornada sobre Observació de la Terra i aplicacions en l'àmbit de la salut (15/12/2016)

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Qualitat de les aigües

  1. 1. Qualitat de l’aigua litoral i ús del territori Jordi Camp, Eva Flo i Esther Garcés Coastal Biological Processes Research Group Observació de la Terra i aplicacions en l’àmbit de la salut Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya i Geològic de Catalunya Barcelona, 15 Desembre 2016
  2. 2. SEA CONTINENT N P
  3. 3. 1950 2000 Catalunya 1950 2000 Harbours (Num) 12 42 Barcelona Harbour Palamós Harbours Cambrils Beach Harbours in Catalunya Modification of the natural coastline and the subsequent increase in confined water areas
  4. 4. D.Pauly, V. Christensen, J. Dalsgaard, R. Froese, F. Torres Jr. Fishing Down Marine Food Webs Science 1998: 279 (5352), 860-863 Time Trophiclevel Bottom-up and top-down
  5. 5. Fotosíntesis CO2 + 2 H2O + Luz (CH2O) + O2 + H2O Respiración (CH2O) + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energía
  6. 6. Composición de la materia viva C H O N P … Fe … Mg … Si … etc.
  7. 7. 106 CO2 + 90 H2O + 16 NO3 + 1 PO4 + Oligoelementos + 1300 Kcal Luz 1287 Kcal Calor + 150 O2 + 3,4 Kg Biomasa 25 g Chl
  8. 8. Fotosíntesis CO2 + 2 H2O + Luz (CH2O) + O2 + H2O Respiración (CH2O) + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energía
  9. 9. Fuentes de oxígeno Oxígeno disuelto Nitrato Sulfato Hipoxia Nitrito Sulfhídrico
  10. 10. R. J. Diaz and R. Rosenberg. Science, 2008 Antropización y condiciones de hipoxia Distribución global de 400 “zonas muertas” por eutrofización
  11. 11. Autumn Summer Winter Spring Temporal variability Coastal Zone Color Scanner NIMBUS-7, 1979-1986 development of an upper mixed layer by summer solar heating convective processes caused by winter cooling and strong winds
  12. 12. Nutrient supply in the photic zone Black SeaAtlantic Gibraltar Sicily Mediterranean Sea N 0.1 3 P P 0.3 Photic layer 1N Flow (Tm x 106 x Year -1) 1 10 P N
  13. 13. Percentual nutrient supply in the photic zone of the Mediterranean Sea 10% 15% 75% Atmospheric input Continental input: river, storm, ground and waste waters Oceanic input: seasonal mixing, upwelling and Atlantic input
  14. 14. Shore Sea level Oceanic watersCoastal waters Continental shelf Continental slope x5 ≈ 15% (mainly continental) Extension Inputs ≈ 85% (mainly oceanic and atmospheric) ≈ 97%≈ 3% RATIO x1
  15. 15. Median 25%-75% 10%-90% n=9823 Inshore Nearshore Offshore 0 1 2 3 4 5 Inshore Nearshore Offshore 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 Nearshore – offshore gradient Catalan Coast 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 DIN (µM)PO4 (µM) Chlorophyll-a (µg/l) Nearshore Oceanic waters Nearshore Oceanic waters Nearshore Oceanic waters Flo E, Garcés E, Manzanera M, Camp J (2011) Coastal inshore waters in the NW Mediterranean: physicochemical and biological characterization and management implications. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 93:279–289
  16. 16. Percentual nutrient suply in the coastal zone 20% 30% 20% 5% 25% Oceanic Runoff River Groundwater Wastewater
  17. 17. Tendency of the nutrient inputs in the Mediterranean Sea Ludwig et al. 2009 Mediterranean rivers suffer from a significant reduction in freshwater discharge (20 %, 1960- 2000) A similar decrease has been observed for the fluxes of dissolved silica but ….what are the dynamics in the fluxes of N and P?
  18. 18. Sensors OLS of DMSP NOAA 1994 - 1995
  19. 19. COMPOSITION AND MASS LOADING RATES FOR STORMWATERS
  20. 20. Percentual nutrient suply in the coastal zone 20% 30% 20% 5% 25% Oceanic Runoff River Groundwater Wastewater
  21. 21. Nearshore Mediterranean blooms
  22. 22. FACTOR 1 N (-1) 1 0,74 0,48 0,22 -0,04 -0,3 -0,56 -0,82 0 1000 5000 Shore (m) Llançà *Muga *Fluvià L'Estartit *Ter St.Feliu Mataró *Besòs Barcelona *Llobregat Tarragona *Francolí L'Ametlla *Ebre St.Carles FACTOR 1 R 0,71 0,53 0,35 0,17 -0,01 -0,19 -0,37 -0,55 0 1000 5000 Shore (m) Llançà *Muga *Fluvià L'Estartit *Ter St.Feliu Mataró *Besòs Barcelona *Llobregat Tarragona *Francolí L'Ametlla *Ebre St.Carles FACTOR 2 R 1,54 1,2 0,86 0,52 0,18 -0,16 -0,5 -0,84 0 1000 5000 Shore (m) Llançà *Muga *Fluvià L'Estartit *Ter St.Feliu Mataró *Besòs Barcelona *Llobregat Tarragona *Francolí L'Ametlla *Ebre St.Carles
  23. 23. Surfer Eva + foto + cluster? N . . . Distance from the coast (m) 0 1500 2000 Barcelona Fluvià, Mugaand Ter Rivers Ebre River Inshore Nearshore Offshore Catalan coast as an example: dissolved nutrients and chlorophyll a Chl-a (µg * L-1) River influence= NO3, Si Anthropogenic influence = P, NO2, NH4
  24. 24. Catalan Coastal Waters (1994-2014) Quality Numberofsamples High Good Moderate Poor Bad 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 High Good Moderate Poor Bad High global quality Cambrils-Montroig del Camp (C30) Bad global quality Sant Adrià de Besòs- Barceloneta (C19)
  25. 25. Catalan Coastal Waters (1994-2014) Numberofsamples High Good Moderate Poor Bad 30 80 400 900 5000 High Good Moderate Poor Bad High Good Moderate Poor Bad High Good Moderate Poor Bad 30 80 400 900 5000 High Good Moderate Poor Bad ModerateGoodHigh Poor Bad Global Quality of Water Bodies Quality of samples 59% 25% 10% 4% 2% 46% 26% 14% 6% 7% 29% 25% 20% 9% 17% 32% 21% 15% 7% 25% 11% 13% 15% 12% 49%
  26. 26. LUSI = (Score urban + score agricultural + score industrial + score riverine) * Correction number Low LUSI value High LUSI value LAND USES SIMPLIFIED INDEX (LUSI) Flo et al. (2011)
  27. 27. Pressure-impact relationship:LUSI and Chlorophyll-a (µg/L) CHLA=0.11*LUSI+0.21 (R2=0.61 and p=8.18*10-5)
  28. 28. Garcés, E. and J. Camp. 2012. In “Life in the Mediterranean Sea: A look at habitat changes” Noga Stambler editor, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York, US, pp. 519-541
  29. 29. 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Nitrate(uM) 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Ammonium(uM) 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 Phosphate(uM) 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Chlorophyll-a(ug/l) Ammonium (µM) PO4 (µM) Chlorophyll-a (µg/l)Nitrate (µM) Tendency in the nearshore Catalan Coast 1980-2008 r=-0.88 p<0.01 annual Means n=9823
  30. 30. ¿Qué nos preocupa?

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