Phoenix Az Energy Office Getting Ee Done Right The First Time


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HUD Phoenix Energy Workshop
September 16-17, 2008

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Phoenix Az Energy Office Getting Ee Done Right The First Time

  1. 1. Energy Efficient Housing Homes That Work Charlie Gohman & Ken Pancost Arizona Department of Commerce Energy Office
  2. 2. Importance of Energy Use • Energy use in your operations is going to grow in importance for one simple reason. Energy is going to get even more expensive!
  3. 3. How Much Will This Family Impact the Cost of Energy in the Furture?
  4. 4. What Can You Do? • Supply your own power. • Reduce the demand for energy. – Today we will be talking about how you can maximize the savings you can get with your limited resources. Report on DSM program Cost to save a kWh Less then $.01
  5. 5. Here Is How You Do It! • Demand the right thing done right. • Get the right thing done right. • Verify that the right thing was done right. – Do not expect performance if you do not inspect for performance. How do you determine what the right thing is?
  6. 6. Energy Efficiency Yesterday & Today What if you don’t feel right and go see a doctor. You walk in his office and the first thing he says is…
  7. 7. Take these pills and call me in the morning
  8. 8. What is wrong with that approach • No diagnostic to determine what is making you sick so... – Some pills may help – Some pills may do nothing – Some pills may make you worse – Some pills may combine to kill you This is how we use to do deal with homes! (some still are)
  9. 9. Old Approach • Measures are recommended/installed on homes with no real understanding of impact on energy or other areas. – Lists of measures applied to all homes! • Limited testing to determine problems in individual homes. • Limited commissioning/inspection to make sure measures really work.
  10. 10. My First Bit of Advice • If someone come in and says ”I can solve all your energy problems” without a detailed audit/inspection plan, show them the door. • They may end up doing the wrong thing right. – I will review some of the aspects of what a detailed audit should include.
  11. 11. Today’s Approach • Gather complete data on existing characteristics of the home. – Need information on all the characteristic that may impact your decision making process. • Based on data about the house, develop a scope of work. • Inspection of work to insure it is competed per scope.
  12. 12. General Specification If you take one thing away today, this should be it! • New construction – EPA Energy Star (+ room pressures) • Existing - EPA’s Home Performance with Energy Star Program – An auditor/contractor should be certified by the Building Performance Institute. Work is inspected
  13. 13. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR A whole-house program with contractor participation and quality assurance. AZ HPwES (602) 532-2976 ext. 1
  14. 14. Building Performance Institute BPI • The Building Performance Institute, Inc. (BPI) is a recognized global leader, supporting the development of a highly professional building performance industry through individual and organizational credentialing and a rigorous quality assurance program. • Foundation for Senior Living Home Improvement is the local affiliate of BPI and trains and certifies local technicians at the Southwest Building Science Training Center.
  15. 15. Southwest Building Science Training Center • Operated by Foundation for Senior Living Home Improvement. • Funded through the Department of Commerce Energy Office and Local Utilities. • Goal to provide building trades with the knowledge and skills needed to successfully perform diagnostic and repairs on Arizona’s housing stock. If there is any interest in having your staff trained, let me know!
  16. 16. The Right Thing • Details on the key “right things” that must be looked at in each building.
  17. 17. Why Do We Build Homes? • Our housing stock should be: – Healthy – Safe – Durable – Comfortable – And Energy Efficient Making a home more energy efficient but less safe is the right thing done wrong!
  18. 18. Energy is #5 • Energy was number five on the list. • Never do anything to save energy that will negatively impact health, safety, durability or comfort. • As you take energy out of a house (energy efficient) it becomes much less tolerant to: – Heath and safety issues – Durability issues – Comfort issues
  19. 19. The Good News • You can achieve all five if you use applied building science when building or retrofitting a house. • Understand how to take energy out without the increasing the potential for problems. Again, if someone does not talk about all of these issues, only talks about all the energy you will save, they do not know what they are doing!
  20. 20. Things are changing • The introduction of Building Science is changing the way homes are built & retrofitted. $.25 per sq. ft. per year
  21. 21. Phoenix Home Energy Efficiency Study Study sponsored by the EPA, performed by Advanced Energy Corporation • Baseline Homes • Performance Guarantee – R-30 attic – R-30 attic – R-19 wall – R-19 wall – 56% low-e – 100% low-e – 12 SEER – 11.9 SEER The Performance Guarantee homes out performed the Baseline by 33%.
  22. 22. How is it done?
  23. 23. Getting The Basics Right All the right pieces, put together wrong. Is this safe?
  24. 24. A House is a System • A house is made up individual parts. • We keep adding more and more parts. • For it to operate properly, all of the parts must work together. – This means you need to understand how any new parts may impact a building! – This requires testing! • If not, lawyers may get involved.
  25. 25. Is a dryer a good addition? • Yes, BUT – Dryers exhausts about 200CFM to the outside. – In one hour that is 12,000 cubic feet (total volume of a 1500 sq. ft. home). – This air must be replaced by outside air. • One CFM out = One CFM in – Where does the air come from? • The attic, the garage or maybe down a chimney or vent? – What is in the air? • Moisture, heat, cold, car exhaust, combustion by- products….
  26. 26. The dryer has been pulling the flame out of the heater.
  27. 27. Carbon monoxide (CO) • CO is colorless and odorless. • It can be produced by a furnace, water heater, fireplace, oven, car, anything that burns fuel. • At elevated levels, carbon monoxide causes headaches, fatigue, queasiness, and at very high levels, brain and heart damage and death. YES - DEATH
  28. 28. CO Testing is Standard Practice in This Field • As standard practice, someone who does not test is open to higher risk. • Testing is simple! If you have combustion appliances, they should be tested
  29. 29. Basic of Heating/Cooling Driven by Three Mechanisms • Convection – Air flow into, out of and within the building (high to low pressure). • Conduction – Heat, moving through materials (hot to cold) • Radiation – Hot surfaces radiate heat to cooler surfaces. This is it, it is this simple!
  30. 30. Must gain control of these flows • Appling building science to address the key issues that impact all buildings. – Convection (Air flow) – Conduction (Heat flow) – Radiation – HVAC (adding or removing heat from convection, conduction & radiation)
  31. 31. Infrared Camera White is hotter 93.6° Dark is cooler 86.6° The shirt is insulating his body.
  32. 32. Uninsulated attic hatch is hot (white)
  33. 33. A Primer on Air Flow (Convection) • Air flow is the most important flow! • For air to flow you need a hole and a pressure. – No hole, no flow – No pressure, no flow We have spent billions of dollars sealing holes with mixed results, when was the last time someone talked to you about controlling pressures?
  34. 34. What Will Create Pressures • Natural Forces (can’t control) – Wind – Stack (hot air rises, cold air falls) • Fans (can control) – Exhaust (range, dryers, bath) – Air handlers
  35. 35. Wind Resources
  36. 36. It is not very windy in Arizona
  37. 37. Stack • What does an AZ home look like to cool air? • Block or stucco walls, slab. How about your house?
  38. 38. Cool Air Will Pool
  39. 39. Wind and Stack • Natural pressures, wind and stack, just are not that strong in Arizona’s low desert. • They do not cause very much pressure and will not force much air flow into or out of buildings. • High country, wind and stack are more of an issue.
  40. 40. Pressures in Buildings • New studies are finding that on average pressure created by fans cause 3 to 10 times the amount of air leakage then wind and stack.
  41. 41. Fans • Exhaust Fans – Dryers - 200+ CFM – Range hoods and other kitchen exhaust are getting bigger and bigger – 100 to 1000 CFM – Bathroom fan • Air handler - 1000’s of CFM.
  42. 42. Fans Where is it coming in and what is in it? Equals one in One out (negative pressure)
  43. 43. Impact of Pressure Created by Fans on Your Health A negative pressure created by a fan can: Any fan Attached or Carbon Monoxide tuck and other fumes from under garage a attached garage Cause back drafting Flame roll out
  44. 44. Fans Do you have them in your housing? (Dryers, range hoods, bath fans) Where is the make up air coming from? All homes should be tested for potential back drafting, flame rollout and issues with attached garages
  45. 45. Duct Leakage • National studies find an average of 300 CFM of duct leakage (1 ton = 400 CFM). On a 2000 sq. ft. home, that’s 15% of rated air flow. (AZ 371 CFM) • Studies (80’s) from Florida estimate that 10% of Florida’s electrical generation capacity was duct leakage. I would say this is the #1 issue in homes and can easily increase heating and cooling by 100%, 200%....
  46. 46. We take duct sealing very seriously These holes are under a lot of pressure
  47. 47. How Not To Design Ducts
  48. 48. This is more common than you may think.
  49. 49. High Tech Duct Test
  50. 50. Do your ducts look like this? If you think this is bad, wait!
  51. 51. That is the roof deck! SO?
  52. 52. Roof Deck at 140º What impact does 140º air have on AC SEER 140°
  53. 53. 15% return leak pulling in 115º air reduces capacity by 50% (ac runs twice as long) So what happens at 50% leak at 140º
  54. 54. Supply Leak Suck 100º outside 140º Attic 200 CFM supply leak _ 800 CFM 1,000 CFM supply flow return flow What will happen with the house pressure? As you loss air out of the leak, you are pulling air in through all of the holes in the house.
  55. 55. Return Leaks Blow 100º outside 140º Attic 200 CFM return leak + 1000 CFM 800 CFM supply flow return flow What will happen with the house pressure? As you pull air in the leak, you are forcing air out through all of the holes in the house.
  56. 56. DO NOT USE A PART OF THE BUILDING TO MOVE AIR! Common example are platform returns, a wooden box with the air handler sitting on it. In most cases it is located in the hallway. If you can see studs, you may have large amounts of duct leakage. The air handler will suck air down these walls from the attic.
  57. 57. This will not leak!
  58. 58. Ducts must be sealed with mastic, not duct tape
  59. 59. At least the air you are blowing through the tape and into the attic is filtered
  60. 60. Mastic
  61. 61. Mastic Get the hint We like mastic!
  62. 62. Boot to sheetrock, easy to get at
  63. 63. Boot to sheetrock, easy to seal
  64. 64. Leaks are expensive
  65. 65. Mastic is cheap
  66. 66. The patented Arizona High Tech Mastic Applicator Five year, five thousand duct system warrantee Ducts should be sealed with a water based mastic – Not Duct Tape!!! Of any kind!!!!!
  67. 67. Duct leakage in the Arizona • APS study in early 90’s found 17% duct leakage. • Today, new systems are consistently under 5%. • Systems should be tested! Standard New construction – 3 to 6 CFM/100 sq. ft. Existing – If you can reach a hole, seal it, If you can’t, depends (need a trained technician)
  68. 68. Existing Ducts • Weatherization program: We routinely get ducts close to if not beyond the new construction standard. • Multi family example: We got the ducts so tight we could not get an accurate reading with a duct blaster (no leaks, no flow). Goal for ducts should be leak free!
  69. 69. Duct Blaster test New construction, good at verifying Duct Blaster test Pressurizes ducts to that 25 Pascals ducts meet standard Measures CFMBlower door or duct blaster Existing – leakage
  70. 70. Doors and Energy Use • What doors in your home account for the most heating and cooling costs? – Front and back doors – Patio doors – Doggie doors – Interior doors In some homes this can be as big of an issue as duct leakage
  71. 71. Doors Open 100º outside 140º Attic 1000 CFM 1000 CFM supply flow return flow 1000 CFM flow through the house and is under neutral pressure
  72. 72. Doors Closure Now the home sucks and blows at the same time 140º Attic 1000 CFM 1000 CFM supply flow return flow Supply side will go Return side will go positive negative. Close a door and block the flow back to the return.
  73. 73. DOOR CLOSURE Rated PG-13
  74. 74. Impact of Room Pressure (Door Closure) Increased infiltration, hot air coming in the can lights. Doors open Doors closed 20 minutes Fixture (light out) 81.4 °. Fixture (light out) 87.9° Fixture (light out) 87.9° Ceiling 75.8 °. Ceiling 77.7° °. Ceiling 77.7 Fixture (light out) 82.3°. Fixture (light out) 85.5°. Fixture (light out) 85.5° What about the sheetrock temperature?
  75. 75. The following video is a time lapse infrared of a home under negative 3 Pa pressure for 40 minutes. Note starting temperatures. 80.7° 82.7° 80.8° 80.0°
  76. 76. Temperatures after 40 minutes. 8 to 12 degree increase in surface temperatures. 92.5° 90.9° 88.9° 87.3°
  77. 77. Cheap Pressure Relief Problems with light and sound Don’t install vents in the door
  78. 78. Less issues with light and sound
  79. 79. Bedroom Hall link
  80. 80. Both APS and TEP include this standard in their new home programs. EPA Energy Star Plus Room Pressures. Also part of AZ Tax Credit. Room pressure standard No pressures greater then + -3 Pascal created by the air handler (duct leakage or door closure)
  81. 81. Closing doors can do this!!!!!
  82. 82. What About Holes • Most of the holes in Arizona’s building are between the conditioned space and the attic. – Slab floors – Stucco/block walls – Doors and windows do not leak much. • Each year you are told to seal them, weatherstrip them… #1 rule on holes, seal the big ones
  83. 83. . How big is this hole? All of the “interior wall” cavities that it is connected to are really outside and uninsulated. How big is this hole?
  84. 84. This big!
  85. 85. A Flag! Looks good, right
  86. 86. Opps, That is one big hole.
  87. 87. Pretty basic!
  88. 88. Can lights, 1 sq. in. hole per light
  89. 89. The air moving from the attic into the house is at least filtered
  90. 90. wrong right
  91. 91. Sealing hole is a good idea but can we build a home too tight? NO Here is the standard (new construction) •Build as tight as possible •Pressure balance the home (less than +/-3 Pa) •Carbon Monoxide detector in homes with combustion appliances or attached garage. •Ventilated right –Continuous fresh air ventilation of (bedroom + 1) X 7.5 CFM + 0.01 CFM per sq. ft.of conditioned space. –Spot ventilation in kitchen and baths
  92. 92. Do You Need Ventilation in a Existing Home? It not how tight a house is but if additional ventilation is needed. But no one would seal up (decrease ventilaiton) a house without testing, right? • Ventilation requirements depend on: – How much do you have (fans and leakage)? – What is in your home that needs to be vented (pollution sources)? • Number one pollutant (causes the most problems) in an average home is… Moisture
  93. 93. Blower Door measures how leaky a house is. If this is not being using (by trained tech), you are not doing it right!
  94. 94. Control of the Air • Continuous (really tight) air barrier that keeps the inside air in and the outside air out. – Sealed ducts – Pressure balanced – Sealed envelope – Ventilated right
  95. 95. Heat Flow (Insulation Performance) • The approach to insulation has always been that more is better. At some point, this is wrong! • The key to controlling conduction is not how much insulation (R-value) is installed, but how well the envelope slows heat flow.
  96. 96. Insulation Why not just require R-60?
  97. 97. Heat Flow/R-Value Sq. Ft x Delta T x U-value = Heat Flow • 1000 x 20 x 0.5 (none) = 10,000 Btus per hour • 1000 x 20 x 0.1 (R-10) = 2,000 Btus per hour • 1000 x 20 x 0.05 (R-20) = 1,000 Btus per hour • 1000 x 20 x 0.033 (R-30) = 660 Btus per hour • 1000 x 20 x 0.025 (R-40) = 500 Btus per hour Will you ever be able to save 8,000 Btus again?
  98. 98. R-value vs. P-value Designed heat flow vs. real heat flow 100% R30 • .033 (R30) x 1000 x 20 = 660 BTUs 95% R30 - 5% uninsulated •.033 (R30) x 950 x 20 = 627 BTUs •.5 (none) x 50 x 20 = 500 BTUs •Total BTUs (same as a R16) 1127 BTUs •Small defects can have a large impact, today’s complex home design is tough on the insulators.
  99. 99. R-Value Impact of defects on effective R-30 R-30 R-values. #1 concern, quality or R-20 quantity? R-16 R-12.5 R-10 R-7.9 R-5.7 0 5% 10% 20% 30% % defect
  100. 100. Is there enough insulation? (insulated to code-R-30) Does it work?
  101. 101. Attic With No Insulation Stud (R-4) R-0
  102. 102. Why do the last two pictures look the same? Insulated Attic - R-30 Batt Stud R-4 R-30 Batt
  103. 103. Why is the wood (R-4) cooler than the R-30 batt? Wood is letting less heat in than the batt.
  104. 104. If it’s insulated, why isn’t it insulating? • Defects are allowing hot or cold air to pass through or around the insulation. – Air is a fluid (just like water). If water would pour through a material, air can also pass through it. • This will drastically impact the effectiveness of the insulation.
  105. 105. Insulation Problems • Voids (area with no insulation) • Gaps (part of an area not insulated) • Wind intrusion • Compression (not installed at full thickness) • Misalignment (must touch the air barrier) Insulation stops air flow based on its porosity.
  106. 106. Yes, this is a void.
  107. 107. Void Dry wall only (R-0.5) Stud (R-4)
  108. 108. Gap
  109. 109. Gap Will be there for the life of the building!
  110. 110. Wind intrusion, what’s that?
  111. 111. Perimeter radiant heating? No, wind intrusion.
  112. 112. High tech solution, cardboard
  113. 113. Compression
  114. 114. Compression
  115. 115. So if the stud is an R-4, what R-value is the insulation? R-??? R-4 stud What is happening? Misalignment
  116. 116. Misalignment • The house must have a continuous air barrier. (Stops air flow) • The house must have a continuous thermal barrier. (Stops heat flow) • The air barrier and thermal barrier must be in 100% contact. • If not, hot/cold air will pass through or around the insulation. We have missed this one!
  117. 117. Insulation Air barrier Misalignment
  118. 118. Insulation is placed here But the heat is getting here
  119. 119. Knee-wall insulation attached to the back of the stud. The Sheetrock, cooled by the conditioned space will cool the air between the Sheetrock and insulation. This cool air will fall and be replaced by hot attic air. In heating season, just reverse the arrows.
  120. 120. Knee-wall insulation attached to the back of the stud.
  121. 121. The Key to Insulation Performance Stop Air Flow
  122. 122. The insulation is suspended over the soffit and does not touch the Sheetrock. No air barrier Allows air to flow through the insulation Now these surfaces are uninsulated exterior surfaces (but the air is filtered)
  123. 123. Air barrier installed by the framer Now the insulation is in contact with an air barrier. Air barrier Stops air flow through the insulation and brings that space “inside”.
  124. 124. Installation of air barrier
  125. 125. Continuous air barrier made up of Thermo-Ply and Sheetrock Now this space is inside the conditioned space Thermo-Ply air barrier
  126. 126. Air barrier and No air barrier insulation aligned
  127. 127. Home with no air barrier Home with air barrier Same corner
  128. 128. Home with no air barrier Home with air barrier
  129. 129. Test, what is this? A piece of insulation that is working!
  130. 130. Insulation that works •No gaps •No voids •No compression •No misalignment •No wind intrusion Incorporate into specifications Important even in retrofit
  131. 131. New Insulation Standards • EPA Thermal Bypass Check List • These insulation standards are new. • If you housing stock has not been built under a program that requires these standards (Energy Star, EFL, TEP Guarantee, AZ Tax Credit) there is a good chance you have problems. • Can’t just look at R-value!
  132. 132. Radiation Guess what, we get a little bit of sun here
  133. 133. Technical Break Through Direct From Researchers in Arizona Shade
  134. 134. Urban Shade Neighbors Helping Neighbors
  135. 135. Partial Shaded Wall Shaded - 108 Sun - 148 Heat flow (delta T) on sun struck wall is more than double shaded wall. Shade reduces the Delta T reduces heat flow.
  136. 136. Reflective products • EPA Cool Roofs – Reflective roofing products. Effectiveness based on product’s solar reflectance. Any reflective product (paint) that claims an R-value is…
  137. 137. IR of my attic, summer at noon (105º) Roof deck - 150º Attic air - 120º Insulation - 140º Remember HS physics, Second law of thermo- dynamics says heat moves from high to low temperature. How is heat flowing in an my attic at noon?
  138. 138. After reflective roof coating – 87 degree ceiling temperature Before reflective roof coating - 93 degree Do not coat ceiling temperature asphalt singles
  139. 139. Radiant Barriers deduce summer attic heat gain 16% to 42%
  140. 140. Reflexive Coating/Radiant Barrier • Saving for these products are directly related to the effective R-value of component used on. – Higher the R-value (that is working), less of an impact on your bills.
  141. 141. Attic Fans Heat flow in an attic is driven by the roof deck temperature. Fan will not impact the roof deck (minimal impact on insulation temperature)! Fans will pull air out of the house! Fans consume power!
  142. 142. Windows • New construction – Low -E • Existing windows - It is very tough to justify (energy savings) replacing existing single pane windows with new windows. • Best approach, shade the windows (low desert). • If you are replacing windows, go with Low-E. (EPA Energy Star)
  143. 143. HVAC The 12/7 Rule • Buy a 12 SEER you may only get a 7 SEER – Duct leakage (talked about this one) – Improper air flow – Over or under charge of a system – Improper sizing (bigger is not better) SEER Fact Bulletin
  144. 144. Air flow • Low air flow is often caused by: • Ducts that are too small (big problem for returns). • Duct layout that restricts airflow. • Poorly selected or restricted grilles. • Mismatch of air handler with the other equipment.
  145. 145. Charge • How common are improperly charged systems? • About 7 out of 10 systems have an improper charge. While most systems are undercharged, some systems are overcharged by more than 100%. • Systems with longer line sets tend to be much more severely undercharged than systems with shorter line sets. • Mismeasurement of line set length is a common cause in precharged systems.
  146. 146. Sizing • Over sizing has a negative effect on energy use, comfort, equipment life, and system costs: – Oversized system run for short period and do not reach steady state efficiency (think of city vs. highway driving). Impacts both cost and life. – Short run times means the air does not get mixed, causing hot spots. – Short run time will not remove humidity, increasing comfort problems. – Over sized equipment cost more to install. Use Manual J
  147. 147. Steady State Efficiency • Mechanical devises take time to go from start up to their peak, steady state efficiency. Some, like AC units will take minutes. (SEER incorporates this start up time) Steady State SEER Over sized system Start-up replaces steady state with start-up, lowering efficiency. Time
  148. 148. Real Example • House built right, HVAC contractor want to install 12 tons total. (peak demand around 10 kW) • Installed 5 tons, monitors at 110°, used about 90% of capacity (peak demand about 4.5 kW) This has a huge impact on the number of power plants needed on the hottest days.
  149. 149. Require ACCA Standards (new and retrofit)
  150. 150. Start With a Solid Foundation • No matter what type of home, what materials used or where you are located, you need to use a solid foundation of building science. So you don’t get a big…
  151. 151. Surprise! Bill ity Ut il