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Mekong ARCC - Final Workshop - Livestock Study


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Mekong ARCC – Final Workshop – Livestock Study: A presentation from the International Centre for Environmental Management (ICEM)
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This presentation for the Mekong ARCC project was given by ICEM at the Final Workshop in Bangkok – held in March 2013. The presentation indicates how climate change will exacerbate challenges for livestock in the LMB, increasing nutritional problems, reducing value and increasing disease risk in many areas. In general, ‘local’ breeds have greater internal adaptive capacity to climate change. However, temperature increases will increase costs of production and alter disease risks for all livestock systems. Wild species in the LMB are also threatened by changes in bovine production practices. Increases in grazing of protected areas will multiply the risk of disease transmission and the threat of hunting.The presentation provides adaptation strategies for livestock including; improving animal nutrition among smallholder low input systems, increasing disease resilience and minimising disease challenges, and increasing smallholder access to and information on, input, service and product markets.
> Read more about Mekong ARCC on the ICEM website

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Mekong ARCC - Final Workshop - Livestock Study

  1. 1. Livestock 28 March 2013 Thomas Weaver
  2. 2. Presentation structure • Livestock context in livelihoods • Methodology of assessment • Baseline – Identification of systems – Locations – Tolerances • Vulnerability assessment • Adaptation Strategies • Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Livelihood linkages Livestock Systems + Manure + Draught (land preparation, marketing) + Pest control - Run off +/- Feed (grain, forages, crop residues, fallow grazing, Agro-industrial byproducts) - Mycotoxins - Mechanisation + Feed (protein supplements) + Waste management (production and processing) + Feed (production and processing waste) - Run off +/- Manure - Disease - Destructive grazing/browsing - Shifting cultivation - Run off +/- Feed (forages, grazing) + Traditional animal health measures Cropping Systems Natural Systems/P rotected Areas Fisheries 3
  4. 4. Socio-economic factors affecting livestock 4 Livelihoods, poverty and vulnerability and food security • Increasing consumption • Price signals/setting power • Commercialisation of production • Safety and quality assurance Access to land for grazing and forage cultivation, land tenure Livestock policy environment • Local trade patterns, crossborder trade, regional and international competition • Commodity prices Demographic changes
  6. 6. System selection considerations Rationale for selection of systems: Contribution to: • LMB livestock numbers (total, LU, number of households raising, stock densities) • Local/national economies • Livelihoods and food security • Projected consumption and production • Global genetic diversity (indigenous breeds; wild species) 6
  7. 7. Large ruminants (bovins) • Cattle and buffaloes: smallholder extensive (cattle/buffalo ‘keeping’) Pigs • Small to medium commercial • Smallholder low-input Poultry • Scavenging chicken • Small commercial chicken (broiler, layer) • Field running layer ducks Identified Systems
  8. 8. Cattle Buffalo Bovine distribution
  9. 9. 9 Pigs Chickens Monogastric distribution
  10. 10. • Bovines, pigs and poultry are ubiquitous basin-wide, in varying production systems • Small and medium commercial units are – Likely to increase in number and production volume – Competition from exporters to increase – Generally located in low lying areas • Smallholder systems – Numerically dominant, in terms of farms and stock numbers – High proportion of poor and vulnerable groups among low-input producers • Smallholders typically operate diversified, mixed farming and livelihood systems • Stock density – High per agricultural land/population in remote locations, important for poverty and vulnerability – Lower per population area in low lying areas 10 Results of the baseline
  11. 11. Livestock system tolerances • Temperature: Higher than livestock thermoneutral zone =  feed intake,  growth – Animal health risks: pathogen viability/ proliferation, vectors, fomites, shifting disease patterns • Rainfall: – Animal health: pathogen viability/proliferation, vectors, fomites • Extreme events: – Direct losses – Indirect impacts: feed availability disease transmission; markets 11
  12. 12. LMB indigenous breeds • Important genetic resources • Potential advantages in climate change stressed systems Examples: • Pigs: Mong Cai, Ban, Moo Chid • Poultry: Ri, Ac, Dong Cao, Luong Phuong, Thai fighting cock
  13. 13. Wild species • Ruminants – Banteng (Mondulkiri) – Gaur – Saola – Kouprey (?) – Eld’s Deer (Mondulkiri) • Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) • Wild poultry (elements of, and affected by, wider farming systems)
  14. 14. Key issues for livestock systems to consider in the face of climate changes 14 Baseline summary Nutrition Markets Animal Health
  16. 16. 16 System • Identification • Location • Tolerances Threat • Climate change threats • Interpretation for livestock systems Impact • Exposure to threat • Sensitivity to threat Adaptive capacity • Internal • External Vulnerability Adaptation strategies • Identification of vulnerable systems • Reducing exposure / sensitivity and/or increasing adaptive capacity Process Baseline Vulnerability assessment Adaptation strategies
  17. 17. Adaptive capacity Adaptive capacity: internal (biological) and external (e.g. management practices, accessibility/quality of services, policy environment). 17
  18. 18. Kien Giang: example of vulnerability assessment process Small commercial pig 18
  19. 19. Threat identification and interpretation Threat identification: Temp. increase Interpretation of threat: 3C increase in Tmax average with highs predicted to reach 42C Increase average max daily T in dry season to above 30C 19
  20. 20. Impact level • Exposure: Significant increases in temperature • Sensitivity: Improved breeds less resilient, low margins heightened stress levels, higher costs of production • Impact level: Reduced margins/competitiveness: increased costs of production 20
  21. 21. Adaptation capacity and vulnerability level • Adaptation capacity: Internal capacity of breeds is relatively low, but higher than purebreds. External capacity limited by availability and quality of services and available capital to invest in small landless operations. Vulnerability level: 21
  22. 22. Livestock systems vulnerability Impact Adaptive capacity Vulnerability Smallholder cattle/buffalo Low Low Medium Dairy/large commercial Very high High High Small commercial pig High Medium High Smallholder low input pig Low Low Medium Small commercial chicken Very high Low Very high Scavenging chicken Low Low Medium Field running layer duck Very low Low Low 22
  23. 23. Commercial 23 Higher stress systems: Various scales Wealthier households Higher vulnerability to increase T: increased costs of production Higher vulnerability to increased disease risk, and responses due to investment Low input, low productivity systems: Poorer households Low vulnerability to T increase Higher vulnerability to increased disease risk, loss of coping mechanism Pigs Low input
  24. 24. Low input systems: Generally poorer households Lower vulnerability to T increase Part of broad livelihood portfolio, often associated with vulnerable groups Small commercial Higher stress systems: Relatively wealthier households, higher investment Higher vulnerability to increase T: increased costs of production 24 Chicken Low input
  25. 25. Low input systems 25 Low stress systems: poorer households Seasonal low nutritional levels, reducing value, increasing disease risk. In very high T periods reduced ability to work, negative effects on reproduction Bovines
  26. 26. Wild species vulnerability Impact Adaptive capacity Vulnerability Banteng (esp. Mondul Kiri) High Very low Very high* Eld’s Deer (esp. Mondul Kiri) High Very low Very high* Sus Scrofa Low Very low High Wild Poultry Medium Very low High *Assuming greater human and domestic stock incursion into habitats  disease risks, hunting etc 26
  27. 27. ADAPTATION STRATEGIES Hotspots 27
  28. 28. Guiding priorities • Nutritional levels • Disease risk • Housing • Production planning and offtake • Access to markets 28 Closely interrelated, a multifaceted approach will be required Prioritization and phasing requires assessment in the local context
  29. 29. Increase internal adaptive capacity • Reduce undernourishment by increasing the quality and quantity of feed production, storage and the nutritional balance of diets. – Improve use of current resources e.g. crop residues, wild forages – Increase forage cultivation – Technology transfer e.g. seed, cultivation practices, preservation • Reduce grazing pressure on protected areas, reducing contact and risk of disease/hunting Animal Nutrition 29 Key systems: smallholder bovines, low input pigs Key hotspots: Mondulkiri, Khammouan
  30. 30. Disease risk reduction Increase adaptive capacity (internal and external) • Increase internal resistance to disease – Increase nutritional status and body condition – Increase use of vaccinations • Reduce disease challenges – Improve biosecurity • EcoHealth/OneHealth approaches – Animal health in relation to social, environmental and human health considerations • Key systems: All systems • Key hotspots: Kien Giang, Chiang Rai 30
  31. 31. Housing Reduce exposure of sensitive systems • Improve housing location and design to maximise natural ventilating effects • Key systems: small commercial pig and poultry • Key hotspots: Kien Giang, Chiang Rai 31
  32. 32. Production planning and offtake Reduce exposure and sensitivity, increase internal adaptive capacity • Improve production planning – Reproduction management in breeder herds/flocks e.g. improve recognition of oestrus, reduce inbreeding, consider early weaning. 32 • Increase offtake rates, where beneficial: – Controlled destocking/reducing stock density to reduce pressure on stock, land and/or nucleus herd/flock – Flood and drought prone areas will benefit most • Key systems: low input cattle, pig and poultry systems • Key hotspots: Gia Lai, Mondulkiri, Khammouan
  33. 33. Access to markets • Increase access to input and output markets: to reduce input costs (costs) and increase prices received (incomes) i.e. increasing profits. • Key systems: Livestock producers in remote areas • Key hotspots: Mondulkiri, Khammouan, Gia Lai 33 Increase adaptive capacity, reduce sensitivity
  35. 35. • Low-input systems ‘local’ breeds: greater internal adaptive capacity to climate change but lower external adaptive capacity. – Climate change will exacerbate nutritional problems reducing value and increasing disease risk in many areas • Small/medium ‘commercial’ systems raising higher performance breeds under greater stress: lower internal adaptive capacity but typically greater external capacity to adapt to climate changes. – Temperature increases will increase costs of production • Climate change will alter disease risks for all livestock systems; in concert with other developments disease risk is likely to increase. • Wild species in the LMB most threatened by changes in bovine production practices, increases in grazing of protected areas will increase the risk of disease transmission and the threat of hunting Summary conclusions 35
  36. 36. Basin Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Livestock:  Improve animal nutrition among smallholder low input systems, particularly bovines 36 Nutrition Markets Animal Health  Reduce disease risks for all livestock systems by increasing disease resilience and minimising disease challenges  Increase smallholder access to and information on input, service and product markets Priorities
  37. 37. THANK YOU