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Bioengineering - Case Studies from Vietnam

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This presentation was delivered by Dr. Jeremy Carew-Reid, Director of ICEM at the International Forum on Sustainable Infrastructure on Integrating Climate Resilience and Natural Capital into Transport Infrastructure Planning and Design in Hanoi, Vietnam on 17 and 18 May 2017. It presents a case study from the ADB project Promoting Climate Resilient Rural Infrastructure in Northern Mountains of Vietnam on how non-conventional engineering, or bioengineering, solutions, can be used as a low-cost alternative to strengthen infrastructure, to resist the hazards associated with climate change and to provide opportunities to enhance community livelihoods.

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Bioengineering - Case Studies from Vietnam

  1. 1. BIOENGINEERING – CASE STUDIES FROM VIETNAM Jeremy Carew-reid Director, ICEM – International Centre for Environmental Management International Forum on Sustainable Infrastructure Integrating Climate Resilience and Natural Capital into Transport Infrastructure Planning and Design Hanoi, Viet Nam / 17–18 May 2017
  2. 2. The bioengineering project  Promoting Climate Resilient Rural Infrastructure in Northern Mountains of Vietnam project  Funded by Global Environment Facility (GEF) – ADB/MARD/UNDP administered  Supports construction of low cost, easily implementable measures to reduce the vulnerability of rural infrastructure to extreme climate events.  Linked to Sustainable Rural Infrastructure Project – Loan – USD138million
  3. 3. 3 The problem: Climate impact hazards and key vulnerable spots Vietnam – 85% of road network is rural - all with slope and drainage problems
  4. 4. Rural road Son La Rural roads – slope failure
  5. 5. Rural road Bac Kan Slope failures
  6. 6. Rural road Bac Kan Floods
  7. 7. Conventional solutions: roads
  8. 8. Potential consequences
  9. 9. Conventional solutions: rivers
  10. 10. Conventional solutions: rivers
  11. 11. Hard revetments do not ensure effective protection
  12. 12. 1. Better design and standards e.g. minimize earthworks 2. Better construction practices e.g. avoid side-casting 3. Better maintenance eg especially of drainage structures Solutions:
  13. 13. 4. Bioengineering • Use of plants and organic materials for engineering purposes • Alone, or in combination with hard structures • It can strengthen slopes and control erosion – also:  local labour  local materials  low cost  builds local self reliance  increases in strength with time  restores ecosystem functions  multipurpose Solutions:
  14. 14. Four demonstrations 1. Bioengineered roadside slope protection in Lien Minh Commune, Vo Nhai District, Thai Nguyen Province 2. Bioengineered riverbank revetment in Thanh Mai Commune, Cho Moi District, Bac Kan Province 3. Bioengineered roadside slope protection in Phong Lap Commune, Thuan Chau District, Son La Province 4. Bioengineered riverbank revetment in Thom Mon Commune, Thuan Chau District, Son La Province
  15. 15. Demonstrations: where?
  16. 16. 1. Thai Nguyen - Original site conditions Demonstration: Cut Slope Demonstration: Fill Slope
  17. 17. Thai Nguyen: fill slope - before
  18. 18. Thai Nguyen - after
  19. 19. Fill slope: Vetiver grass lines
  20. 20. Fill slope: Golden dewdrop live fences
  21. 21. Fill slope: Golden dewdrop fascines
  22. 22. Fill slope: Blanket grass & Vetiver grass
  23. 23. Blanket grass seeding with mulch and bamboo netting
  24. 24. Thai Nguyen: cut slope - before
  25. 25. Thai Nguyen: cut slope - after
  26. 26. Thai Nguyen cut slope
  27. 27. Initial assessment • Stable, showing no signs of erosion, plants have had good growth and provided full coverage for cut and fill slopes. • Flowers of Tiger grass have been harvested by local residents and used for making brooms. • Vetiver grass is effective in slope erosion protection, but relatively costly - not locally available, must be transported to site • Further research needed on native plant species for slope erosion protection (eg Rose myrtle, Pampas grass, Cogon grass).
  28. 28. 2. Bac Kan river embankment - before
  29. 29. Thanh Mai revetment after construction Bac Kan
  30. 30. Checking Homonoia riparia brush layers
  31. 31. Vegetated riprap with Homonoia riparia live poles
  32. 32. Monitoring: measuring cross-sections
  33. 33. May 2015
  34. 34. July 2015
  35. 35. Vegetated riprap and live poles
  36. 36. Lessons learned 1. Identify high-risk locations at early stage in a project 2. Include bioengineering at earliest stage of project planning 3. Use local knowledge to select plants (set up nurseries) 4. Use low-cost investigation procedures (walk the road) 5. Integrating hard and soft measures 6. Quality control local construction 7. Clear and simple design guidance and standards are needed
  37. 37. THANK YOU

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