Technology in Electronic Government

Jim Davies, Jeremy Gibbons, Steve Harris
Oxford University Computing Laboratory
ICEGO...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                    2



1. Interoperability

       “the ability o...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   3



1.1. Aspects of interoperability

                         ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                  4



1.2. Semantic interoperability

       “Data...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                    5


       “For [semantic interoperability] to ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   6



1.3. Postmodernism

We can’t agree on a single
model; we sh...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                      7



1.4. Meta-analysis

Medical research tod...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                  8



2. Semantic frameworks
To understand what a ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                   9



2.1. Administered items

    • terminologie...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                  10



2.2. Value domains

A value domain will hav...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   11



Example
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   12



2.3. Terminologies

“The US Census Bureau
definition includ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   13



Another terminology




(Wikipedia)
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   14



2.4. Data elements

    • unique identifier

    • value do...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                15



Example

name: ‘special meal’

identifier: 177...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)       16



2.5. Models

    • data elements and value domains in ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)         17



Example

                                    <<17777...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                18



Example

                                   <...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                     19



2.6. Meta-analysis examples

    • is a ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   20



A related value domain
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)       21



A related model

                                   <<...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)               22



Elaboration

But which translation do we use?
...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)              23



Translation

We can use a model to describe the...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                   24



3. Metadata registries

       “Repository...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                     25



3.1. ISO/IEC 11179

       “ISO/IEC 1117...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)    26



3.2. 11179 models

        #'#+,*,




                  ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                                                    27


3.3. 11179...
,%  ',(' ),                                         (' ),-%($'
           0)* ++ 1                     #.$'             +)...
0)* ++$'             * )* + ', 1            * )* + ',$'             * )* + ',$'


              ,%  ',                    ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)              28



3.4. Our implementation

                      ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)                       29



3.5. Relationships

                  ...
Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH)   30



3.6. Models in practice

             Model




          ...
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ICEGOV2009 - Tutorial 1 - Technology in Electronic Government

  1. 1. Technology in Electronic Government Jim Davies, Jeremy Gibbons, Steve Harris Oxford University Computing Laboratory ICEGOV tutorial, 10th Nov 2009
  2. 2. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 2 1. Interoperability “the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information which has been exchanged” (IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary) the ability of “independent [. . . ] components [to] smoothly and effectively work together in a predefined and agreed upon fashion” (Scholl & Klischewski, IJPA, 2007)
  3. 3. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 3 1.1. Aspects of interoperability governance quality semantics representation authorisation authentication transport (After Paul Davidson, UK LeGSB.)
  4. 4. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 4 1.2. Semantic interoperability “Data semantics is the relationship between data and what the data stand for. In order to obtain mutual understanding of interchanged data, the actors have to share a model of what the data represent. Semantic interoperability is about how to achieve such mutual understanding.” (Solvberg et al, ERCIM News, 2002)
  5. 5. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 5 “For [semantic interoperability] to be achieved, context information must be an active component of information systems. We define the context of a piece of data to be the metadata relating to its meaning, properties (such as its source, quality, and precision), and organization.” (Sciore et al, ACM TODS, 1994) “The resulting metadata must be managed, and will require similar agreements about the semantics of the terminology used in the documentation. The need for semantic agreements simply moves up one link in the data/metadata chain.” (Heiler, ACMCS, 1995)
  6. 6. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 6 1.3. Postmodernism We can’t agree on a single model; we shouldn’t try to. There is no one privileged view. We need to allow for multiple models, and figure out how to make them interoperable.
  7. 7. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 7 1.4. Meta-analysis Medical research today depends on meta-analysis: the integration of data sets from different but related studies. This is very difficult to do after the fact; it only works well if we can: • create and maintain a model for each clinical study • ensure that the data collected is properly associated with the model • determine study compatibility—and even integrate data— automatically The CancerGrid project in Oxford has been working on supporting semantic interoperability in experimental medicine since 2005. Much of this work is equally applicable to e-Government.
  8. 8. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 8 2. Semantic frameworks To understand what a model means, we need to: • understand the modelling language, as described by a language grammar or metamodel, and • understand the meaning of the atoms in the model, the references made to items defined elsewhere. But what are these referenced items?
  9. 9. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 9 2.1. Administered items • terminologies collections of defined terms, and relationships • value domains enumerations, ranges, values, codes, datatypes, units • data elements observation templates, attributes in model, questions on form • models study designs, components, forms, processes, standards
  10. 10. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 10 2.2. Value domains A value domain will have a notion of representation, a definition as a data type, and some semantics: • free-form text, and links to external documents • references ◮ to other value domains ◮ to data elements ◮ to models
  11. 11. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 11 Example
  12. 12. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 12 2.3. Terminologies “The US Census Bureau definition includes people who originate in the original peoples of Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent.” (Wikipedia) (In popular US usage, ‘Asian’ often means Far East or SE Asian. In Britain, ‘Asian’ particularly refers India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.)
  13. 13. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 13 Another terminology (Wikipedia)
  14. 14. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 14 2.4. Data elements • unique identifier • value domain • [name] • [description] • [classification] • [status]
  15. 15. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 15 Example name: ‘special meal’ identifier: 1777777-14-72-131-424 description: special meal request for individual on particular flight value domain: BA Special Meals (by reference)
  16. 16. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 16 2.5. Models • data elements and value domains in context of ◮ definition, classification, administration ◮ usage and application • can be written in any language that we can understand
  17. 17. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 17 Example <<1777777-14-72-131-001>> BA Special Meal <<enum>> <<1777777-14-72-131-424>> SpecialMealRequest mealRequest PassengerNumberRecord
  18. 18. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 18 Example <<1777777-14-72-131-424>> SpecialMealRequest mealPreference mealRequest PassengerNumberRecord FrequentFlyerPreferences
  19. 19. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 19 2.6. Meta-analysis examples • is a vegetarian passenger more likely to be flying business class or economy class? • does Singapore Airlines carry a higher percentage of strict vegetarians than British Airways?
  20. 20. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 20 A related value domain
  21. 21. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 21 A related model <<197200078R-7-3-32-03>> SG Special Meal <<enum>> <<197200078R-7-3-32-34>> MealOrder mealOrder Reservation
  22. 22. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 22 Elaboration But which translation do we use? For the purpose of our question, what would we consider vegetarian? From BA: asian vegetarian (until 1 Jun 2009, when it became hindu vegetarian), lacto ovo vegetarian, vegan vegetarian, and jain meal? From SQ: raw vegetarian, vegetarian oriental, vegetarian indian, vegetarian jain, vegan, fruit platter meal Do we include Jain meals?
  23. 23. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 23 Translation We can use a model to describe the proposed translation. The meta-analysis is an experiment in itself, and represents a new context, and new layer of semantics. This model could be reusable—a metamodel for special meals meta-analysis—or a ‘one-off’, relating specific datasets.
  24. 24. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 24 3. Metadata registries “Repository products provide DBMS-like features for managing specific types of metadata (such as designs, schemas, interfaces, and mappings), as well as [. . . ] versioning, configuration management, and change notification. Equally important, they provide agreements on the semantics of the metadata.” “At present, commercial repositories do not adhere to a common interface or metadata model across vendors: so, in addressing interoperability problems between clients and servers, they introduce interoperability problems of their own.” (Heiler, ACMCS, 1995)
  25. 25. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 25 3.1. ISO/IEC 11179 “ISO/IEC 11179 – Metadata registries (MDR), addresses the semantics of data, the representation of data, and the registration of the descriptions of that data. It is through these descriptions that an accurate understanding of the semantics and a useful depiction of the data are found.” (ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004(E))
  26. 26. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 26 3.2. 11179 models #'#+,*, %++# #,#(' ('),-%(#' (',0, (* #'#+,* , ,%', ,%',('), $,%++ *()*,1 )*+',,#('%++ %-(#'
  27. 27. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 27 3.3. 11179 concepts
  28. 28. ,% ',(' ), (' ),-%($' 0)* ++ 1 #.$' +) $!1$' * )* + ', 1
  29. 29. 0)* ++$' * )* + ', 1 * )* + ',$' * )* + ',$' ,% ', %- ($'
  30. 30. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 28 3.4. Our implementation Administered Item Value Data Domain Element Model We use models for the registration of concepts, conceptualisation, classification, context, . . .
  31. 31. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 29 3.5. Relationships * * Administered Model Item Value 1 * Data Domain Element All relationships are potentially subjective, relative, and can be captured in models, including default models for the various aspects of the 11179 standard. Links can be administered items in their own right.
  32. 32. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 30 3.6. Models in practice Model Classification Scheme Recommendation Scheme Usage Model Transformation Model
  33. 33. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 31 3.7. Model-driven development “MDA is about using modelling languages as programming languages rather than merely as design languages.” (Frankel, Model-Driven Architecture, 2003) We need the models to tell us what the data means, in terms of contextualised data elements and value domains. But the models are more than documentation: they can embody the essence of the implementation too.
  34. 34. Technology in eGov: ICEGOV 2009 tutorial (JWD, JG, SJH) 32 4. Meanings in the architecture What is the semantics of ‘semantics’? Ultimately, consensus is a social process. Technological tools can support the process, but can’t supplant it. The best we can manage technically is to make associations explicit, and to leave it to people to interpret the associations.

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