ICEGOV - Tutorial 1 - Information Policy Concepts and Principles


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ICEGOV - Tutorial 1 - Information Policy Concepts and Principles

  1. 1. Information Policy Concepts and Principles . Sharon Dawes ICEGOV 2009
  2. 2. Overview • Information policy environment – Policies reflect their social & political settings – Many stakeholders, actors, and roles – Environments change, policies follow • Two kinds of information policies and policy roles for government: – Value-driven policies – Instrumental policies
  3. 3. Policy types and governmental roles Government as Instrumental information collector, Information producer, provider policies and user Government as Value-driven regulator of information Information flow in society policies
  4. 4. Social and political concepts that underlie information policy choices • Public speech and communication • Diversity of information sources • Individual choice and autonomy • Government openness • Government regulation • Role of private enterprise
  5. 5. Policy choices reflect social & political values • Speech and communication: encouraged censored • Diversity of sources: many few • Individual choice & autonomy: protected restricted • Government openness: transparent secret • Government regulation: light heavy • Role of private enterprise: encouraged limited High Low Free flow of information in society
  6. 6. Value-driven information policy themes • Government transparency – Embodied in information access laws, records management and archival requirements, public meetings and reporting laws • Individual rights and autonomy – Embodied in polices on free speech, privacy, and confidentiality • Diversity of information sources – Embodied in treatment of the press and role of the private sector regarding information sources and services • Intellectual property – Embodied in copyright, patent, and trade provisions
  7. 7. Value-driven information policies as balancing mechanisms To balance conflicts among three information values: Access Ownership Privacy To balance an information value against another policy concern: Info Other value policy
  8. 8. Type I conflict How best to implement, operationalize, or set the boundaries of an agreed upon information policy goal: Example: Is personal privacy best protected by government regulation or self-regulation by industry?
  9. 9. Type II conflict An information value in conflict with another social, political, or economic goal How to balance personal privacy against the need for domestic security following 9/11?
  10. 10. Type III conflict An information value in conflict with another information right or value Does web-based peer-to-peer music sharing constitute a form of access or a violation of the ownership rights of music producers?
  11. 11. Instrumental information policies Instrumental Government as Information information collector, policies producer, provider and user Government as Value-driven regulator of information Information flow in society policies
  12. 12. Instrumental policies • Use information (or rules or policies about information) to achieve some other policy goal – e.g. environmental quality, social equity, market fairness • Used to influence individual or organizational choices and behaviors – e.g. requiring chemical manufacturers to publicly report toxic by-products encourages improved processes that reduce pollution • Used to create and manage information resources as a public good. – e.g. data collected and published about demographics or the economy
  13. 13. Instrumental policy principles Stewardship Usefulness
  14. 14. Information Stewardship Principle • A conservative principle that addresses: – treatment of government information as a fiduciary responsibility of all agencies – data collection decisions and methods – data definition, quality, and integrity – information architecture, standards, and frameworks – information and system security – confidentiality protections – records management
  15. 15. Information Use Principle • An expansive principle that addresses: – government information as an asset of society – information sharing within government & with others – information-handling skills of public employees – information and technology as agents of change in • programs • services • the relationship between government and citizens
  16. 16. Principles of information use within government Stewardship Usefulness
  17. 17. Summary • Value-driven policies – Information as the object of policy – Government as regulator of societal information flow – Conflicts among values are inevitable • Instrumental policies – Information as a means to achieve some other policy goal – Government as information collector, user, disseminator – Stewardship and usefulness principles are equally important
  18. 18. Information policy creation, change and development mechanisms in Global context Evgeny Styrin Ph.D. Visiting scholar Center for Technology in Government, SUNY Albany ICEGOV 2009 Bogota, Columbia April 22, 2010 18
  19. 19. Why information policy? – Establish and implement certain principles in working with information • Equal rights to access information • Price of information obtained • Danger and damage prevention caused by information • Privacy and security of information • Intellectual property • Quantity and quality of information in Governance • Cultural identity preservation • Overcoming the digital divide • Processing information (creation, update, deletion) • Responsibility for information ownership and use • Requirements and standards of work with information 19
  20. 20. Political parties Regional and Business local communities and governments unions Information policy Experts, researches, Bureaucracy scientists Legislative Citizens authorities 20
  21. 21. Key players and their interests in information policy • International Organizations (WTO, UNDP, WB, IMF, OECD) – recommendations, standards, principles • Intergovernmental Unions (EU, UNASUR,CAN, CIS) • National States •Political parties •Business communities and unions •Bureaucracy influence Information Policy •Legislative authorities •Citizens •Experts, researches, scientists •Regional and local governments 21
  22. 22. Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society – 2000 (G8) Digital Opportunity Task Force (DOT Force) – Seizing Digital Opportunities – Bridging the Digital Divide – Promoting Global Participation – Building Human Capacity – Promoting E-Commerce (Legal Framework) UNDP Global Summit (2 stages, Geneva 2003, Tunisia 2005)- 175 countries – Information Society Development Principles Declaration (Geneva 2003) – Action Plan (Geneva 2003) – Tunisia Commitment – Tunisia Information Society Program
  23. 23. Geneva Action Plan 2003 • E-government • Cultural diversity • E-Business • Ethics • E-Health • International • E-Employment Collaboration • E-Education • Mass Media • E-Ecology • Evaluation of E- • E-Agriculture development • E-Science 23
  24. 24. Tunisia Information Society Commitment and Program 2005 • Confirm Geneva Action Plan 2003 • Develop financial mechanisms of Digital Divide overcoming • Internet usage regulation • All kinds of partnerships in ICT projects • Freedom of information search, usage, receipt especially for knowledge creation • Integration opportunities • Cybercrime protection steps • Building trust and human potential • ICT infrastructure • IT-strategies development in every country (not later than end of 2010) – POVERTY REDUCTION! 24
  25. 25. Basic mechanisms of Governance related to information policy • Decision making • Conflict resolution • Change implementation • Experience transfer 25
  26. 26. Decision making • What information do we need? • Why do we need it? • Does it let us make better decisions? • How do we use the information? • Do we obtain better results? (communities and their demands, land, property, population registers, territory and ecology, health records history, educational resources, cultural heritage) 26
  27. 27. Conflict resolution and controversy in goals • Privacy vs. Accountability and Transparency • Right to access information vs. National Secret • “Pay for information” vs. “Get it for free” • E-document vs. Paper document • Controversy among information policy documents on different governance levels and different sectors and branches of state activity 27
  28. 28. Information policy change or evolution factors • Sign or adopt new international standards and agreements (UNCITRAL) • Enter new political unions, blocks and organizations (EU membership) • Implementing changes in National Strategy • Lobbyism (different sources) and Interest Groups • Legal framework (new definitions, rules) 28
  29. 29. Producing information policy change Legal Framework Formal and informal rules Political Institutions 29
  30. 30. How to improve information policy for the agency – Administrator’s Guide (Balance Between Risk and Trust) External Conflict Decision environment Evaluation resolution making identification Build trust, support and feedback within your stakeholders Establish or join agreements, frameworks, Identify network (social media for professionals, knowledge sharing, external environment demands, standards, glossaries Evaluate effectiveness discussion platforms) Develop info policy document as a tool for your changesFind out conflicts, controversies (legal context, political feedback Get stakeholders’ goals achievement (build guidelines, apply for Formulate problems environment, informal rules) modification, give detailed instructions, avoid laws Identify,Make your and study appropriatehigh level of abstraction) choose goals more clear ambiguity and Identify the desirable outcomes Use public expertise (involve NGO’s, experts, experience readiness and resourcesrelevantchanges and policy Assess other for the stakeholders) Identify implementation internal stakeholders of new info policy enactment external and Identify mechanism Identify and manage risks of possibleunderstanding, control) (awareness, changes in information 30 policy Staff training
  31. 31. Information Policy Organizational Infrastructure (Governance Culture 2 opposite points) • Carrots vs. Sticks? • Recommendations, informality and autonomy vs. Orders, legislative formalization and penalties • Leadership vs. Participation • Transparency in problem solving vs. Back stage activity • Frequent vs. Rare activities in success evaluation, strategy adjustment, new issues discussion 31
  32. 32. Information policy Establishing principal agreement – All elements of agreement between the levels of government including the purpose, roles and responsibilities, terms and conditions – Description of the parties, governance structure, commercial arrangements, – Legislation authorizing the proposal and legislative/policy requirements – Information to be exchanged &/or integrated services to be provided, limitations on access, use and disclosure of information, confidentiality requirements, information protection and management, disposal of information, audit requirements – Dispute resolution processes and sometimes liability/responsibility clauses in various circumstances for failure to abide by terms and conditions or for negligence or privacy breach 32
  33. 33. Experience transfer in information policy adoption • ICT development goes with different pace • Many countries face the same problems • There exist a number of solutions based on different cultural and traditional legacy, political regime, strategic goals, structure of economy and society • Benchmark solutions and pick up those based on similar reality to yours • Adopt solutions according to country’s peculiarities or develop new solutions 33
  34. 34. Small group discussions • Identify problems and approaches in your government to share with all tutorial participants • Themes – Legal framework – Institutional change – Strategies/mechanisms for policy making – Government transparency – Citizen’s information rights