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  2. 2. National Gene Bank of Tunisia  Place: Tunis  Inaugurated: November 2007  Gene Bank Network: 9 groups  Cereals  Forages  Fruit trees  Vegetables  Forest  Medicinal  Animals  Microorganisms  Marine genetic resources
  3. 3. National Gene Bank of Tunisia  Main activities:  Conservation of available genetic resources  Genetic resources collection  Scientific research  Information  Building capacity  International cooperation
  4. 4. Tunisia and Climate changes
  5. 5. Tunisia strategies and climate changes  Tunisia has ratified the framework convention of United Nations on Climate Changes (CCNUCC) on 1993 and Kyoto protocol on 2003  Efforts were more aimed to mitigation than adaptation (opportunities to carbon market and international cooperation)  Tunisia has developed its own Natioanl Strategy on Climate Change on 2012
  6. 6. Strategy aims  Mitigation  Law on energy and climate (aims to – 60% carbon on 2030)  Proactive policy  Adaptation  Capacity building  Research  Management plan are tailored to reduce the vulnerability of coastal sea level rise  Less water-intensive agriculture
  7. 7. Climate changes Effects Drought Floods Increased temperature Strong light radiation Results Accelerated desertification Coastal degradation (rising sea level)
  8. 8. Study case: Oasis vulnerability to climate change Southern Tunisia will be the most vulnerable:  A rise in temperature and decrease in rainfall  Prediction of average warming to 1.9 ° C by 2030 and 2.7 ° C by 2050  A decrease in precipitation of 9% in 2030 and 17% in 2050 GIZ, 2012
  9. 9. Effets of climate change to Oasis  Increased water needs of crops  Continuing decline in the static level of drilling, increased salinity and increased water pumping.  Progressive elevation of sea level favoring the intrusion of seawater into groundwater in coastal oasis  Risk of non hibernation for demanding tree species in cold and therefore a decline in their production  Phenomenon already observed for the pomegrenate in Gabes  Drying dates following the succession of hot days  Deterioration of plant health of trees  Decrease on tourism GIZ, 2012
  10. 10. Vulnerability of Islands  Kerkennah: fragmentation of the archipelago to more islands (about 30% of the total area is exposed to marine erosion).  Djerba Island: more than 3400ha of wetlands on the island are threatened by erosion (in marine areas Rmal and Ras-el-Bin ouedien)
  11. 11. National program on protection on costal areas Djerba Sousse Gulf of Tunis Raf Raf
  12. 12. Fruit Trees Genetic Resources are not in shelters  Climate change effects  Intensive agriculture (introduced and commercial variety)  Biotic and abiotic stresses Genetic erosion
  13. 13. Fruit trees genetic resources in Tunisia  Long tradition on Fruit trees cultivation  Secondary center of domestication  More than 80% of the area are located in arid and semi-arid regions (most vulnerable to climate changes)  Landraces + Local best practices  Old introduced varieties  New improved varieties
  14. 14. Fruit trees genetic resources in Tunisia Economic Ecological Social Cultural Importance
  15. 15. Fruit trees species (more than 36 species)  Olea europea  Phoenix dactylifera  Prunus dulcis, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. domestica, …  Malus communis, M. pyrus  Vitis vinifera  Citrus sinensis, C. reticultat, C.limon, C. aurantium, C.grandis,…  Ficus carica  Punica granatum  Pistacia vera  Morus alba, M.nigra  Opuntia ficus indica  Ceratonia siliqua
  16. 16. Agricultural Systems Intensive culture Domestic agriculture Oasis
  17. 17. Researches Inventery genetic resources Morphological Biochemical Molecular markers (SSR, AFLP, RAPDs, ISSRs, RAMPOs, ITS) Search the main adapted species/varieties
  18. 18. Inventory Species Number of collection Olive 14 Citrus 2 Date palm 6 Almond 4 Peach 3 Abricot 3 Apple 1 Pear 4 Vine 4 Pistachio 4 Pomegranate 3 Fig 5
  19. 19. (Ficus carica L.)  Moracea, genus Ficus, Gynodioecious (2n = 26)  The oldest fruit crop known (grown 11,400 to 11,200 years ago as a gynodioecious and insect pollinated species (KISLEV et al. 2006).  Vegetative reproduction  Ecotypes called common figs (unisexual female trees) and caprifigs (bisexual with functional male trees).  This fruit crop is wide spread in the mediterranean basin countries since it is well adapted either to different soils or climates.  It is old settled in Tunisia and well adapted to diverse conditions, soils and to climate change.
  20. 20. Group Ecotypes North‘‘U; R; Ts; B’’ Bither Abiadh (T); Zidi (T); Djebbi (T); Wahchi (B); Zergui (B); Khortoumi (B). Dhokkar* (U); Mestiri* (R); Marsaoui (U); Zidi (U); Kerkeni (U); Goutti (R); Chetoui (R); Harragui (R); Zidi (R); Bither Souri (R); Bither Arbi (R); Marsaoui (R) Centre ‘‘S; K’’ Dchiche Assal (S); Kahli A (S); Zidi (S); Soltani 1 (S); Soltani 2 (S); Kahli 1 (S); Kahli 2 (S); Hemri 1 (S); Hemri 2 (S); Bither abiadh 1 (S); Bither abiadh 2 (S); Bither abiadh 3 (S); Bidhi 1 (S); Bidhi 2 (S); Baghali (S); Zidi (S); Besbessi (S); Goutti (S); Chetoui (S); Ghabri (S); Khadhri (S); Abiadh (K); Temri (K); Bither (K); Bouang(K) ; Baghli (K). Dhokkar* (K); Jrani* (S);Assafri* (S) South ‘‘DBkZ’’ ‘‘TzG’’ Assal boudchiche (G); Bither abiadh (G); Sawoudi (G); Mlouki (G); Gaa Zir (G); Khadouri (G); Soltani (G); Mokh bagri (Tz); Bouslames (Tz); Khalt (Tz);Tounsi (Tz); Hamri (Tz); Khzami (Tz); Grichy (Tz); Zidi (Tz); Bither (Tz);Tayouri Asfar (D); Sawoudi (Bk); Makhbech (Z); Hammouri (Bk); Zaghoubi (Bk);Wedlani (Bk). Dhokkar* (G); Dhokkar* (Z); Dhokkar*(Tz) Cultivars
  21. 21. Morphological description  Parameters relying on:  Biological  Growth  Leaf  Fruits Saddoud et al., 2011 Acta Biologica Cracoviensia
  22. 22. Phenotypic diversity Bithri akhal Baghli Temri Kahli
  23. 23. Molecular markers
  24. 24. Molecular characterization SSR A total of 58 alleles and 124 genotypes were revealed and permitted to evidence high degree of genetic diversity mainly explained at the intra group level Saddoud O. et al., 2007 Heriditas
  25. 25. Cluster analysis based on genetic distances proved that a typical continuous genetic diversity characterizes the local germplasm
  26. 26. Identification Key Microsatellite multilocus genotyping has permitted to unambiguously distinguish 70 well- defined ecotypes
  27. 27. Conclusion  Morphological and pomological analysis can provide reliable information on the variability in fig tree.  The overall analysis of all traits brings out a wide diversity in plant material that may have important implications for genetic resources management.  The domestication of fig tree occurred independently in different areas especially around the edge of the Mediterranean.  Thus, it is very interesting to conduct the proper management of these genetic resources.  This can be addressed by different tools such as the establishment of ex situ collections. The on-farm conservation can ensure the sustainability of these resources.
  28. 28. Actions related to this scope  7 au 8 juin 2012 à Tunis: workshop 'funding climate' organized by GIZ and ODI of 7 to 8 June 2012 in Tunis  21-22 November 2012: Member of the scientific committee of the international seminar organized by the INGREF and BNG on Impact of global change on forest genetic resources and pastoral Mediterranean  2012: Member of national committee for elaboration of national strategy on climate changes
  29. 29. Project in relation with this scope  COOPERATION TUNISIA-ITALY: Protection of Environment ‘ Tunisian Phytogenetic resources more conserved and valorized’  Projet on ‘Sustainable management of oasis ecosystems in Tunisia’  Proposal for financement by International Traetyon plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (Benefit sharing fund): Conservation, valorisation et utilisation durable des cultivars locaux de Citrus face aux changements climatiques en Tunisie, au Maroc et au Liban